UPDATED 12 September 2009


When I was a boy, oddities fascinated me, particularly if they appeared to make no sense. Historical oddities or anomalous news stories especially attracted my interest, lingering in my mind for years to come. Like many Americans, I well remember where I was when President Kennedy was assassinated. I was home, sick, and watching television, sipping an endless stream of the chicken noodle soup that my mother always made for me when I was ill. My mother sat on the sofa, sewing and watching her shows. Then, the programs were interrupted by the familiar voice of Walter Cronkite, and the news began to break. Like many children in America, I cried that night.

A year or so later when the Warren Report was published and excerpted in almost every newspaper in the country, I remember thinking "bullets just don't do that." And I listened intently as family members debated the official conclusions of Oswald, the "lone nut" in his Texas School Book Depository, versus what was beginning to emerge with the "Grassy Knoll."

As a teenager I became fascinated with the history of World War Two, and particularly the European theater and the race for the atomic bomb. Physics was also an interest for me, and another oddity lodged in my mind as I read the standard histories: the United States had never tested the uranium bomb it dropped on Hiroshima. I thought that was an extremely odd oddity indeed. It seemed to have the same sharp angles and corners as the Warren Commission's "magic bullet". It just didn't fit. Other odd facts accumulated over the years as if to underline the strangeness of the war's end in general and that fact in particular.

Then, in 1989, the Berlin Wall came down and the two post-war Germanies raced toward reunification. The events seemed to unfold faster than the news media's ability to keep pace. I remember that day too, for I was driving with a friend in his van in Manhattan. My friend was Russian, as was his family, some of whom were veterans of the harsh conflict on the Russian front. We listened to the reports on the radio with a kind of breathlessness and anxiety. My friend hurried to me and said "Now it will start to come out in the wash." I nodded in agreement. We had often discussed what would happen in the eventuality of German reunification, and were agreed that many things from the end of the war would begin to surface, answering old questions and raising new ones. Our long talks about World War Two had convinced us that there was much about the war that did not make sense, Hitler's and Stalin's genocidal paranoia notwithstanding.

Gradually, and one must say, predictably, the Germans themselves raced to uncover what lay hidden in the formerly inaccessible archival vaults of East Germany and the Soviet Union. Witnesses came forward, and German authors endeavored to come to grips with yet another aspect of the darkest period in their nation's history. Much, if not all, of their work remains ignored in the USA., both by mainstream and by alternative researchers.

This present book is based in part on these Germans' efforts. It, like them, raises dangerous questions, and often presents dangerous and disturbing answers. As a consequence, while the Nazi regime's "image" becomes even more blackened, the image of the victorious Allies also suffers to a great degree. This book presents not only a radically different history of the race for the bomb, but also outlines a case that Germany was making enormous strides toward acquisition of a whole host of second and third and even fourth generation weapons technologies even more horrific in their destructive power.

That in itself would not be too unusual. After all, there have been a wealth of books on World War Two German secret weapons projects and their astonishing results. Those seeking new technical data on these weapons will find some new material here, for the thrust of the book is not on the weapons per se. Rather, the present work seeks a context within Nazi ideology and in some aspects of contemporary theoretical physics for these projects. This book argues that the Nazis' quest for this barbarous arsenal of prototypical "smart weapons" and weapons of mass destruction was intimately linked to the Nazi racial and genocidal ideology and war aims, to the machinery, bureaucracy, and technologies of mass death and slavery that the Nazis had perfected. Even more darkly, this relationship points to a hidden core of occult beliefs and practices that, allied with certain very "German" advances in physics, e.g., quantum mechanics, drove their quest for ultimate weapons.

Accordingly, this is not a work of history. But neither is it a work merely of fiction. It is best described as a case of possibilities, of speculative history. It is an attempt to make sense, by means of a radical hypothesis placed within a very broad context, of events during and after the war that make no sense.

I would like to thank Mr. Frank Joseph of Fate magazine for encouraging me to write about these ideas, after he had patiently listened to me outline them while we were both attending a conference in 2003. And I would like to thank the many people-too numerous to mention -who listened, read, and critiqued the book along the way.

Joseph P. Farrell
Tulsa, Oklahoma


"A comprehensive February 1942 (German) Army Ordnance report on the German uranium enrichment program includes the statement that the critical mass of a nuclear weapon lay between 10 and 100 kilograms of either uranium 235 or element 94.... In fact the German estimate of critical mass of 10 to 100 kilograms was comparable to the contemporary Allied estimate of 2 to 100.... The German scientists working on uranium neither withheld their figure for critical mass because of moral scruples nor did they provide an inaccurate estimate as the result of gross scientific error."

--Mark Walker, Nazi Science: Myth, Truth, and the German Atomic Bomb, p. 216.

Reich of the Black Sun

Chapter 1: A Badly Written Finale

"In southern Germany, meanwhile, the American Third and Seventh and the French First Armies had been driving steadily eastward into the so-called 'National Redoubt'.... The American Third Army drove on into Czechoslovakia and by May 6 had captured Pilsen and Karlsbad and was approaching Prague."

--F. Lee Benns, Europe Since 1914 In Its World Setting [1]

The end of the Second World War in Europe, at least as normally recounted, does not make sense, for in its standard form as learned in history books that history resembles nothing so much as a badly written finale to some melodramatic Wagnerian opera.

On a night in October 1944, a German pilot and rocket expert by the same of Hans Zinsser was flying his Heinkel 111 twin-engine bomber in twilight over northern Germany, close to the Baltic coast in the province of Mecklenburg. He was flying at twilight to avoid the Allied fighter aircraft that at that time had all but undisputed mastery of the skies over Germany. Little did he know that what he saw that night would be locked in the vaults of the highest classification of the United States government for several decades after the war. And he certainly could not have been aware of the fact when his testimony finally was declassified near the end of the millennium, that what he saw would require the history of the Second World War to be rewritten, or at the very minimum, severely scrutinized. His observations on that one night on that one flight resolve at a stroke some of the most pressing questions and mysteries concerning the end of the war. By the same token, what he saw raises many more mysteries and questions, affording a brief and frightening glimpse into the labyrinthine world of Nazi secret weapons development. His observations open a veritable Pandora's

1. F. Lee Benns, Europe Since 1914 In Its World Setting (New York: F.S. Crofts and co., 1946), p. 630.


box of horrifying research the Third Reich was conducting, research far more horrendous in its scope and terrible promise than mere atomic bombs. More importantly, his observations also raise the disturbing question of why the Allied governments - America in particular - kept so much classified for so long. What, really, did we recover from the Nazis at the end of the war?

But what precisely is that badly written finale?

To appreciate how badly written a finale it truly is, it is best to begin at the logical place: in Berlin, far below ground, in the last weeks of the war. There, in the bizarre and surreal world of the Fuhrerbunker, the megalomaniac German dictator huddles with his generals, impervious to the rain of Allied and Soviet bombs that are reducing the once beautiful city of Berlin to piles of rubble. Adolph Hitler, Chancellor and Fuhrer of the ever-diminishing Greater German Reich is in conference. His left arm shakes uncontrollably and from time to time he must pause to daub the drool that occasionally oozes from his mouth. His complexion is gray and pallid; his health, a shambles from the drugs his doctors inject in him. His glasses are perched on his nose as he squints at the map before him. [2]

Generaloberst [3] Heinrici, commander of the vastly outnumbered Army Group Vistula that faces the massed armies of Marshal Zhukov poised less than sixty miles from Berlin, is pleading with his leader for more troops. The general is questioning the disposition of the forces he sees displayed on the battle map, for it is clear to him that some of Germany's finest and few remaining battle worthy formations are far south, facing Marshal Koniev's forces in Silesia. These forces were thus, incomprehensibly, poised to make a stiff defense of Breslau and Prague, not Berlin. The general pleads for Hitler to release some of these forces and transfer them north, but

2. Contributing yet another nuance to the end of the war Legend of Hitler's delusional insanity, some have proposed that the German dictator's doctors had diagnosed him with heart disease and/or Parkinson's disease, and were keeping him drugged at the behest of Misters Bormann, Gobbels, Himmler et al. in a desperate attempt to keep him functioning

3. Generaloberst: i.e., Colonel General, the equivalent of a four-star American general.


to no avail. "Prague," the Fuhrer responds stubbornly, almost mystically, "is the key to winning the war." Generaloberts Heinrici's hard-pressed troops must "do without." [4] One may also perhaps imagine Heinrici and the other assembled generals perhaps casting a doleful glance at Norway on the situation map, where thousands of German troops are still stationed, occupying a country that had long since ceased to be of any strategic or operational value to the defense of the Reich. Why indeed did Hitler maintain so many German troops in Norway up to the very end of the war?[5] These paradoxical German troops deployments are the first mystery of the badly written finale of the war in Europe. Both Allied and German generals would ponder it after the war, and both would write it off to Hitler's insanity, a conclusion that would become part of the "Allied Legend" of the end of the war. This interpretation does make sense, for if one assumed that Hitler were having a rare seizure of sanity when he ordered these deployments, what possibly could he have been thinking? Prague? Norway? There were no standard or conventional military reasons for the deployments. In other words, the deployments themselves attest his complete lack of touch with military reality. He therefore had to have been quite insane. But apparently his "delusional insanity" did not stop there. On more than one occasion during these end-of-the-war conferences with his generals in the Fuhrerbunker, he boasted that Germany would soon be in the possession of weapons that would snatch victory from the jaws of defeat at "five minutes past midnight." All

4. They did in fact "do without" and yet managed to put up a fierce resistance against overwhelming odds in the initial stages of Zhukov's final offensive on Berlin.

5. The standard versions, of course, are that he wished to maintain the supply line of iron ore from Sweden to Germany, and that he wished to continue to use the country as a base to interdict the lend-lease supply route to Russia. But by late 1944, with the huge losses of the German Kriegsmarine, these explanations no longer were militarily feasible, and hence do not make military sense. One must look for other reasons, if indeed there are any beyond Adolph Hitler's delusions.


the Wehrmacht had to do was hold out a bit longer. And above all, it must hold Prague and lower Silesia. Of course, the standard historical interpretation of these and similar utterances by the Nazi leadership near the end of the war explains them - or rather, explains them away - by one of two standard techniques. One school understands them to refer to the more advanced versions of the V-1 and V-2, and on rare occasions, the intercontinental A-9/10 rockets, the jet fighters, anti-aircraft heat-seeking missiles, and so on that the Germans were developing. Sir Roy Fedden, one of the British Specialists sent to Germany to investigate Nazi secret weapons research after the war, left no doubt as to the deadly potential these developments held:

"In these respects (the Nazis) were not entirely lying. In the course of two recent visits to Germany, as leader of a technical mission of the Ministry of Aircraft Production, I have seen enough of their designs and production plans to realize that if they had managed to prolong the war some months longer, we would have been confronted with a set of entirely new and deadly developments in air warfare." [6]

The other standard school of interpretation explains such remarks of the Nazi leadership as the utterances of madmen desperate to prolong the war, and hence their lives, by stiffening the resistance of their exhausted armies. For example, to make the insanity gripping the Reich government complete, Hitler's ever-faithful toady and propaganda minister, Dr. Josef Gobbels also boasted in a speech near the end of the war that he had seen "weapons so frightening it would make your heart stand still." More delusional ravings of a Nazi madman. But on the Allied side of the Allied Legend, things are equally peculiar. In March and April of 1945, U.S. General George S. Patton's Third Army is literally racing across southern Bavaria, as fast as is operationally possible, making a beeline for: (1) the huge Skoda munitions works at Pilsen, a complex all but

5. Sir Roy Fedden, The Nazis' V-Weapons Matured Too Late (London: 1945), cited in Renato Vesco and David Hatcher Childress, Man-Made UFOs: 1944-1994, p. 98.

blown off the map by Allied bombers;

(2) Prague; and

(3) A region of the Harz Mountains in Thuringia known to Germans as the Dreiecks or Three Corners," a region encompassed by the old mediaeval towns and villages of Arnstadt, Jonastal, Wechmar, and Ohrdruf.[7]

One is informed by countless history books that this maneuver was thought to be necessary by the Supreme Headquarters of the Allied Expeditionary Force (SHEAF) because of reports that the Nazis were planning to make a last stand in the "Alpine National Redoubt", a network of fortified mountains stretching from the Alps to the Harz Mountains. The Third Army's movements, so the story goes, were designed to cut off the "escape route" of Nazis fleeing the carnage of Berlin. Maps are produced in old history books, accompanied in some cases by de-classified German plans-some dating from the Weimar Republic! - for just such a redoubt. Case settled. However, there is a problem with that explanation. Allied aerial reconnaissance would likely have told Eisenhower and SHAEF that there were precious few fortified strong points in the "National Redoubt". Indeed, it would have told them that the "Redoubt" was no redoubt at all. General Patton and his divisional commanders would most certainly have been privy to at least some of this information. So why the extraordinary and almost reckless speed of his advance, an advance the post-war Allied Legend would have us believe was to cut off the escape route of Nazis fleeing Berlin, who it turns out weren't fleeing, to a redoubt that didn't exist? The mystery deepens. Then, remarkably, in a strange twist of fate, General Patton himself, America's most celebrated general, dies suddenly, and, some would say, suspiciously, as a result of complications from injuries he sustained in a freak automobile accident soon after the end of the war and the beginning of the Allied military occupation. For many, there is little doubt that Patton's death is suspicious. But

4. Arnstadt is where the great German composer and organist J.S. Bach first began his career.


what of the explanations offered for it by those who do not think it was accidental? Some propose he was eliminated because of his remarks about turning the Germans "right back around" and letting them lead an Allied invasion of Russia. Others believe he was eliminated because he knew about the Allies' knowledge of the Soviets' execution of British, American, and French prisoners of war, and threatened to make it public. In any case, while Patton's barbed tongue and occasional outbursts are well known, his sense of military duty and obligation were far too high for him to have entertained such notions. These theories play out best, perhaps, on the internet or in the movies. And neither seems a sufficient motivation for the murder of America's most celebrated general. But then, if he was murdered, what was sufficient motivation? Here too, the lone German pilot Hans Zinsser and his observations afford a speculative key as to the possibilities, if General Patton was murdered, of why he had to be silenced. Let us return, for a moment, to a less-well publicized explanation for his end-of-the war lightening-like strikes into south central Germany and into Bohemia: In Top Secret, Ralph Ingersoll, an American liaison officer at S.H.A.E.F., gives a version of the facts much more in line with German intentions:

"(General Omar) Bradley was complete master of the situation.... in full command of the three armies that had broken through the Rhine defenses and were free to exploit their victories. Analyzing the whole situation, Bradley felt that to take battered Berlin would be an empty military victory.... The German War Department had long since moved out, leaving only a rear echelon. The main body of the German War Department, including its priceless archives, had been transferred to the Thuringian forest..."[8]

But what exactly did Patton's divisions discover in Pilsen and the forests of Thuringia? Only with the recent German reunification and declassification of East German, British, and American documents are enough clues available to allow this fantastic story - and the reason for the post-war Allied Legend - to be outlined and its questions answered.

8. Vesco and Childress, op. cit., p. 97.


Thus, finally, one arrives at the main theme of the post-war Allied Legend. As the Allied forces penetrated ever deeper into the German fatherland itself, teams of scientists and experts and their intelligence coordinators were sent in literally to scour the Reich for German patents, secret weapons research, and above all, to find out about the state of the German atomic bomb project.[9] Literally vacuuming the Reich of every conceivable technological development, this effort became the largest technology transfer in history. Even at this late stage of the war, as Allied armies advanced across western Europe, there was fear on the Allied side that the Germans were perilously close to the A-bomb, and might actually use one on London or other Allied targets. And Dr. Gobbels and his speeches about fearsome heart-stopping weaponry were doing nothing to alleviate their fears. It is here that the mystery of the Allied Legend only deepens. It is here that the badly written finale would be truly comical, were it not for the vast scale of human suffering involved with it, for the facts are clear enough if one examines them independently of the explanations we have become accustomed to apply to them. Indeed, one must wonder if we were not conditioned to think about them in a certain way, for as the Allied armies advanced deeper and deeper into the Reich, famous German scientists and engineers were either captured, or they surrendered themselves. Among them were first-class physicists, many of them Nobel laureates. And most of them were involved, at some level, with the various atomic bomb projects of Nazi Germany. [9] Among these scientists were Werner Heisenberg, one of the founders of quantum mechanics, Kurt Diebner, a nuclear physicist, Paul Hartek, a nuclear chemist, Otto Hahn himself, the chemist who actually discovered nuclear fission, and curiously, Walter Gerlach, whose specialty was not nuclear, but gravitational physics. Gerlach had written esoteric papers before the war on such abstruse concepts as spin polarization and vorticular physics, hardly the

9. "Alsos" was the code name of this effort. "Alsos" is a Greek word meaning "Grove", an obvious pun on General Leslie Groves, chief of the Manhattan Project. It is the name of the book about the Manhattan Project by Dutch-Jewish physicist Samuel Goudsmit.


basics of nuclear physics, and certainly not the sort of scientist one would expect to encounter working on atom bombs.[10]

Much to the Allies' puzzlement, their scientific teams found but crude attempts by Heisenberg to construct a functioning atomic reactor, attempts that were wholly unsatisfactory and unsuccessful, and almost unbelievably inept. This "German ineptitude" in basic bomb physics became, and remains, a central component of the Allied Legend. And yet, that itself raises yet another mystery of the badly written finale.

Top German scientists - Werner Heisenberg, Paul Hartek, Kurt Diebner, Erich Bagge, Otto Hahn, Carl Friedrich von Weizsacker, Karl Wirtz, Horst Korsching, and Walter Gerlach - were carted off to Farm Hall, England, where they were kept in isolation, and their conversations recorded. The transcripts, the celebrated "Farm Hall Transcripts", were only declassified by the British government in 1992! If the Germans were so far behind and so incompetent, why keep them classified for so long?" Bureaucratic oversight and inertia? Or did they contain things the Allies did not wish to be known even at that late date?

What a surface reading of the transcripts reveals only deepens the mystery considerably. In them, Heisenberg and company, after hearing of the a-bombing of Hiroshima by the Americans on the BBC, debate the endless moral issues of their own involvement in the atomic bomb projects of Nazi Germany.

But that is not all.

In the transcripts, Heisenberg and company, who had suffered

10. Nick Cook, The Hunt for Zero Point, p. 194.

Cook notes that these areas have little to do with nuclear physics, much less A-bomb design, but "much to do with the enigmatic properties of gravity. A student of Gerlach's at Munich, O.C. Hilgenberg, published a paper in 1931 entitled "About Gravitation, Vortices and Waves in Rotating Media".... And yet, after the war, Gerlach, who died in 1979, apparently never returned to these matters, nor did he make any references to them; almost as if he had been forbidden to do so. That, or something he had seen...had scared him beyond all reason."

11. It was Manhattan project chief General Leslie Groves who, in fact, revealed in his 1962 book about the bomb, Now It Can Be Told, that the German scientists' conversations had been recorded by the British. Apparently, however, not everything could be told in 1962.


some inexplicable mathematical and scientific dyslexia during the whole six years' course of the war, the same Heisenberg and company who could not even design and build a successful atomic reactor to produce plutonium for a bomb, suddenly become Nobel laureates and first rank physicists after the war. Indeed, Heisenberg himself within a matter of a few days of Hiroshima, gave a lecture to the assembled German scientists on the basic design of the bomb. In it, he defends his first assessment that the bomb would be about the size of a pineapple, and not the one or two ton monster he maintained throughout most of the war. And as we shall discover in the transcripts nuclear chemist Paul Hartek is close - perilously close - to the correct critical mass of uranium for the Hiroshima bomb.[12]

This demonstrable mathematical prowess raises yet another question directly confronting the Allied Legend, for some versions of that Legend would have it that the Germans never aggressively pursued bomb development because they had - via Heisenberg -overestimated the critical mass by several order of magnitude, thus rendering such a project impractical. Hartek had clearly done the calculations before, so Heisenberg's estimates were certainly not the only calculations the Germans had available to them. And with a small critical mass comes the practical feasibility of an atomic bomb.

11. In his August 14, 1945 "lecture" to the assembled German Farm Hall physicists, Heisenberg, according to Paul Lawrence

12. Q.v. Paul Lawrence Rose, Heisenberg and the Nazi Atomic Bomb project: A Study in German Culture (Berkeley: 1998), pp. 217-221. Thomas Powers notes of Heisenberg's lecture that "this was something of a scientific tour de force -to come up with a working theory of bomb design in so short a time, after years of laboring under fundamental misconceptions." (Thomas Powers, Heisenberg's War: The Secret History of the German Bomb (1993), pp. 439-440). Samuel Goudsmit, of course, used the transcripts to construct his version of the Allied Legend: "That the German scientists were at odds with one another, that they didn't understand bomb physics, and that they concocted a false story of moral scruples to explain their scientific failures.... The sources of Goudsmit's conclusions are all obvious in the transcripts, but what leaps out at the reader now are the many statements which Goudsmit failed to notice, forgot, or deliberately overlooked." (Ibid., p. 436)


Rose, used a tone and phrasing that indicated that "he has only just now understood the solution" to a small critical mass for the bomb,[13] since "others" reported a critical mass of about 4 kg. This too only deepens the mystery. For Rose, an adherent of the Legend- though now in its highly modified post-Farm Hall declassification mode -the "others" could be the Allied press reports themselves.[14]

In the years immediately after the war, the Dutch-Jewish Manhattan Project physicist Samuel Goudsmit explained the whole

Dutch-Jewish Manhattan Project Physicist Samuel Goudsmit

13. Q.v. Paul Lawrence Rose, Heisenberg and the Nazi Atomic Bomb Project: A Study in German Culture (Berkeley: 1998), pp. 217-221. Thomas Powers notes that this lecture was "something of a scientific tour de force - to come up with a working theory of bomb design in so short a time, after years of laboring under fundamental misconceptions." (Heisenberg's War: The Secret History of the German Bomb (1993), pp. 439-440).

14. Ibid., p. 218.


mystery, alone with many others, as being simply due to the Allies having been "better" nuclear scientists and engineers than the very Germans who had invented the whole discipline of quantum mechanics and nuclear physics. That explanation, in conjunction with Heisenberg's own sell-evidently clumsy attempts to construct a functioning reactor, served well enough until these transcripts were declassified.

With the appearance of the transcripts and their stunning revelations of Heisenberg's actual knowledge of atomic bomb design, and some of the other scientists' clear understanding of the means to enrich enough weapons grade uranium without having to have a functioning reactor, the Legend had to be "touched up" a bit. Thomas Powers' Heisenberg's War appeared, arguing somewhat persuasively that Heisenberg had actually sabotaged the German bomb program. And almost as soon as it appeared, Lawrence Rose countered with Heisenberg and the Nazi Atomic Bomb Project, arguing even more persuasively that Heisenberg had remained a loyal German and had not sabotaged anything, but that he simply labored under massive misconceptions of the nature of nuclear fission, and consequently over-calculated the critical mass needed to make a bomb during the war. The Germans never obtained the bomb, so the new version goes, because they never had a functioning reactor by which to enrich uranium to plutonium to make a bomb. Besides, having grossly overestimated the critical mass, they had no real impetus to pursue it. Simple enough, case closed once again.

But again, neither Powers' nor Rose's books really go to the heart of the mystery, for the Legend still requires the belief that "brilliant nuclear physicists including Nobel prize winners before the war, apparently struck by some strange malady which turned them into incompetent bunglers during the...War,"[15] were suddenly and quite inexplicably cured of the malady within a few days of the bombing of Hiroshima! Moreover, two such widely diverging contemporary interpretations of the same material - Rose's and Powers' - only highlights the ambiguity of their contents in general,

15. Philip Henshall, The Nuclear Axis: Germany, Japan, and the Atom Bomb Race 1939-45, "Introduction."


and Heisenberg's knowledge - or lack of it - in particular.

Matters are not helped by events on the other side of the world in the Pacific theater, for there American investigators would uncover similarly strange goings on after the war ended.

There, after Nagasaki, the Emperor Hirohito, overriding his ministers who wanted to continue the war, decided that Japan would surrender unconditionally. But why would Hirohito's ministers urge continuance of the war in the face of overwhelming Allied conventional arms superiority, and, from their point of view, facing a potential rain of atomic bombs? After all, "two" bombs could just as easily have turned into twenty. One could, of course, attribute the ministers' objections to the Emperor's intentions to "proud samurai traditions" and the Japanese sense of "honor" and so on. And that would indeed be a plausible explanation.

But another explanation is that Hirohito's cabinet ministers knew something.

What his ministers probably knew was what American intelligence would soon discover: that the Japanese, "just prior to their surrender, had developed and successfully test fired an atomic bomb. The project had been housed in or near Konan(Japanese name for Hungnam), Korea, in the peninsula's North."[16]

It was exploded, so the story goes, one day after the American plutonium bomb, "Fat Man", exploded over Nagasaki, i.e., on August 10, 1945. The war, in other words, depending on Hirohito's decision, could have "gone nuclear". By that time, of course it would have done Japan no good to prolong it, with no viable means of delivery of an atomic weapon to any worthwhile strategic American targets. The Emperor stood his ministers down.[17]

These allegations constitute yet another difficulty for the Allied Legend, for where did Japan obtain the necessary uranium for its (alleged) A-bomb? And more importantly, the technology to enrich

16. Robert K. Wilcox, Japan's Secret War, p. 15.

17. The Japanese were, in fact, developing large cargo submarines to transport a bomb to West Coast American port cities to be detonated there, much like Einstein warned in his famous letter to President Roosevelt that initiated the Manhattan Project. Of course, Einstein was more worried about the Germans using such a method of ship-born delivery, than the Japanese.


it? Where did it build and assemble such a weapon? Who was responsible for its development? The answers, as we shall eventually see, possibly explain events far in the future, and even possibly down to our own day.

Yet even now, we have only begun to penetrate into the heart of this "badly written finale." There are also the "odd little, and little known, details" to consider.

Why, for example, in 1944, did a lone Junkers 390 bomber, a massive six engine heavy-lift ultra long-range transport aircraft capable of round trip intercontinental flight from Europe to North America, fly to within less than twenty miles of New York City, photograph the skyline of Manhattan, and return to Europe?[18] Germany launched several such top secret long-distance flights during the war, using these and other heavy-lift ultra-long range aircraft. But what was their purpose, and more importantly, the purpose of this unique flight?[19] That such a flight was extremely risky goes without saying. What were the Germans up to with this enormous aircraft, and why would they even risk such an operation just to take pictures, when they only ever had two of these enormous six engine monsters available?

Finally, and to round out the Legend, there are the odd details of the German surrender and the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunals. Why does former Reichsfuhrer SS Heinrich Himmler, mass murderer and one of human history's most notorious criminals, try to negotiate a surrender to the Western Allies? Of course, one can dismiss this as delusion, and Himmler was certainly delusional. But what could he possibly have thought he had to offer the Allies in return for a surrender to the West, and the sparing of his own wretched life?

What of the strangeness around the Nuremberg Tribunals themselves? The Legend is well known: obvious war criminals like Reichmarschall Goring, Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel, Army Chief of Operations Staff Colonel-General Alfred Jodl, are sent swinging from the gallows, or, in Goring's case, cheating the hangman by

18. v. Nick Cook, op. cit., p. 198, Henshall, op. cit., pp. 171-172.
19. Italy, as well, launched long-range air missions to Japan.


swallowing cyanide. Other Nazi bigwigs like Grand Admiral Karl Donitz, mastermind of Germany's devastating U-boat campaign against Allied shipping, or Minister of Armaments Albert Speer, or Finance Minister and Reichsbank President Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht, were imprisoned.

Missing from the docket of the accused, of course, were the Pennemunde rocket scientists headed by Dr. Werner von Braun and General Walter Dornberger, already headed to America to take charge of America's ballistic missile and space programs along with a host of scientists, engineers and technicians under the then super secret Project Paperclip.[20] They, like their nuclear physics counterparts in Germany, had seemingly suffered from a similar "bungler's malady", for once having produced the first successful V-1 and V-2 prototypes comparatively early in the war, they suffered a similar lack of inspiration and ingenuity and (so the Legend goes) managed to produce only "paper rockets" and theoretical study projects after that.[21]

But perhaps most significantly, by joint agreement of the Allied and Soviet prosecutors at Nuremberg, missing from evidence in the tribunal was the vast amount of documentary evidence implicating the Nazi regime in occult belief systems and practice,[22] a fact that

20. The best sources on the overall outlines of Operation Paperclip are Mark Aaron's and John Loftus' Unholy Trinity: the Vatican, Nazis, and Soviet Intelligence (New York: St Martin's Press. 1991), and Christopher Simpson's Blowback: America's Recruitment of Nazis and Its Effects on the Cold War (New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 1988).

21. Henshall, op. cit, "Introduction."

22 v., Jean-Michel Angebert, The Occult and the Third Reich (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1974); Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, The Occult Roots of nazism: Secret Aryan Cults and Their Influence on nazi Ideology (New York: New York University Press. 1992); Michael Howard, The Occult Conspiracy: Secret Societies- Their Influence and Power in World History (Rochester, Vermont: Destiny Books, 1989); Peter Levenda, Unholy Alliance: A History of Nazi involvement with the Occult (New York: Avon Books, 1995); Louis Pauwels and Jacques Bergier, The Morning of the magicians, trans from the French by Rollo Meyers (New York: Stein and Day, 1964); Dusty Sklar, The Nazis and the Occult (New York: Dorset Press, 1977); James Webb, The Occult Establishment and The Occult Underground (LaSalle, Illinois: Open Court)


has given rise to a whole "mythology, and one that has never been adequately explored in connection with its possible influence on the development of German secret weapons during the war.

Finally, a curious fact, one of those obvious things that one lends to overlook unless attention is drawn to it: the atomic bomb test that took place at the Trinity site in New Mexico was a test of America's implosion-plutonium bomb, a test needed to see if the concept would actually work. It did, and magnificently. But what is immensely significant - a fact missing from almost all mainstream literature on the subject since the end of the war - is that the uranium bomb with its apparatus of a cannon shooting the critical mass of uranium together, the bomb that was actually first used in war, the bomb dropped on Hiroshima, was never tested. As German author Friedrich Georg notes, this tears a rather gaping hole in the Allied Legend:

Also another question is of great importance: Why was the uranium bomb of the USA, unlike the plutonium bomb, not tested prior to being hurled on Japan? Militarily this would appear to be extremely dangerous.... Did the Americans simply forget to test it, or did others already do it for them? [23]

The Allied Legend accounts for this in various ways, some ingenious, some not so ingenious, but basically they boil down to the assertion that it was never tested because it did not need to be, so confident were Allied engineers that it would work. So we have been asked to believe, by the post-war Allied spin, that the American military dropped an atomic bomb of untested design, based on concepts of physics that were very new and themselves very untested, on an enemy city, an enemy also known to be working on acquiring the atomic bomb as well!

It is indeed a badly written, truly incredible, finale to the world's most horrendous war.

1988). It should be noted that the SS Ahnenerbedienst did come under the tribunal's scrutiny.

23. Friedrich Georg, Hitlers Siegeswaffen: Band 1: Luftwaffe und Marine: Geheime Nuklearwaffen des Dritten Reiches und ihre Tragersysteme (Schleusingen: Amun Verlag, 200), p. 150, my translation.


So, what exactly did the German pilot Hans Zinsser see on that night of October, 1944, as he flew his Heinkel bomber over the twilight skies of northern Germany? Something that, had he known it, would require the previous badly written Wagnerian libretto to be almost completely revised.

His affidavit is contained in a military intelligence report of August 19, 1945, roll number A1007, filmed in 1973 at Maxwell Air Force Base in Alabama. Zinsser's statement is found on the last page of the report:

47. A man named ZINSSER, a Flak rocket expert, mentioned what he noticed one day: In the beginning of Oct, 1944 I flew from Ludwigslust (south of Lubeck), about 12 to 15 km from an atomic bomb test station, when I noticed a strong, bright illumination of the whole atmosphere, lasting about 2 seconds.

48.The clearly visible pressure wave escaped the approaching and following cloud formed by the explosion. This wave had a diameter of about 1 km when it became visible and the color of the cloud changed frequently. It became dotted after a short period of darkness with all sorts of light spots, which were, in contrast to normal explosions, of a pale blue color.

49.After about 10 seconds the sharp outlines of the explosion cloud disappeared, then the cloud began to take on a lighter color against the sky covered with a gray overcast. The diameter of the still visible pressure wave was at least 9000 meters while remaining visible for at least 15 seconds.

50.Personal observations of the colors of the explosion cloud found an almost blue-violet shade. During this manifestation reddish-colored rims were to be seen, changing to a dirty-like shade in very rapid succession.

51.The combustion was lightly felt from my observation plane in the form of pulling and pushing.

52.About one hour later I started with an He-111 from the A/D[24] at Ludwigslust and flew in an easterly direction. Shortly after the start I passed through the almost complete overcast (between 3000 and 4000 meter altitude). A cloud shaped like a mushroom with turbulent, billowing sections (at about 7000 meter altitude) stood, without any

24. "A/D" probably "aerodrome".


seeming connections, over the spot where the explosion took place. Strong electrical disturbances and the impossibility to continue radio communication as by lightning, turned up.

53. Because of the P-38s operating in the area Wittenberg-Mersburg I had to turn to the north but observed a better visibility at the bottom of the cloud where the explosion occured (sic). Note: It does not seem very clear to me why these experiments took place in such crowded areas. [25]

In other words, a German pilot had observed the test of a weapon, having all the signatures of a nuclear bomb: electromagnetic pulse and resulting malfunction of his radio, mushroom cloud, continuing fire and combustion of nuclear material in the cloud and so on. And all this on territory clearly under German control, in October of 1944, fully eight months before the first American A-bomb test in New Mexico! Note the curious fact that Zinsser maintains that the test took place in a populated area.

There is yet another curiosity to be observed in Zinsser's statement, one that his American interrogators either did not pursue, or, if they did pursue it, the results remain classified still: How did Zinsser know it was a test? The answer is obvious: Zinsser knew, because he was somehow involved, for clearly the Allies would not have control over a test site deep in Nazi Germany.

Earlier in the same report, there are clues that unravel the mystery:

14. When Germany was at this stage of the game, the war broke out in Europe. At first investigations on this disintegrating of [235U (sic) were somewhat neglected because a practical application seemed too far off. Later, however, this research continued, especially in finding methods of separating isotopes. Needless to say that the center of gravity of Germany's war effort at that time lay in other tasks.

25. The entire documentation of this report is as follows: "Investigations, Research, Developments and Practical use of the German Atomic Bomb," [A.P.I.U. (Ninth Air Force) 96/1945 APO 696, U.S. Army, 19 August 1945." The report is classified secret. Note that the report begins in no uncertain terms: "the following information was obtained from four German scientists: a chemist, two physical chemists, and a rocket specialist. All four men contributed a short story as to what they knew of the atomic bomb development." (Emphasis added). Note also the suggestive title of the report.


15. Nevertheless the atomic bomb was expected to be ready toward the end of 1944, if it had not been for the effective air attacks on laboratories engaged in this uranium research, especially on the one in Ryukon in Norway, where heavy water was produced. It is mainly for this reason that Germany did not succeed in using the atomic bomb in this war.

These two paragraphs are quite revealing for several reasons.

First, what is the source for the assertion that the Germans expected the bomb to be ready in late 1944, well ahead of the Manhattan Project, and a statement in flat contradiction to the post-war Allied spin that the Germans were actually far behind? Indeed, during the war, Manhattan Project estimates consistently placed the Germans ahead of the Allies, and project chief General Leslie Groves also thought they were. But after the war, everything suddenly changed. Not only was America ahead, but according to the Legend, it had been consistently far ahead throughout the war.

Manhattan Project Chief General Leslie Groves

Zinsser's account raises a disturbing possibility -besides completely contradicting the Allied Legend - and that is, did the Allies learn of a German A-bomb test during the war? If so, then we may look for certain types of corroborating evidence, for the


other Statements of the post-war report containing Zinsser's affidavit would seem to indicate that the Allied Legend is already beginning to take tenuous shape. The intelligence report talks, for example, only of laboratories being the facilities conducting isotope enrichment and separation research. But mere laboratories would simply be incapable of development of an actual functioning atom bomb. So one component of the Legend emerges in this early report: the German effort was lackadaisical, being confined to laboratories.

Secondly, note the clear assertion that Germany did not succeed in "using the atomic bomb in this war." The language of the report is very clear. Yet it would also appear to be designed to obfuscate in aid of the then emerging Allied Legend, for the statement does not say that the Germans never tested a bomb, only that they did not use one. The language of the report is oddly careful, deliberate, and for that reason, all the more thought provoking.

Thirdly, note how much is actually - and inadvertently it would seem -revealed about German atomic bomb research and development, for the statements make it clear that the Germans were after a uranium based A-bomb. A plutonium bomb is never mentioned. The theory of plutonium development and the possibility of a plutonium based A-bomb were clearly known to the Germans, as a Top Secret memorandum to the Heereswaffenamt (Army Ordnance Bureau) in early 1942 makes abundantly clear.[26]

So it is the absence of plutonium from this report that affords us a first significant clue into what was probably the real nature of

26. This memorandum obviously constitutes another sore spot for the Allied Legend that emerged after the war, namely, that the Germans never knew the correct amount of the critical mass of a uranium fission bomb, but that it had been grossly overestimated by several orders of magnitude, hence rendering the project "unfeasible" within the span of the war. The problem of the HWA memorandum is that the Germans had a good ball-park estimate as early as January-February of 1942. And if they knew it was so small, then the resulting "decision" of the German High Command as to the impracticality of its development becomes immensely problematical. On the contrary, because of this memorandum -most likely prepared by Dr. Kurt Diebner or Dr. Fritz Houtermans - they knew that the undertaking was not only practical but feasible within the span of the war.


German atom bomb research. It is this absence that explains why the Germans never placed much emphasis on achieving a functioning reactor in order to enrich uranium to make weapons grade plutonium for an atom bomb: they did not need to do so, since there were other methods of enriching and separating enough U-235 to weapons grade purity and a stockpile of critical mass. In a nutshell: the Allied Legend about the German failure to obtain the atom bomb because they never had a functioning reactor is simply utter scientific nonsense, because a reactor is needed only it one wants to produce plutonium. It is an unneeded, and expensive, development, if one only wants to make a uranium A-bomb. Thus, there is sufficient reason, due to the science of bomb- making and the political and military realities of the war after America's entry, that the Germans took the decision to develop only a uranium bomb, since that afforded the best, most direct, and technologically least complicated route to acquisition of a bomb.

Let us pause a moment to put the indications of the German project in the context of the Manhattan Project taking place in the United States. There, with a production capacity larger than Germany's, and with an industrial base not being targeted by enemy bombing, the American project decided to concentrate on development of all available means to production of working atom bombs, i.e., uranium and plutonium bombs. But the production of plutonium could only be achieved in the construction of a functioning reactor. No reactor, no plutonium bomb.

But it should also be noted that the Manhattan Project also constructed the giant Oak Ridge facility in Tennessee to enrich uranium to weapons grade by gaseous diffusion and Lawrence's mass spectrometer processes, a facility that at no stage of its operation relied upon a functioning reactor in order to enrich uranium.

So, if the Germans were pursuing a similar approach to that employed at Oak Ridge, then we must find indicators to corroborate it. First, to enrich uranium by the same or similar methods as employed in Tennessee, the Reich would have had to build a similarly huge facility, or smaller facilities scattered throughout Germany, transporting the various levels of dangerous


uranium isotope from one point to another as feedstock until the desired level of purity and enrichment was achieved. The material would then have to be assembled in a bomb, and tested. So one must first look for a facilities or facilities. And given the Oak Ridge operation and its massive size, we know exactly what to look for: enormous size, close proximity to water, an adequate transportation infrastructure, enormous electrical power consumption, and finally, two other significant factors: an enormous labor pool, and enormous cost.

Secondly, in order to verify or corroborate Zinsser's astonishing affidavit, we must look for corroborating evidence. We must look for indications that the Germans had stockpiled enough weapons grade uranium to constitute a critical mass for an atom bomb. And then we must hunt for the test site or sites and see if it(or they) bear(s) the signature(s) of an atomic blast.

Fortunately, the information is now slowly coming available with the recent declassification of documents by Great Britain, the United States, the former Soviet Union, and as the archives of the former East Germany are being opened by the German government itself. This allows us to examine each of these aspects of the problem in a detail not possible until the last few years. The answers, as we shall see in the remaining chapters of part one, are disturbing, and horrifying.



"Assertions made by General Groves after the war... were probably designed to divert attention from the German isotope separation program. The idea being that if the existence of the German uranium enrichment program could be hidden, then the cover story could be established that Germany's atomic bomb effort consisted only of failed attempts to create a reactor pile to bread plutonium"

--Carter P. Hydrick: Critical Mass: the Real Story of the Birth of the Atomic Bomb and the Nuclear Age.[1]

" The men who interrogated Heisenberg and other German scientists, read their reports, and gaped at the primitive reactor vessel in a cave in southern Germany were hard put to explain what had gone wrong. Germany had begun the war with every advantage: able scientists, material resources, and the support and interest of the highest military officials. How could they have achieved so little?" [2] These are the basic facts, and the central question, that have plagued every researcher into the subject of German secret weapons research since the end of World War Two. How indeed could Germany have not obtained the atom bomb?

The thesis of this book, among many others, is radical, namely, that Germany did acquire atomic bombs during the war. What must be explained, rather, is why Germany apparently did not use this and other dreadful weapons available to her, or, if she did, why we have not heard about it. But of course, to maintain such a radical thesis, one must argue persuasively that Germany had the bomb to begin with.

1. Carter Hydrick, Critical Mass: the Real Story of the Atomic Bomb and the Birth of the Nuclear Age, Internet published manuscript, www.3dshort.com/nazibomb2/CRITICALMASS.txt, 1998, p. 21. Hydrick's research is painstaking and meticulous, and his speculative reconstructions of the detailed history of the war's end merit close attention. It is earnestly hoped he will eventually publish this important work in book form.

2. Thomas Powers, Heisenberg's War, p. viii.

This implies a relatively easy set of corroborative evidence to search for. If Germany had an uranium based atom bomb, one must look for the following things:

(1) A method or methods of separating and enriching uranium-235 isotope, the necessary isotope for an uranium atom bomb, to weapons grade quality, and in sufficient quantity to stockpile enough material for the critical mass, without the use of a functioning atomic reactor.

(2) An actual facility or facilities where such technologies are used en masse; This implies in turn

(a) enormous electrical power consumption;

(b) adequate water and transportation supplies;

(c) an enormous labor pool;

(d) a physically large facility or facilities that are relatively shielded from Allied and/or Russian bombing;

(3) The necessary basic theory for the design of a uranium bomb;

(4) Available and adequate supplies of uranium for use in enrichment;

(5) A site or sites to assemble and test the bomb

Fortunately, all these aspects of the investigation afford the researcher several clues, all of which corroborate the existence, at the minimum, of a very large and successful German uranium refinement and enrichment program during the war.

We begin by looking in a very unlikely spot: Nuremberg.

At the War Crimes Tribunal after the war, several formerly elegantly attired business executives and senior managers of the huge, enormously powerful, and quite notorious German chemicals cartel, I.G. Farben A.G., had their time in the dock. They story of this early "global corporation", its bankrolling of the Nazi regime and its central role in its "military-industrial complex", as well as its role in producing the deadly Zyklon-B poison gas for the death camps has been chronicled elsewhere.[3]

3. Joseph Borkin, The Crime and Punishment of I. G. Farben; Anthony C. Sutton, Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler.


I.G. Farben had been more than just complicit in Nazi atrocities by its construction of a large Buna, or synthetic rubber, production plant at Auschwitz in the Polish part of Silesia during the war, committing atrocities against the concentration camp victims during its construction and operation.

For Farben, the choice of Auschwitz as the site for the Buna plant was logical, and made for "sound business reasons." The concentration camp nearby the site selected for the enormous facility guaranteed an endless supply of slave labor for its construction, and, conveniently, when the slaves had exhausted themselves in its secret construction and operation, they could be permanently "laid off". Farben director Carl Krauch assigned one of its top Buna synthetic rubber experts, Otto Ambros, to investigate the sites for the proposed plant and make a recommendation. The site eventually selected - Auschwitz - was "particularly suited for the installation" over a competing site in Norway for one very important reason.

A coal mine was nearby and three rivers converged to provide a vital requirement, a large source of water. Together with these three rivers, the Reich railroad and autobahn afforded excellent transportation to and from the area. These were not decisive advantages, however, over the Norwegian site. But the Silesian location had one advantage that was overwhelming: the S.S. had plans to expand enormously a concentration camp nearby. The promise of an inexhaustible supply of slave labor was an attraction that could not be resisted.[4]

The selection having been approved by the Farben board, Krauch then wrote a top secret letter to Ambros:

In the new arrangement of priority stages ordered by Field Marshal Keitel, your building project has first priority.... At my request, (Goring) issued special decrees a few days ago to the supreme Reich authorities concerned.... In these decrees, the Reich Marshal obligated the offices concerned to meet your requirements in skilled workers and laborers at once, even at the expense of other important building projects or plans which are essential to the war economy.[5]

4. Borkin, op. cit, p. 115.
5. Ibid., pp. 115-116.


I.G. Farben Auschwitz "Buna" Expert Otto Ambros

With the Wehrmacht poised to blast its way into Russia soon, and sensing enormous profits to be made in the effort, the Farben directors decided to finance the enormous plant privately, rather than in concert with the Nazi regime, earmarking 900,000,000 Reichsmarks - nearly $250,000,000 in 1945 dollars or over $2 billion in contemporary dollars - to the project. It was to be the Buna plant to dwarf all other Buna plants.

However, as the testimony at the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal unfolded, the Auschwitz Buna factory emerged as one of the big mysteries of the war, for in spite of the enormous sum of money set aside for its construction, in spite of the personal blessings of Hitler, Himmler, Goring, and Keitel, and in spite of an endless supply both of skilled company contract laborers and an endless supply of slave labor from Auschwitz, "the project was continually disrupted by shortages, breakdowns, and delays.... Some malign influence seemed to be affecting the entire operation" to such an extent that Farben appeared to be faced with the first failure in its long corporate history of technological success.[6] By 1942, the whole effort was viewed by many directors not only as a failure, but as a near disaster.[7]

6. Ibid., p. 118.
7. Ibid., p. 120.


Disaster notwithstanding, the huge synthetic rubber and gasoline plants were completed, after 300,000 concentration camp workers had passed through the corporations construction mills. 25,000 of these inmates were simply and cruelly worked to death from exhaustion. The plants themselves were nothing less than gigantic. So gigantic, in fact, that "they used more electricity than the entire city of Berlin."[8]

During the war crimes tribunals, however, it was not this gruesome catalogue of facts about the plant that puzzled the Allied prosecutors. What puzzled them was that, in spite of such an enormous investment of lives, money, and material, "not a single pound of Buna was ever produced"[9] The Farben directors and managers in the docks were almost obsessively insistent on this point. More electricity than the entire city of Berlin - the eighth largest in the world at that time - to produce absolutely nothing? If this was true, then the enormous outlay of capital and labor and the huge electrical consumption contributed nothing significant to the German war effort whatsoever. Needless to say, there is something very wrong with this picture.

None of it made sense the, none of it makes sense now, unless of course the plant was not a Buna plant at all...


When I.G. Farben began its construction of the "Buna" plant at Auschwitz, one of the more unusual events to being the process was the removal of over 10,000 Polish inhabitants from their homes to make way for the thousands of German scientists, technicians, contract works and their families who were moved into the area. The parallel with the Manhattan Project in this respect is obvious. It is simply unbelievable in the extreme that, with such a technical and scientific effort on the part of the corporation with the most successful track record in advanced technologies and production

8. Ibid., p. 127.
9. Ibid., emphasis added.


facilities, and a plant consuming more electricity than Berlin, that nothing whatsoever was ever accomplished or produced.[10]

One contemporary researcher who is also mystified by the whole "Buna plant affair" is Carter P. Hydrick. Contacting Ed Landry, an expert in the field of synthetic rubber production from Houston, Texas, and informing him of the I.G. Farben plant, its huge electrical consumption, and the directors' claims that it produced no Buna at all, Landry responded: "That was not a rubber plant - you can bet your bottom dollar on that." Landry simply does not believe the primary purpose of the "Buna plant" was the production of rubber at all.[11]

How then to account for the enormous electrical consumption and post-war insistence of Farben directors that the plant never produced any synthetic rubber at all? What other technology would require such enormous electrical power consumption, such an enormous technical and unskilled labor staff, and such close proximity to plentiful water supplies? At that time, there was only one other technological process that could conceivably require all these things. Hydrick puts the case this way:

Certainly there is something wrong with this picture. A compilation of the three central and readily known facts just outlined - electrical consumption, construction costs, and I.G. Farben's previous record -does not readily form a picture that a Buna processing plant was the type of project being constructed at Auschwitz. Such a compilation does sketch a picture, however, of another important wartime production process, though secret at the time. The process is uranium enrichment.[12]

So why call it a Buna plant? And why protest so vociferously to the Allied prosecutors that the plant never produced any Buna at all? One answer is that with so much labor being provided by the slave labor from the SS concentration camp nearby, the plant fell under SS security jurisdiction, and an effective "cover" would therefore been at the head of the list of Farben's and the SS' concerns. In the

10. Carter P. Hydick, op. cit., p. 34.
11. Hydrick, op. cit., p. 35.
12. Ibid., p. 38.


unlikely event, for example, of an escape by one or more inmates, the "Buna" plant would have offered a plausible cover story should the Allies ever learn of it. Since isotope separation would have been such a secret and costly process, "it becomes hard to imagine the so-called Buna installation being anything but a cover for a uranium enrichment facility."[13] Indeed, there is odd corroboration as we shall see from the Farm Hall transcripts. The "Buna plant" became the cover story to explain the construction to the laborers - in the event that explanations were offered at all! - and to the Farben company contract employees who were "out of the loop."

In this respect, the delays in its construction and the difficulties Farben encountered are also best explained by its being a huge isotope separation facility, not unlike those the Manhattan Project encountered when constructing its own similarly sized plant at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Like its American counterpart, shortages and delays and technical difficulties dogged the project from its inception, and like its American counterpart, these delays were experienced in spite of its enjoying a similarly privileged position in the hierarchy of Nazi priorities as Oak Ridge.[14]

So the strange assertions and behavior of the Farben directors on trial after the war begins to make sense. Faced already with an emerging "Allied Legend" about German incompetence in nuclear matters, the Farben directors and managers were perhaps trying in a subtle way to "set the record straight" in the only way that would not overtly challenge that Legend. They were attempting, perhaps, to provide a clue as to the real nature and achievements of the German bomb program that would only be noticed over time and with careful scrutiny.

The selection of the site - near the concentration camp at Auschwitz and its hundreds of thousands of hapless victims - also makes strategic, if not gruesome, sense. Much like dictators of more recent times, it would appear that the Nazi regime had placed the facility near the camp in a deliberate attempt to use "human shields" to protect the facility from Allied bombing. If so, the decision was a correct one, as no Allied bombs ever fell on

13. Hydrick, op. cit., p. 38.
14. Ibid.


Auschwitz. The plant was dismantled only in the face of the approaching Russian armies in 1944.

The Isotope Separation Facility at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

To establish that the "Buna plant" was most likely an isotope separation facility, however, requires that one prove the Germans possessed the technological means for isotope separation. Additionally, if such technology was employed at the "Buna plant", then it implies that there was more than one atom bomb project in Germany, for the "Heisenberg" wing of the project, and all the subsequent debates that surround it, are well known. So in addition to ascertaining whether or not Germany possessed the technology to separate isotopes, one must also attempt a broad reconstruction of the actual outlines and relationships of the various German atom bomb projects.

By stating the problem in this fashion, one is again confronted by the post-war Allied Legend:

In the traditional history of the bomb, (Manhattan project chief General Leslie) Groves has positioned the German plutonium effort as the only nuclear initiative Germany ever pursued. And he has magnified this misinformation, couched in a cushion of half-truths, to immense proportions- large enough to hide what appears to be a huge


German uranium enrichment project behind it - and thus he has shielded the Nazi near-success from the view of the world.[15]

Did Germany have isotope enrichment technology available? And could it have employed that technology in sufficient quantity to make significant amounts of enriched uranium available for a bomb program?

There can be no doubt that Germany certainly had a sufficient supply of uranium ore, for the region of the Sudetenland - annexed by Germany after the infamous Munich conference in 1938 - is a region known for its rich deposits of some of the highest grade uranium ore in the world. The region, coincidentally, lies close to the "Three Corners" region of Thuringia in south central Germany, and therefore close to Silesia and the various installations that will be examined in parts two and three. So the Farben directors may have had another reason for choosing Auschwitz as the site for an enrichment facility. Auschwitz was close not only to water, an adequate transportation network, and abundant labor, it was conveniently close to the uranium fields of the German-Czech Sudentenland.

These facts raise a speculative possibility. It is well-known that the announcement by nuclear chemist Otto Hahn of his discovery of nuclear fission did not occur until after the Munich conference and the surrender of the Sudetenland to the Third Reich by Chamberlain and Daladier. But might the reality have been something different? Might, in fact, the discovery of fission taken place before the conference, and its results withheld by the Reich until after Europe's only uranium supply was firmly in Nazi hands? It is perhaps significant that Adolf Hitler was prepared to go to war over the matter.

In any case, before we investigate the question of the technology available to the Germans, we must first answer the question of why they apparently concentrated almost exclusively on

15. Hydrick, op. cit., p. 3. Obviously, Hydrick himself does not appear ready to go all the way and acknowledge that the Germans actually successfully tested an atom bomb before its American Manhattan project counterpart produced and tested one.


obtaining a uranium atom bomb in their program. After all, the American Manhattan Project had elected to pursue both a uranium and a plutonium bomb. The theoretical possibility of plutonium bombs - "element 94" as it was officially called in German documents of the period - was certainly known to the Nazis. And, as the early 1942 memorandum to the Heereswaffenamt also makes clear, the Germans also knew that this element could only be synthesized in an atomic reactor.

So why did they apparently concentrate only on a uranium bomb and isotope separation and enrichment almost exclusively? With the destruction of the Norwegian heavy water plant at Ryukon in 1942 by Allied commandos, and German failures in obtaining sufficient purity of graphite for use as a moderator in a reactor, the only other moderator available to them - heavy water - was now in critically short supply. Thus, according to the Legend, a functioning reactor leading to a critical mass supply of "element 94" was not feasible to them in the projected span of the war.

But let us, for a moment, assume that the Allied commando raid had not taken place. The German failures with graphite moderated reactors were already a matter of record, and it was obvious to them that there were significant technological and engineering hurdles to be surmounted before a reactor came into production. On the other hand, the Germans already had the necessary technology to enrich U-235 for a bomb, and thus uranium enrichment constituted the best, most direct, and technologically feasible route to the acquisition of a bomb within the expected span of the war for the Germans. More on that technology in a moment.

One now has to deal with yet another component of the Allied Legend. American progress in the plutonium bomb, from the moment Fermi successfully completed and tested a functioning reactor in the squash court at the University of Chicago, appeared to be running fairly smoothly, until fairly late in the war, when it was discovered that in order to make a bomb from plutonium, the critical mass would have to be assembled much faster than any existing Allied fuse technologies could accomplish. Moreover, there was so little margin of error, since the fuses in an implosion device


would have to fire as close to simultaneously as possible, that Allied engineers began to despair of making a plutonium bomb work.

Thus one is confronted with a rather interesting scientific picture, one directly in contradiction to the traditional history of the bomb. If the Germans indeed had a successful and large scale uranium enrichment project running ca. 1941-1944, and if their bomb project was devoted almost exclusively on acquiring a uranium atom bomb, and if at the same time Allied engineers were coming to realize the problems inherent in plutonium bomb design, then this means, in one respect at least, that the Germans have not wasted time or effort" on what is admittedly a more difficult task, namely, the plutonium bomb. As we shall see in the next chapter, this fact gives rise to serious doubts about the state of "success" in the Manhattan Project in late 1944 and early 1945.

So what were the actual technologies available to Nazi Germany for isotope enrichment and separation, and how did it compare to similar technologies employed at Oak Ridge for efficiency and output?

Difficult as it seems to accept, the fact of the matter is that Nazi Germany had "at least five, and possibly as many as seven, serious isotope separation development programs underway."[16] One of these, an "isotope sluice" developed by Drs. Bagge and Korsching, two of the scientists interred at Farm Hall, was brought to such a state of efficiency by mid-1944 that a single pass of uranium through it would enrich it to four times that produced by a single pass through the gaseous diffusion gates at Oak Ridge![17]

16. Hydrick, op. cit., p. 25.
17. Ibid.


Contrast this with the end-of-war difficulties being faced by the Manhattan Project. Even with the enormous gaseous diffusion plant at Oak Ridge, stocks of fissionable uranium were still woefully short of critical mass requirements as late as March 1945. Passes


through the Oak Ridge facility would enrich uranium from approximately a .7 percent concentration in around 10-12 percent, and thus the decision was taken to use the Oak Ridge production as feedstock for Earnest O. Lawrence's far more efficient and effective "beta calutrons," which were essentially a cyclotron with separation tanks, using electromagnetic means to enrich and separate isotope via mass spectrography.[18] Consequently, one may assume that if a similar quantity of Bagge and Korsching's "isotope sluices" were used en masse, the result would have been a more rapid build-up of enriched uranium feedstock. Similarly, the more efficient German technology may also have allowed for relatively smaller separation facilities.

Good as it was, however, the isotope sluice was not Germany's most efficient or technologically advanced means of uranium enrichment. This was the centrifuge, and its progeny - designed by nuclear chemist Paul Hartek - the ultracentrifuge.[19] American engineers, of course, knew of this possibility, but there was a significant drawback they had to face: the highly corrosive uranium gases used in this technology made it unfeasible to rely on centrifuges as a means of enrichment. On the German side, however, this was a solved problem. A special alloy called Bondur was developed precisely for use in centrifuges.[20] But even centrifuge technology was not, however, the best available method the Germans had.

18. Hydrick, op. cit., p. 25.
19. The same technology was captured by the Soviet Union and further perfected in its own bomb program. On the post-war German side, such ultra-centrifuges were provided by the Siemens company and other German firms first to South Africa in its own bomb program (q.v. Rogers and Cervenka, The Nuclear Axis: West Germany and South Africa, pp. 299-310). In other words, the technology is not only originally German, but is advanced enough to be employed today. It should be noted that, as of the mid-1970s, several of the Germans involved in the corporate development of centrifuge enrichment facilities for the Federal Republic (West Germany) had ties to the Third Reich's bomb project, among them Prof. Karl Winnacker, a former member of the I.G. Farben board (p. 300).

20. Hydrick, op. cit., p. 25.


Baron Manfred von Ardenne, a rich eccentric and self-taught nuclear physicist and inventor, and his close associate of physicist Fritz Houtermanns, both correctly calculated the critical mass for a U-235 atom bomb in 1941, and with funds from Dr. Ing. Ohnesorge's money-rich Deutsche Reichspost, constructed a huge underground laboratory in his baronial manor in Lichterfelde, outside eastern Berlin. This laboratory included a 2,000,000 volt electrostatic generator and the only other cyclotron known to exist in the Third Reich besides that of the Curies in France. It is the only cyclotron acknowledged by the post-war Allied Legend.[21]

21. Hydrick, p. 26.


At thus juncture it is necessary to pause to examine the German bomb program more closely, for we now have evidence of at least three different, and seemingly separate, technological efforts:

(1) The Heisenberg-Army program, centered around Heisenberg himself and various associates at the Kaiser Wilhelm and Max Planck institutes, a purely "small laboratory" effort concentrating, or rather, dibbling and dabbling in the construction of a reactor. This is the "program" the Allied Legend focuses on, and the one most people think of when they think of the German atom bomb effort. It is the program deliberately inculcated by that Legend as proof of German nuclear incompetence and bungling;[22]

(2) The I.G. Farben "Buna plant" at Auschwitz, whose relationship to the other programs, and to the SS, is not entirely clear;

22. It should be noted again, however, that the German Army's Ordnance Bureau was in possession of essentially correct estimations of the critical mass for a uranium bomb in early 1942, and that Heisenberg himself after the war suddenly reassumed his commanding position by detailing the construction of the Hiroshima bomb along essentially correct principles, and allegedly from information gleaned only from the BBC!

(3) The Bagge-Korsching-von Ardenne-Houtermanns circle, developing an array of advanced separation technologies, and apparently, via von Ardenne, tied somehow to, of all things, the German postal service!

Why the Reichspost? For one thing, it afforded an effective cover for the program, which, like its American counterpart, appears to have been compartmentalized under a number of government agencies, many having no plausible connection with a large secret weapons research effort. Secondly, and more significantly, the Reichspost was awash with money, and could therefore have provided some of the massive funding necessary to the project, a true "black budget" operation in every sense. And finally, the head of the Reichspost was, perhaps not coincidentally, an engineer: Dr. Ing. Ohnesorge. It is, from the German point of view, a logical choice. Even his last name, "Ohnesorge", meaning "without sorrow or regret", is an ironic twist to the story.

The Uranium 235 needed to fuel the Atomic Bomb was separated from the more plentiful Uranium 238 using "Calutrons" at Y-12. The word "Calutron" comes from CALifornia University CycloTRON to recognize that it was designed by E. O. Lawrence. This photo shows six of the original "D-Coil" magnets. These magnets were placed on either side of a vacuum chamber where the unique and scarce material was collected.

What was the method of separation and enrichment developed by von Ardenne and Houtermanns? Very simply, it was the cyclotron itself. Von Ardenne had invented a modification of the cyclotron - electromagnetic separation tanks- very similar to Ernst O. Lawrence's "beta calutrons" in the United States. It is to be noted, however, that von Ardenne had completed his modifications in April of 1942, whereas General Groves in the Manhattan Project would not have Lawrence's beta calutron at Oak Ridge for fully a year and a half after that![23] "In addition, the ion plasma source Ardenne had designed for his isotope separator to sublime the uranium compound was far superior to that provided for the calutrons." So efficient, in fact, was Von Ardenne's version as a source for emitting particle rays, that to this day it is known as "the Ardenne source."[24]

Von Ardenne himself is a mysterious figure, for after the war he was one of the few German scientists to deliberately opt to cooperate with the Soviet Union rather than the Western Allies. His contribution to the Soviet acquisition of the atomic bomb in 1949

23. Hydrick, op. cit, p. 26.
24. Hydrick, op. cit., p. 27.


was to earn him the "Stalin Prize" in 1955, the Soviet equivalent to the Nobel Prize. He was the only non-Russian and non-Soviet ever to win the prize.[25]

In any case, Von Ardenne's work, plus that of the other German scientists working on separation and enrichment - Bagge, Korsching, Harteck and Houtermanns - indicates one thing: that there was a sound and solid basis in Allied wartime estimations of German progress and capabilities, for they were, in mid-1942, running a dead heat with the Manhattan Project, and were not "far behind" as the post-war Allied Legend would subsequently have us believe.

So what is the likely scenario, as it has emerged thus far? What conclusions may be drawn?

(1) There were several German bomb and enrichment projects, compartmentalized to maintain security, perhaps being coordinated by some as yet or hitherto unknown entity. In any case, it appears that one such serious program was at least nominally being coordinated by the Deutsche Reichspost under its chief, Dr. Ing. Wilhelm Ohnesorge;

(2) The most significant enrichment and separation projects were not being conducted by Heisenberg or his circle, or for that matter, by any of the more "high profile" German scientists, save perhaps Harteck and Diebner. This suggests that perhaps the more famous scientists were being used as "fronts" and being kept out of the loop of the most serious and significant technological achievements as a matter of security. Had they been involved in such efforts and then subsequently kidnapped or assassinated by the Allies - a thought that certainly occurred to the OSS [26] - then the German program would have been severely crippled and exposed;

25. Henshall, op. cit, p. 156.
26. Powers, op. cit., pp. 379-382. Samuel Goudsmit was at one point being considered as a member of the team that would attempt to kidnap or assassinate Heisenberg.


(3) At least three German technologies were arguably more efficient and technologically advanced than their American counterparts:

(a) Bagge and Korsching's "isotope sluice";

(b) Harteck's centrifuges and ultra-centrifuges;

(c) Von Ardenne's modified cyclotrons, the "Ardenne source";

(4) At least one known facility was large enough in terms of its physical size, labor requirements, and electrical consumption, to have conceivably been sued as a large separation facility, the I.G. Farben "Buna plant" at Auschwitz. The case is strong because:

(a) No Buna was ever produced there in spite of thousands of scientists, technicians, engineers, contract and slave laborers working there;

(b) The site was close to the uranium ore fields of the Czech and German Sudentenland, being located in Polish Silesia;

(c) The site was close to plentiful water supplies, also needed in isotope enrichment;

(d) It was close to rail and road networks;

(e) It was close to plentiful (slave) labor;

(f) And finally -though not yet discussed - it was close to several large underground secret weapons production and research facilities in lower Silesia, and was close to one of the two alleged test sites of German atom bomb tests during the war;

(5) it may reasonably be assumed, in addition to the "Buna factory", that the Germans constructed smaller facilities in the area for separation and enrichment of isotope, using the Buna plant's production as feedstock for these other facilities.[27]

27. Powers, op. cit., p. 74. Powers also mentions another problematical fact concerning the Clusius-Dickel method of thermal diffusion, that we will encounter in chapter 7: "One pound of U-235 was not a daunting figure, and Frisch calculated that 1,000,000 Clusius-Dickel tubes for thermal diffusion of uranium isotopes could produce it in a matter of weeks. Such a large industrial effort would not be cheap, but the two men concluded, 'Even if this plant costs as much as a battleship, it would be worth having.'"


To round out this unpleasant picture, one must also mention two further interesting facts: Von Ardenne's close associate and theoretical mentor, Dr. Fritz Houtermanns' specialty was thermonuclear fusion, indeed as an astrophysicist, he had staked his claim to fame in physics by describing precisely the type of nuclear process at work in stars. Interestingly enough, there does exist, from 1938, an Austrian patent for a device known as a "Molecular Bomb," a bomb that upon examination is an early version of a hydrogen bomb. Atomic bombs, of course, supply the necessary heat to get hydrogen atoms to collide and produce the much more enormous and terrible energies of thermonuclear hydrogen fusion bombs.

Secondly, it may now clearly be seen why, of all the German scientists working on the atom bomb, that Manfred Von Ardenne was the one nuclear scientist that Adolf Hitler most often went personally to visit. [28] In any case, all the evidence points to the conclusion that there was a large, very well-funded, and very secret German isotope enrichment program during the war, a program successfully disguised during the war by the Nazis, and covered-up after war by the Allied Legend. But this too raises its own questions. How close was that program to acquiring sufficient stocks of weapons grade uranium to make a bomb (or bombs). And secondly, why did the Allies after the war go to such stupendous lengths to cover it up?

As a final note to this chapter, and a tantalizing indication of further mysteries that will be investigated subsequently in this work, there is a report, declassified by the National Security Agency only in 1978; the report is apparently a decoded intercept from the Japanese embassy in Stockholm to Tokyo. It is entitled simply

28. Hydrick, op. cit, p. 29. Rose notes that von Ardenne had written him and stated that he had never tried to persuade the Nazis to develop his process and employ it in large quantities. He then notes that the Siemens company did not develop it (Rose, op. cit., p. 140, n. 38). This would appear to be pure obfuscation on Von Ardenne's part, for it was not Siemens, but I.G. Farben, that had developed the processes and employed them in large amounts at Auschwitz.


"Reports on the Atom-Splitting Bomb." It is best to cite its amazing contents in their entirety, with their original breaks where they occurred in the text for transmission:

This bomb is revolutionary in its results, and it will completely upset all ordinary precepts of warfare hitherto established. I am sending you, in one group, all those reports on what is called the atom-splitting bomb:

It is a fact that in June of 1943 the German Army tried out an utterly new type of weapon against the Russians at a location 150 kilometers southeast of Kursk. Although it was the entire 19th Infantry Regiment of the Russians which was thus attacked, only a few bombs (each round up to 5 kilograms) sufficed to utterly wipe them out to the last man.

Part 2. The following is according to a statement by Lieutenant-Colonel UE(?) I KENJI, advisor to the attaché' in Hungary and formerly (?on duty?) in this country, who by chance saw the actual scene immediately after the above took place:

"All the men and the horses (?within the area of?) the explosion of the shells were charred black and even their ammunition had all been detonated."

Moreover, it is a fact that the same type of war material was tried out in the Crimea, too. At that time the Russians claimed that this was poison-gas, and protested that if Germany were ever again to use it, Russia, too, would use poison-gas.

Part 3. There is also the fact that recently in London - in the period between October and the 15th of November - the loss of life and the damage to business buildings through fires of unknown origin was great. It is clear, judging especially by the articles about a new weapon of this type, which have appeared from time to time recently in British and American magazines - that even our enemy has already begun to study this type.

To generalize on the basis of all these reports: I am convinced that the most important technical advance in the present great war is in the realization of the atom-splitting bomb. Therefore, the central authorities are planning, through research on this type of weapon, to speed up the matter of rendering the weapon practical. And for my part, I am convinced of the necessity for taking urgent steps to effect this end.

Part 4. The following are the facts I have learned regarding its technical data:


Recently the British authorities warned their people of the possibility that they might undergo attacks by German atom-splitting bombs. The American military authorities have likewise warned that the American east coast might be the area chosen for a blind attack by some sort of flying bomb. It was called the German V-3. To be specific, this device is based on the principle of the explosion of the nuclei of the atoms in heavy hydrogen derived from heavy water. (Germany has a large plant (?for this?) in the vicinity of Rjukan, Norway, which has from time to time been bombed by English planes.). Naturally, there have been plenty of examples even before this of successful attempts at smashing individual atoms. However,

Part 5.

as far as the demonstration of any practical results is concerned, they seem not to have been able to split large numbers of atoms in a single group. That is, they require for the splitting of each single atom a force that will disintegrate the electron orbit.

On the other hand, the stuff that the Germans are using has, apparently, a very much greater specific gravity than anything heretofore used. In this connection, allusions have been made to SIRIUS and stars of the "White Dwarf" group. (Their specific gravity is (?6?) 1 thousand, and the weight of one cubic inch is 1 ton.)

In general, atoms cannot be compressed into the nuclear density. However, the terrific pressures and extremes of temperature in the "White Dwarfs" cause the bursting of the atoms; and

Part 6. There are, moreover, radiations from the exterior of these stars composed of what is left of the atoms which are only the nuclei, very small in volume.

According to the English newspaper accounts, the German atom- splitting device is the NEUMAN disintegrator. Enormous energy is directed into the central part of the atom and this generates at atomic pressure of several tons of thousands of tons (sic) per square inch. This device can split the relatively unstable atoms of such elements as uranium. Moreover, it brings into being a store of explosive atomic energy.

A-GENSHI HAKAI DAN. That is, a bomb deriving its force from the release of atomic energy.

The end of this amazing intercept then reads "Inter 12 Dec 44 (1,2) Japanese; Rec'd 12 Dec 44; Trans 14 Dec 44 (3020-B)," apparently references to when the message was intercepted by American intelligence, its original language (Japanese), when the message was


received, when it was translated (14 Dec 44), and by whom (3020-B).[29]

The date of this document - after the lest allegedly seen by Hans Zinsser and two days before the beginning of the Battle of the Bulge -must have set off alarm bells in the offices of Allied Intelligence personnel both during and after the war. While it is certainly clear that the Japanese attaché in Stockholm seems to be somewhat confused bout the nature of nuclear fission, a number of startling things stand out in the document:

(1) The Germans were, according to the report, using weapons of mass destruction of some type on the Eastern Front, but had apparently for some reason refrained from using them on the Western Allies;

(a) The areas specifically mentioned were Kursk, in the approximate location of the southern pincer of the German offensive, which took place in July, and not June, of 1943, and the Crimean peninsula;

(b)The time mentioned was 1943, though since the only major action to have occurred in the Crimea was in 1942 with the massive German artillery bombardment, one must also conclude that the time frame stretched back into 1942; (At this juncture is it worth pausing to consider briefly the German siege of the Russian fortress of Sevastopol, scene of the most colossal artillery bombardment of the war, as it bears directly on the interpretation of this intercept.

The siege was led by Colonel-General (later Field Marshal) Erich Von Manstein's 11th Army. Von Manstein assembled 1,300 artillery pieces - the largest concentration of heavy and super-heavy artillery deployed by any Power during the war - and pounded Sevastopol with this mighty

29. Edgar Mayer and Thomas Mehner, Hitler und die Bombe" (Rottenburg: Kopp Verlag, 2002), pp. 110-114, emphasis added, citing "Stockholm to Tokyo, No. 232.9 December 1944 (War Department), National Archives, RG 457, SRA 14628-32, declassified October 1, 1978.


arsenal twenty-four hours a day for five clays. These were no ordinary heavy field pieces.

Two mortar regiments - the 1st Heavy Mortar Regiment and the 70th Mortar Regiment -as well as the 1st and 4th Mortar Battalions, had been concentrated in front of the fortress under the special command of Colonel Nieman - altogether 21 batteries with 576 barrels, including the batteries of the 1st Heavy Mortar regiment with the 11- and 12 1/2 inch high explosive and incendiary oil shells...

Even these monsters were not the largest pieces deployed at Sevastopol. Several of the 16 1/2-inch "Big Bertha" Krupp cannon and their old Austrian Skoda counterparts were massed against the Russian positions, along with the even more colossal "Karl" and "Thor" mortars, gigantic self-propelled 24-inch mortars firing shells that weighed over two tons.

VIDEO: rare footage of it in action

But even "Karl" was not quite the last word in gunnery. That last word was stationed at Bakhchisary, in the "Palace of Gardens" of the ancient residence of the Tartar Khans, and was called "Dora," or occasionally "Heavy Gustav." It was the heaviest gun of the last war. Its caliber was 31 1/2-inches. Sixty railway carriages were needed to transport the parts of the monster. Its 107-foot barrel ejected high-explosive projectiles of 4800 kg -i.e., nearly five tons-over a distance of 29 miles. Or it could hurl even heavier armor-piercing missiles, weighing seven tons, at targets nearly 24 miles away. The missile together with its cartridge measured nearly twenty-six feet in length. Erect that would be about (the) height of a two-story house....

These data are sufficient to show that here the conventional gun had been enlarged to gigantic, almost super-dimensional scale - indeed, to a point where one might question the economic return obtained from such a weapon. Yet one single round from "Dora" destroyed an ammunition dump in Severnaya Bay at Sevastopol although it was situated 100 feet below ground.[30]

30. Paul Carrell, Hitler Moves East, 1941-1943 (Ballantine Books, 1971) pp. 501-503, emphasis added. So horrendous was the bombardment from this


Why are these details significant? First, note the reference to "incendiary oil shells." These shells are the indication that unusual weaponry was deployed by the Germans at Sevastopol and delivered through conventional - though quite large - artillery pieces. The German Army did possess such shells and deployed the frequently and with no little effectiveness on the Eastern Front.

But might there have been an even more fearsome weapon? In subsequent chapters we will present evidence that the Germans indeed developed an early version of a modern "fuel-air" bomb, a conventional explosive with the explosive power of a tactical nuclear weapon. Given the great weight of such projectiles, and the German lack of sufficient heavy-lift aircraft to deliver them, it is possible if not likely that super-heavy artillery was used to deploy them. This would also explain another curiosity in the Japanese military attaché's statement: the Germans apparently did not deploy weapons of mass destruction against cities, but only against military targets that would have been within the range of such weapons. We may now resume with the analysis of the Japanese statement.

(2) The Germans may have been seriously pursuing the hydrogen bomb, since reactions of the nuclei of heavy water atoms - containing deuterium and tritium - are essential in thermonuclear fusion reactions, a point highlighted by the Japanese delegate(though he confuses these reactions with fission reactions of atom bombs), and corroborated by Fritz Houtermans' pre-war work in the thermonuclear fusion process at work in stars; massed heavy and super-heavy artillery that the German General Staff estimated that over 500 rounds fell on Russian positions per second during the five days' artillery and aerial bombardment, a massive expenditure of ammunition. The rain of steel on the Russian positions pulverized Russian morale and was often so thunderous that eardrums burst. At the end of the battle, the city and environs of Sevastopol were ruined, two entire Soviet armies had been obliterated, and over 90,000 prisoners were taken, (pp. 501-502, 511)


(3) The enormous temperatures of atom bombs are used as detonators in conventional hydrogen bombs;

(4) In desperation the Russians appeal to have been ready to resort to the use of poison gas against the Germans if they did not "cease and desist";

(5) The Russians believe the weapons to have been "poison gas" of some sort, either a cover story put out by the Russians, or a result of field reports being made by Russian Soldiers who were ignorant of the type of weapon deployed against them;[31] and finally, and most sensationally,

(6) According to the Japanese cable, the Germans appeared to have gained their specialized knowledge via some connection to the star system of Sirius and that knowledge involved some exotic form of very dense matter, a statement that strains credulity even today.

It is this last point that directs our attention to the most fantastic and arcane recesses of wartime German secret weapons research, for if the allegation has even a partial basis in truth, then it indicates that at some highly secret level, physics, and the esoteric, were being pursued by the Nazi regime in some very extraordinary ways.[32] In this regard it is important to note that the extreme density of the material described by the Japanese envoy resembles nothing so much as a construct of modern post-war theoretical physics called "dark matter". In all likelihood his report greatly overestimates the mass of this material - if it existed at all - but nonetheless it is crucial to observe that it is material far beyond the ordinary density of matter.

31. The detail of "charred bodies" and exploded ammunition certainly point to non-conventional weaponry. A fuel-air device would at least account for the charring. The tremendous heat produced by such a bomb could also conceivably detonate ammunition. Likewise, radioactive burns with its characteristic blistering effects might well have been misunderstood by Russian field Soldiers and officers, who would most likely not have been familiar with nuclear energy, as the effects of poison gas.

32. To anyone familiar with the wealth of material on alternative research into the Giza compound in Egypt, the reference to Sirius will immediately conjure images of Egyptian religion, its preoccupation with death, with the Osiris myth, and to the Sirian star system.


Strangely, the German-Sirian connection pops up again, long alter the war, in an unusual context. In my previous book, The Giza Death Star Deployed, I mentioned the research of Robert Temple into the mysterious African Dogon tribe, a tribe of primitive peoples that nonetheless appears to have preserved an accurate knowledge of the Sirian star system for many generations, from a period long before modern astronomy knew anything about it. In that book, I noted that

Temple also alleges serious Soviet KGB and American CIA and NSA interest in his book.... An odd mention, perhaps significant in the light of our later discussion of possible German involvement in scalar physics research during World War Two and after, is Temple's allegation that Baron Jesco von Puttkamer wrote him a denunciatory letter on NASA stationary, only later to retract that, stating that it did not represent an official NASA position. Temple believes that Puttkamer was one of the Germans brought to the USA during the notorious Operation Paper Clip in the days immediately following the Nazi surrender (pp. 9-10).[33]

As I then go on to observe in that book, Karl Jesco von Puttkamer was no ordinary German, being a member of Adolf Hitler's military staff throughout the war as his naval adjutant to staff, beginning the war with the rank of captain and ending with the rank of admiral. Puttkamer was subsequently employed by NASA.

So the investigation of the German atom bomb, via this recently declassified Japanese cable, has already led us far afield, into a realm of frightening potentialities, into a world of fuel-air bombs, gigantic artillery delivery systems, super-dense matter, the hydrogen bomb, and what seems to be a curious blend of mystical esotericism and Egyptology, and physics.

Was there a German bomb? In the above context, the question seems almost plain and ordinary. If so, then given the extraordinary reports that leaked out from time to time from the Eastern Front, what other even more secret research lay behind their atom bomb projects, for evidently such research there was?

33. Joseph P. Farrell, The Giza Death Star Deployed, (Kempton, Illinois: Adventures Unlimited Press, 2003, p. 81).

But exotic super dense matter or not, according to some versions of the Allied Legend, the Germans never had enough fissile weapons grade uranium to begin with. We will now investigate the problem of the "missing uranium."

"Heavy Gustav " or "Dora " the 31 1/2 Monster that Hurled Five and Seven Ton Projectiles Against Sevastopol: Were they Conventional Rounds, or Fuel-Air Bombs?



"The traditional history denies, however, that the uranium on board U-234 was enriched and therefore easily usable in an atomic bomb. The accepted theory asserts there is no evidence that the uranium stocks of U-234 were transferred into the Manhattan Project... And the traditional history asserts that the bomb components on board (the) U-234 arrived too late to be included in the atomic bombs that were dropped on Japan. The documentation indicates quite differently on all accounts."

--Carter P. Hydrick, Critical Mass: The Real Story of the Atomic Bomb and the Birth of the Nuclear Age.

In December of 1944, an unhappy report is made to some unhappy people:

"A study of the shipment of (bomb grade uranium) for the past three months shows the following: At present rate we will have 10 kilos about February 7 and 15 kilos about May 1."[2] This was bad news indeed, for a uranium based atom bomb required between 10-100 kilograms by the earliest estimates (ca. 1942), and, by the time this memo was written, about 50 kilos, the more accurate calculation of critical mass needed to make an atom bomb from uranium.

One may imagine the consternation this memo must have caused at headquarters. The was, perhaps, a considerable degree of yelling and screaming and finger pointing and other histrionics, interlarded with desperate orders to re-double efforts amid the fire-tinged skies of the war's Wagnerian Gotterdammerung.

1. Carter Hydrick, Critical Mass: the Real Story of the Atomic Bomb and the Birth of the Nuclear Age, Internet published manuscript, www.3dshort.com/nazibomb2/CRITICALMASS.txt, 1998, p. 6.

2. Ibid., p. 11.


The problem, however, is that the memo is not German at all. It originates within the Manhattan Project on December 28, 1944, from Eric Jette, the chief metallurgist at Los Alamos. One may imagine the desperation it must have triggered, however, since the Manhattan Project had consumed two billion dollars all in the pursuit of plutonium and uranium atom bombs. By this time it was of course apparent that there were significant and seemingly insurmountable problems in designing a plutonium bomb, for the fuses available to the Allies were simply far too slow to achieve the uniform compression of a plutonium core within the very short span of time needed to initiate uncontrolled nuclear fission.

That left the uranium bomb as the more immediately feasible alternative - as the Germans had discovered years earlier - to the acquisition of a functioning weapon within the projected span of the war. Yet, after a veritable hemorrhage of dollars in pursuit of the latter objective, the Manhattan Project was far short of the necessary critical mass for a uranium bomb. And with the inevitability of an invasion of Japan looming, the pressure on General Leslie Groves to produce results was immense.

The lack of a sufficient stockpile, after years of concentrated all-out effort, was in part explainable, for two years earlier Fermi had been successful in construction of the first functioning atomic reactor. That success had spurred the American project to commit more seriously to the pursuit of a plutonium bomb. Accordingly, some of the precious and scarce refined and enriched uranium 235 coming out of Oak Ridge and Lawrence's beta calutrons was being siphoned off as feedstock for enrichment and transmutation into plutonium in the breeder reactors constructed at Handford, Washington for the purpose. Thus, some of the fissionable uranium stockpile had been deliberately diverted for plutonium production.[3] The decision was a logical one and the Manhattan Project decision- makers cannot be faulted to taking it. The reason is simple. Pound for weapons grade pound, a pound of plutonium will produce more bombs than a pound of uranium. It thus made economic sense to convert enriched uranium to plutonium, for more bombs would be possible with the same amount of material.

3. Hydrick, op. cit, p. 12.


But in December of 1944, having pursued both options, General Leslie Groves now stood on the verge of losing both gambles. And let us not forget what had just happened in Europe to sour the mood of "those in the know" in the United States even further. There, six months after the Allied landings in Normandy and the headlong dash across France, Allied armies had stalled on the borders of the Reich. Allied intelligence analysts confidently reassured the generals that no further significant German military offensive was possible, and their optimism was reflected in the general mood of the citizenry in France, Britain, and the United States. The mood was brutally shattered when, on December 16, 1944, the German Army and Luftwaffe mounted one last, desperate offensive with secretly husbanded reserves in the Ardennes forest, scene of their 1940 triumph against France. Within a matter of hours, the offensive had broken through American lines, surrounded, captured, or otherwise decimated the entire 116th American infantry division, and days later, surrounded the 101st Airborne division at Bastogne, and appeared well on the way to crossing the Meuse River at Namur. On December 28, 1944, when the memo was written, the German offensive had been stalled, but not stopped.

For the Allied officers privy to intelligence reports and "in-the-loop" on the Manhattan Project, the offensive was possibly seen as confirmation of their worst fears: the Germans were close to a bomb, and were trying to buy time. The horrible thought in the back of every Allied scientist's and engineer's head must have been that after all the Allied military successes of the previous years, the race for the bomb could still be won by the Germans. And if they were able to produce enough of them to put unbearable pressure on any one of the Western Allies, the outcome of the war itself was still in doubt. If, for example, the Germans had a-bombed British and French cities, it is unlikely that a continuance of the would have been politically feasible for Churchill's wartime coalition government. In all likelihood it would have collapsed. A similar result would have likely occurred in France. And without British and French bases available for supply and forward deployment, the


American military situation on the continent would have become untenable, if not disastrous.

In any case, word of the Manhattan Project's difficulties apparently leaked in the Washington D.C. political community, for United States Senator James F. Byrnes got in on the act, writing a memorandum to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and confirming that the Manhattan Project was perceived - at least by some in the know - as being in danger of failure:

SECRET March 3, 1945



I understand that the expenditures for the Manhattan project are approaching 2 billion dollars with no definite assurance yet of production.

We have succeeded to date in obtaining the cooperation of Congressional Committees in secret meetings. Perhaps we can continue to do so while the war lasts.

However, if the project proves a failure, it will be subjected to relentless criticism.[4]

Senator Brynes' memorandum highlights the real problem in the Manhattan Project, and the real, though certainly not publicly known, military situation of the Allies ca. late 1944 and early 1945: that in spite of tremendous conventional military success against the Third Reich, the Western Allies and Soviet Russia could conceivably still be forced to a "draw" if Germany deployed and used atom bombs in sufficient numbers to affect the political situation of the Western Allies. With its stockpile of enriched uranium already depleted by the decision to develop more plutonium for a bomb (which as it turned out was un-detonatible

4. Memorandum of U.S. Senator James F. Byrnes to President Frankliin D. Roosevelt, March 3, 1945, cited in Harald Fath, Geheime Kommandosache -S III Jonastal und die Siegeswaffenproduktion: Weitere spurensuche nach Thuringens Manhattan Project (Schleusingen: Amun Verlag, 2000), p. 41.


with existing British and American fuse technology anyway) and far below that needed for a uranium-based atom bomb, "the entire enterprise

Senator Byrnes' March 1945 Memorandum to President Roosevelt


appeared destined for defeat."[5] Not only defeat, but for "those in the know" in late 1944 and early 1945, the possibility was one of ignominious defeat and horrible carnage.

If the stocks of weapons grade uranium ca. late 1944 - early 1945 were about half of what they needed to be after two years of research and production, and if this in turn was the cause of Senator Byrnes' concern, how then did the Manhattan Project acquire the large remaining amount or uranium 235 needed in the few months from March to the dropping of the Little Boy bomb on Hiroshima in August, only five months away?

How did it accomplish this feat, if in feet after some three years of production it had only produced less than half of the needed supply of critical mass weapons grade uranium? Where did its missing uranium 235 come from? And how did it solve the pressing problem of the fuses for a plutonium bomb?

Of course the answer if that if the Manhattan Project was incapable of producing enough enriched uranium in that short amount of time-months rather than years - then its stocks had to have been supplemented from external sources, and there is only one viable place with the necessary technology to enrich uranium on that scale, as seen in the previous chapter. That source was Nazi Germany. But the Manhattan Project is not the only atom bomb project with some missing uranium.

Germany too appears to have suffered the "missing uranium syndrome" in the final days prior to and immediately after the end of the war. But the problem in Germany's case is that the missing uranium it not a few tens of kilos, but several hundred tons. At this juncture, it is worth citing Carter Hydrick's excellent research at length, in order to exhibit the full ramifications of this problem:

From June of 1940 to the end of the war, Germany seized 3,500 tons of uranium compounds from Belgium - almost three times the amount Groves had purchased.... and stored it in salt mines in Strassfurt, Germany. Groves brags that on 17 April, 1945, as the war was winding down, Alsos recovered some 1,100 tons of uranium ore from Strassfurt and an additional 31 tons in Toulouse, France ..... And he claims that the amount recovered was all that Germany had ever held, asserting, therefore, that Germany had never had enough raw material

5. Hydrick, op. cit, p. 13.


to process the uranium either for a plutonium reactor pile or through magnetic separation techniques. Obviously, if Strassfurt once held 3,500 tons and only 1,130 were recovered, some 2,370 tons of uranium ore was unaccounted for - still twice the amount the Manhattan Project possessed and is assumed to have used throughout its entire wartime effort.... The material has not been accounted for to this day....

As early as the summer of 1941, according to historian Margaret Gowing, Germany had already refined 600 tons of uranium to its oxide form, the form required for ionizing the material into a gas, in which form the uranium isotopes could then be magnetically or thermally separated or the oxide could be reduced to a metal for a reactor pile. In fact, Professor Dr. Riehl, who was responsible for all uranium throughout Germany during the course of the war, says the figure was actually much higher....

To create either a uranium or plutonium bomb, at some point uranium must be reduced to metal. In the case of plutonium, U-238 is metalicized; for a uranium bomb, U-235 is metalicized. Because of uranium's difficult characteristics, however, this metallurgical process is a tricky one. The United States struggled with the problem early and still was not successful reducing uranium to its metallic form in large production quantities until late in 1942. The German technicians, however,... by the end of 1940, had already processed 280 kilograms into metal, over a quarter of a ton [6].

These observations require some additional commentary.

First, it is to be noted that Nazi Germany, by the best available evidence, was missing approximately two thousand tons of unrefined uranium ore by the war's end. Where did this ore go?

Second, it is clear that Nazi Germany was enriching uranium on a massive scale, having refined 600 tons to oxide form for potential metalicization as early as 1940. This would require a large and dedicated effort, with thousands of technicians, and a commensurately large facility or facilties to accomplish the enrichment. The figures, in other words, tend to corroborate the hypothesis outlined in the previous chapter that the I.G. Farben "Buna" factory at Auschwitz was not a Buna factory at all, but a huge uranium enrichment facility. However, the date would imply

6. Hydrick, op. cit., p. 23, emphasis added.


another such facility, located elsewhere, since the Auschwitz facility did not really begin production until sometime in 1942.

Finally, it also seems clear that the Germans possessed an enormous stock of metallic uranium. But what was the isotope? Was it U-238 for further enrichment and separation into U-235, was it intended perhaps as feedstock for a reactor to be transmuted into plutonium, or was it already U-235, the necessary material for a uranium atom bomb? Given the statements of the Japanese military attaché' in Stockholm cited at the end of the previous chapter - that the Germans may have used an atomic or some other weapon of mass destruction on the Eastern Front ca. 1942-43, and given Zinsser's affidavit cited in the first chapter of an atom bomb test in October of 1944, it cannot be conclusively denied that some of this enormous stockpile may also have been U-235, the essential component for a bomb.

In any case, these figures strongly suggest that the Germans, ca. 1940-1942 were significantly ahead of the Allies in one very important aspect of atom bomb production: the enrichment of uranium, and therefore, this suggests also that they were demonstrably ahead in the race for an actual functioning atom bomb during this period. But the figures also raise another disturbing question: where did this uranium go?

One answer lies in the mysterious case of a U-boat, the U-234, captured by the Americans in 1945.


The case of the U-234 is well-known in literature about the Nazi atom bomb, and of course the Allied Legend is that none of the material on board the U-boat found its way into the American atom bomb project.

None of this could be further from the truth.

The U-234 was a very large mine-laying U-boat that had been adapted as an undersea freighter to carry large cargoes. Consider then the following "cargo manifest" of the U-234's very odd cargo:



"We still have things that need to be finished, and when they are finished, they will turn the tide"

--Adolf Hitler, March 13, 1945, addressing officers of the German Ninth Army.

A. An Unusual Exchange at Nuremberg

At the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunals after the war, an amazing exchange occurred between former architect cum Nazi minister of armaments, Albert Speer, and Mr. Jackson, the chief American prosecutor.

JACKSON: Now, I have certain information, which was placed in my hands, of an experiment which was carried out near Auschwitz and I would like to ask you if you heard about it or knew about it.

The purpose of the experiment was to find a quick and complete way of destroying people without the delay and trouble of shooting and gassing and burning, as it had been carried out, and this is the experiment, as I am advised.

A village, a small village was provisionally erected, with temporary structures, and in it approximately 20,000 Jews were put. By means of this newly invented weapon of destruction, these 20,000 people were eradicated almost instantaneously, and in such a way that there was no trace left of them; that is developed, the explosive developed, temperatures of from 400 degrees to 500 degrees centigrade and destroyed them without leaving any trace at all.

Do you know about that experiment?

SPEER: No, and I consider it utterly improbable. If we had had such a weapon under preparation, I should have known about it. But we did not have such a weapon. It is clear that in chemical warfare attempts were made on both sides to carry out research on all the weapons one


could think of, because one did not know which party would start chemical warfare first...[1]

This exchange is remarkable in several respects, not the least of which is that its "explosive contents" are almost entirely overlooked in standard histories of the war and its aftermath.

Previous chapters have presented evidence that there was a large, and very secret, uranium enrichment program inside Nazi Germany, beginning sometime ca. late 1940 or early 1941, and continuing, apparently unabated - as the surrender of the U-234

would imply - right up to the end of the war. Zinsser's affidavit goes further, and alleges an actual atom bomb test, complete with descriptions of all the signatures of an atom bomb: mushroom cloud, electromagnetic pulse effects, and continued combustion of nuclear materials in the cloud. The Japanese military attache in Stockholm further corroborated the story with undeniably fantastic allegations of the German use of some type of weapon of mass destruction [WMD) on the Eastern Front ca. 1942 (the siege of Sevastopol in the Crimea), to 1943, just days prior to the massive German offensive at Kursk.

Now, at Nuremberg, we have a third corroboration of the use of some type of weapon of awesome explosive power in the east by the Germans, this time from no less an individual than the chief American prosecutor at the Tribunal. And in his case, it is apparent that he is relating information gathered by intelligence. It is worth pausing to consider the implications of the exchange between Jackson and former armaments Reichminister Speer.

We shall begin with Speer. Albert Speer was successor to Dr. Fritz Todt as minister of armaments and production for the entire Third Reich. Speer's accomplishments are not to be gainsaid, it was largely owing to his efforts to organize the huge Nazi industrial capacity and streamline its efficiency that the wartime production of Germany increased dramatically under his oversight. In fact, in all

1. Cited in Harald Fath, Geheime Kommandosache-S III Jonastal und die Siegeswaffenproduktion: Weitere Spurensuche nach Thuringens Manhattan Project (Schleusingen: Amun Verlag, 1999), pp. 82-83. Original text cited in English.


pertinent areas of German industrial war production, Speer managed to achieve peak production levels in all categories during the same precise period that Allied strategic bombing also was at its height.

His methods in achieving this feat were simple but effective: German industry was decentralized and dispersed into smaller plants, and, to the extent possible, moved into underground bomb-proof factories. "Modular" construction techniques were employed wherever possible. For example, German U-boats were produced in modular fashion, in sections, far inland in such factories, and transported to ports for final assembly. The deadly Type XXI U-boats with their exotic and revolutionary underwater propulsion systems - allowing an underwater cruising speed in excess of 21 knots, an unheard of speed for that time - were produced in this fashion at the end of the war.

But notably absent from Speer's comments is any indication that he was even aware of the huge extent of the German atom-bomb project and its enormous uranium enrichment program. Lofty as his position in the Nazi hierarchy was, it would appear that Speer was entirely in the dark on the programs and totally oblivious to any progress that had been made. The reason for Speer's ignorance will be addressed in due course (and by Speer himself!), but suffice it to say, the German government, like its American counterpart, had rigidly "compartmentalized" its atom bomb production program and placed it under the tightest security. But clearly, by the time of the exchange between Jackson and him, Speer and the whole world had heard of the atom bomb. So Speer appears to obfuscate his answer somewhat by redirecting the topic to chemical warfare.

The question of a revolutionary chemical explosive is not, however, as far-fetched as it might at first seem, for Jackson's comments suggest it by referring to temperatures of 400 to 500 degrees centigrade, far below the enormous temperatures produced by an atomic explosion. Was Speer obfuscating his answer, or was Jackson his question?

The prosecutor's statements and question also corroborate in loose fashion another component of our developing story, for he


clearly alludes to the use of some type of weapon of mass destruction, possessed of enormous explosive power, in the east, and significantly, at or near Auschwitz, site of the I.G. Farben "Buna factory." It is to be noted that the Nazis had apparently gone so Far as to build an entire mock town and placed concentration camp inmates in it, an obvious though barbaric move to study the effects of the weapon on structures and people. His statements, along with those of the Japanese military attaché' in Stockholm cited in the previous chapter, afford a serious clue - and one often overlooked even by researchers into this "alternative history" of the war - into the nature of the Nazi's secret weapons development and use, for it would appear that insofar as the third Reich possessed weapons of mass destruction of extraordinary power, atomic or otherwise, they were tested and used against enemies consider by the Nazi ideology to be racially inferior, and that means, in effect, they were used on the Eastern Front theater of the Reich's military operations.

Thus we are also afforded a speculative answer to the all-important question: If the Germans had the bomb, why didn't they use it? And the answer is, if they had it, they were far more likely to use it on Russia than on the Western allies, since the war in the East was conceived and intended by Hitler to be a genocidal war from the outset. And it certainly was that: fully one half of the approximately fifty million fatalities of World War Two were inflicted by the efficient Nazi war machine on Soviet Russia.

The use of such weapons on the Eastern Front by the Germans would also tentatively explain why more is not known about it, for it is highly unlikely that Stalin's Russia would have publicly acknowledged the fact. To do so would have been a propaganda disaster for Stalin's government. Faced with an enemy of superior tactical and operational competence in conventional arms, the Red Army often had to resort to threats of execution against its own Soldiers just to maintain order and discipline in its ranks and prevent mass desertion. Acknowledgment of the existence and use of such weapons by the mortal enemy of Communist Russia could conceivably have ruined Russian morale and cost Stalin the war, and perhaps even toppled his government. As we proceed further


into our investigation of German secret weaponry, its connection to Nazi ideology, and its use on the eastern front, we will encounter more and more examples of the strange story or event.

For now, however, we note the strangely ambiguous quality of Mr. Jackson's remarks. "Now I have," he begins, "certain" information, which was placed in my hands, of an experiment which was carried out near Auschwitz..." By the time Mr. Jackson uttered these remarks, Hans Zinsser's statements were almost a year old, raising the possibility that Zinsser's affidavit may itself have been the "certain information" alluded to by Jackson, who may have intentionally altered its correct location. In this regard, it is significant that Zinsser expressed mystification that the test took place so close to a populated area. If Jackson deliberately altered the location of the test, he did not alter the nature of its victims. But another possibility is that the event took place where he says it did, "near" Auschwitz.

B. A Marshal, Mussolini, and the First Alleged Test Site at Rugen Island

The question of the location of a possible German atom bomb test comes from five very unlikely sources: an Italian officer, a Russian marshal's translator, and Benito Mussolini himself, an American heavy cruiser, and an island off the coast of northern Germany in the Baltic Sea.

Before he and his mistress Clara Petacci were murdered by Communist partisans, and then later hung from meat hooks in Milan to be pelted with rocks from an angry mob. Benito Mussolini, by the end of the war reduced to a mere puppet of Hitler and governing a "Fascist republic" in German-controlled northern Italy, spoke often of the German "wonder weapons":

The wonder weapons are the hope. It is laughable and senseless for us to threaten at this moment, without a basis in reality for these threats.

The well-known mass destruction bombs are nearly ready. In only a few days, with the utmost meticulous intelligence, Hitler will probably execute this fearful blow, because he will have full


confidence.... It appear, that there are three bombs-and each has an astonishing operation. The construction of each unit is fearfully complex and of a lengthy time of completion.[2]

It would be easy to dismiss Mussolini's statements as more delusional and insane ravings of a fascist dictator facing defeat, clinging desperately to forlorn hopes and tattered dreams. It would be easy, were it but for the weird corroboration supplied by one Piotr Ivanovitch Titarenko, a former military translator on the staff of Marshal Rodion Malinovsky, who handled the Japanese capitulation to Russia at the end of the war. As reported in the German magazine Der Spiegel in 1992, Titarenko wrote a letter to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In it, he reported that there were actually three bombs dropped on Japan, one of which, dropped on Nagasaki prior to its actual bombing, did not explode. This bomb was handed over by Japan to the Soviet Union.[3]

Mussolini and a Soviet marshal's military translator are not the only ones corroborating the strange number of "three bombs", for yet a fourth bomb may actually have been in play at one point, being transported to the Far East on board the U.S. heavy cruiser Indianapolis (CA-35), when the latter sank in 1945.[4]

These strange testimonies call into question once again the Allied Legend, for as has been seen, the Manhattan Project in late 1944 and early 1945 faced critical shortages of weapons grade uranium, and had yet to solve the fusing problem for the plutonium bomb. So the question is, if these reports are true, where did the extra bomb(s) come from? That three, and possibly four, bombs were ready for use on Japan so quickly would seem to stretch

2. Benito Mussolini, "Political Testament, " April 22, 1945, cited in Edgar Meyer and Thomas Mehner, Hitler und die, Bombe": Welchen Stand erreichte die deutsche Atomforschung und Geheimwaffenentwicklung wirklich? (Rottenburg: Kopp Verlag, 2002), p. 87, my translation from the German.

3. Edgar Meyer and Thomas Mehner, Das Geheimnis der deutschen Atombombe: Gewann Hitlers Wissenschaftler den nuklearen Wettlauf doch? Die Geheimprojekte bei Innsbruck, im Raum Jonastal bei Arnstadt und in Prag. (Rottenburg: Kopp Verlag, 2001), p. 146.

4. Fath, op. cit., p. 81


credulity, unless these bombs were war booty, brought from Europe.

But the strangest evidence of all comes from the German island of Rugen, and the testimony of Italian officer Luigi Romersa, an eyewitness to the test of a German atom bomb on the island on the night of 11-12 October, 1944, approximately the same time frame as indicated in Zinsser's affidavit, and it is also the same approximate area as Zinsser indicated.

In this context it is also extremely curious that this time frame in 1944 was, for the Allies, a banner year for atomic bomb scares. On Saturday, August 11, 1945, an article in the London Daily Telegraph reported British preparations for German atom bomb attack on London the previous year.


Britain prepared for the possibility of an atomic attack on this country by Germany in August, 1944.

It can now be disclosed that details of the expected effect of such a bomb were revealed in a highly secret memorandum which was sent that summer to the chiefs of Scotland Yard, chief constables of provincial forces and senior officials of the defense services.

An elaborate scheme was drawn up by the Ministry of Home Security for prompt and adequate measures to cope with the widespread devastation and heavy casualties if the Germans succeeded in launching atomic bombs on this country.

Reports received from our agents on the Continent early last year indicated that German scientists were experimenting with an atomic bomb in Norway. According to these reports the bomb was launched by catapult, and had an explosive radius of more than two miles.

In view of our own progress in devising an 'atomic' bomb the Government gave the reports serious consideration. Thousands of men and women of the police and defense services were held in readiness for several months until reliable agents in Germany reported that the bomb had been tested and proved a failure.[5]

5. "Nazis Atom Bomb Plans," London Daily Telegraph, Saturday, August 11, 1945, cited in Edgar Meyer and Thomas Mehner, Hitler und die, Bombe", p. 37.


The August 1945 London Daily Telegraph Article about a 1944 German Atom Bomb Scare in Britain


This article, coming as it does a mere two days after the bombing of Nagasaki, and almost a year since the actual alert in Britain was called, deserves careful scrutiny.

First, and most obviously, the alert in Britain was apparently conducted entirely in secret, as law enforcement, defense, and medical personnel were placed on high alert. The reason for security is obvious, since to have signaled a public alert would have notified the Germans that there were Allied spies close enough to the German bomb program to know about its tests.

Second, the site of the alleged test - Norway - is unusual in that the timing of the test would place it a full two years after the British commando raid on the Norsk heavy water plant at Ryukon. This might indicate two things:

(1) It might indicate that Hitler's interest in maintaining troops in Norway had more to do with the German atom bomb project than anything else, since, if the report was accurate to begin with, it would indicate a large scale German atom bomb effort was underway there;

(2) Conversely, the report may have been deliberately inaccurate, i.e., there may really have been a test, but one that took place somewhere else.

Third, the presumed "alert" continued from August 1944 "for several months," that is, the alert could conceivably have stretched into October, i.e., into the time frame of the test mentioned in Zinsser's affidavit. Thus, the news account indicates something else: Allied intelligence was aware, and genuinely fearful, of German atom bomb testing.

Fourth, the article mentions that the test concerned a bomb launched from a "catapult". The V-1 "buzz bomb", the first generation of the cruise missile, was launched from large steam-driven catapults. Putting two and two together, then, the "Norway" test may have been a test of an atom bomb delivery system based on the V-1, or of an atom bomb itself, or possibly both an atom bomb and its delivery system.


With these thoughts in mind, we come to the final point. The alert was canceled when the test was proven a failure. The question is, what failed? Was it the bomb itself? The delivery system? Or both? An answer lies, perhaps, in another curious news article that appeared in the British press almost a year earlier, on Wednesday, October 11, 1944, in the London Daily Mail:



Berlin is still cut off from the rest of Europe to-night. The 60- hours silence began on Sunday morning - and still there is no explanation for the hold-up, which has now lasted longer than on any previous occasion.

The Swedish Foreign Office is unable to ring up its Berlin Legation.

Unconfirmed reports suggest that the major crisis between the Wehrmacht and the Nazi Party has come to a head and that "tremendous events may be expected."

To-day's plane from Berlin to Stockholm arrived four hours late. It carried only Germans, two of whom appeared to be high officials. They looked drawn and pale, and when Swedish reporters approached them they angrily thrust their way out of the Swedish Aero-Transport offices, muttering: "Nothing we can say."

German papers arriving here on to-day's plane seem extraordinarily subdued, with very small headlines.

It is pointed out, however, in responsible quarters that if the stoppage were purely the technical result of bomb damage, as the Germans claimed, it should have been repaired by now.[6]

Walter Farr, "Berlin is 'Silent' 60 Hours: Still No Phones," London Daily Mail, Wednesday, October 11, 1944, cited in Meyer and Mehner, Hitler und die, Bombe" p. 81, emphasis added.


The October 1944 Daily Mail Article about Berlin Telephone Service Disruption


Of course we now know what was not known in October of 1944: when an atomic or thermonuclear bomb is detonated, the extreme electromagnetic pulse knocks out or interferes with electrical equipment for miles from the detonation site, depending on the size of the blast, the proximity of such equipment to it, and the degree of "shielding" such equipment has. For the normal, non-military phone lines in Berlin, the strange disruption of phone service is explainable precisely as the result of such an electromagnetic pulse. But this would imply that such a pulse, if the result of an atom bomb test, be considerably closer to Berlin than Norway. Presumably if telephone service in Berlin was affected by an atom bomb test in Norway, similar disruptions would have occurred in large cities that were much closer to the test, such as Oslo, Copenhagen, or Stockholm. Yet, not such disruptions are mentioned; only Berlin appears to have been affected.[7]

Thus, if the atom bomb test mentioned in the 1945 London Daily Telegraph article occurred, then one must look for a site considerably closer to Berlin than Norway. The Daily Mail phone service disruption article stands as clear corroboration of the probable test of a German atom bomb sometime in October of 1944, the same time frame as Zinsser's affidavit, and within the time frame mentioned in the Daily Telegraph article about a secret alert in Britain from August of 1944, and continuing for "several months."

But the Daily Mail's phone service disruption article does more: it suggests why the Germans may have considered the test a failure. At that time the effects of nuclear explosions -electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and disruption of electrical equipment, radioactivity and fallout - were still largely unknown and not well understood. The Berlin telephone service was one of the finest, if not the finest, in the world at the time.[8] The Nazis may very well

7. There is another possibly, though extremely unlikely explanation, for the lack of reports in other cities. Very simply, it may reflect a lack of intelligence from those areas.

8. Up to the very end of the war, for example, the cable lines between Berlin and Tokyo remained open, allowing the Japanese to send condolences to the Nazi government even as Russian tanks were rolling over the streets of the city.


have been shocked at this curious result of their alleged test of an atomic "wonder weapon", and therefore considered it a "failure" until more tests could be done and the phenomenon of electro-magnetic pulse more fully understood. After all, it would do no good, so to speak, to deploy the "ultimate weapon" only to be unable to receive the telephone call of surrender after having used it! And to the totalitarian and paranoid Nazi state, a disruption of communications from its capital city to its provinces, armed forces, and occupied territories was literally an unthinkable nightmare, being the perfect opportunity for a coup d'etat.

Finally, to round out the newspaper scavenger hunt, a curious series of articles from the London Times between May 15 and May 25, 1945, covered a story about German troops on the Danish Baltic Sea island of Bornholm that refused to surrender to attacking Russian forces.[9] Bornholm was within one hundred miles of the German rocket site at Peenemunde, and quite close to an alleged atom bomb test site on the small island of Rugen on the Baltic coast close to the port city of Kiel.

It is here on this island that Italian officer Luigi Romersa was the guest and eyewitness to a German "wonder weapon" test on the night of October 11-12, 1944. After journeying by a night drive for two hours in the rain from Berlin, Romersa reached the island by motorboat. According to his statements to German atom bomb researchers Edgar Meyer and Thomas Mehner, the island was guarded by a special elite unit, which we can only presume was an SS unit, and that admission to the island was only granted by special passes issued directly by the OberKommano Der

Most communications lines in Berlin were laid underground by the Deutsche Reichspost before the war for the express purpose of mitigating phone service disruption during bombing attacks. If the phone service disruption was therefore a result of EMP from a nuclear detonation, then the size of the detonation would have to have been rather large to cause this lengthy disruption of the entire city's telephone service for that length of time, shielded as the lines were by being underground. The other alternative, a second coup attempt, may be a possible explanation, but there is no mention of such an attempt in any literature.

9. Meyer and Mehner, Das Geheimnis der deutschen Atombombe, p. 51.


Wehrmacht (OKW).[10] At this point, it is best to cite Romersa's own words:

There were four of us: my two attendants, a man with worker's clothes, and I. "We will see a test of the disintegration bomb.[11] It is the most powerful explosive that has yet been developed. Nothing can withstand it," said one of them. He hardly breathed. He glanced at his watch and waited until noon, the hour for the experiment. Our observation post was a kilometer from the point of the explosion. "We must wait here," the man with the worker's clothes ordered, "until this evening. When it is dark we may leave. The bomb gives off deathly rays, of utmost toxicity. its effective area is much larger than the most powerful conventional bomb. Around 1.5 kilometers...."

Around 4:00 PM, in the twilight, shadows appeared, running toward our bunker. They were soldiers, and they had on a strange type of "diving suit". They entered and quickly shut the door. "Everything is kaput," one of them said, as he removed his protective clothing. We also eventually had to put on white, coarse, fibrous cloaks. I cannot say what material this cloak was made of, but I had the impression that it could have been asbestos, the headgear had a piece of mica-glass [12] in front of the eyes.

Having donned this clothing, the observation party then left the bunker and made its way to ground zero:

The houses that I had seen only an hour earlier had disappeared, broken into little pebbles of debris, as we drew nearer ground zero,[13] the more fearsome was the devastation. The grass had the same color as leather, the few trees that still stood upright had no more leaves.[14]

There are peculiarities of Romersa's account that one must mention, if this were the test of nuclear bomb. First, some of the blast damage described is typical for a nuclear weapon: sheering of trees, obliteration of structures, and so on. The protective clothing

10. Meyer and Mehner, Hitler und die, Bombe", p. 64.
11. "Auflosungsbombe".
12. "Glimmerglas".
13. "Explosionspunkt".
14. Luigi Romersa, private telephone interview with Edgar Meyer and Thomas Mehner, Hitler und die, Bombe", pp. 62-66, my translation from the German.


worn by the German technicians as well as the polarized glasses also are typical. And the test does appear to have involved use in a "populated area" with houses and so on, in similar fashion to prosecutor Jackson's exchange with Speer, and Zinsser's own comments in his affidavit. However, Romersa, apparently a careful observer, fails to make any mention of a fusion of soil into silicate glassy material that also normally accompanies a nuclear blast close to the ground.

But whatever was tested at Rugen, it does have enough of the signatures of an atom bomb to suggest that this is, in fact, what it was. Most importantly it is to be noted that it coincides with the time frame of Zinsser's affidavit and the phone service outage in Berlin, and the timing of the British alert.[15] Finally, it is perhaps quite significant that during this same time frame, Adolf Hitler finally signed an order for the development of the atom bomb. In context, this can only mean that he has given approval to develop more of a weapon already tested.[16]

C. The Three Corners (Dreiecken) and the Alleged Test at the Troop Parade Ground at Ohrdruf

A more controversial allegation, however, concerns the alleged test of a high yield atom bomb by the SS at the troop parade ground and barracks at Orhdruf, in south central Thuringia in March of 1945. As we shall see, this date too is significant. Shortly after the German reunification in 1989, old rumors of an atom bomb test conducted by the SS late in the war in south central Germany, in what was formerly East Germany, again surfaced. The test is alleged to have taken place on March 4, 1945. [17] However, as

15. One significant difference that does emerge is that Zinsser's affidavit places the test close to the hours of twilight, whereas Romersa has it taking place in full daylight. The latter would make sense, from a security point of view, since daylight would tend to mask the visibility of the blast more effectively from prying eyes in the distance.

16. Rose, op. cit., notes that Hitler actually gave a formal order in October of 1944 for the immediate development of the atom bomb.

17. Meyer and Mehner, Hitler und die, Bombe " , p. 226.


we shall soon see, there is an additional problem associated with the allegation of this test near the Three Corners. The Three Corners part of the story begins with a component of the Allied Legend. According to former Last German sources, one plausible reason for the swift advance of us General Patton's divisions on this region of Thuringia was that the last Fuhrer Headquarters (Fuhrerhauptquartier), a facility code-named "Jasmine" by the Germans, was located in the vast underground facilities at Jonastal.[18]" There exists an American document, under point number four, that informs us that the last (Fuhrer Headquarters) was not at the Obersalzburg, but in the region of Ohrdruf," [19] that is, in the region of the Three Corners. Thus, the Legend is elaborated: Patton's drive was to cut off the escape route of fleeing Nazis and seize Hitler's last secret underground headquarters, and, presumably, the Grand Prize himself. This entire facility was part of a vast complex of underground sites under the command structure of the SS, and named "S-III" - a designation not without its own suggestive possibilities as we shall discover in subsequent parts of this work - and the Fuhrer Headquarters was but one component of this complex.[20]

The problem with the view that this complex was simply a headquarters complex is that SS Obergruppenfuhrer Hans Kammler - a man with whom we shall have much to do later in this work - was directly involved in the construction of all facilities in the region since 1942, thus making it unlikely that they were constructed merely for Hitler's last headquarters, since Kammler was directly involved with the most sensitive areas of the Reich's secret weapons research and development. It is therefore more likely that they were a part of Kammler's vast SS Secret weapons black projects empire.[21]

There is no mention of any of these facilities in surviving German archives, or, seemingly, any where else for that matter, and yet, they are definitely there for all to see.[22]

18. Meyer and Mehner, Das Geheimnis der deutschen Atombombe, p. 209.
19. Meyer and Mehner, Das Geheimnis, p. 207.
20. Ibid., p. 213., "Report of Mr. Oskar Muhlheim, Bad Durenberg."
21. Ibid., p. 239.
22. Ibid., p. 240.


So what were these facilities researching? Almost nothing was known about them until witnesses and relatives of witnesses began to talk after German reunification. One such man was Adolf Bernd Freier who, before his death in Argentina, wrote German researchers Edgar Meyer and Thomas Mehner a letter detailing his knowledge of the facilities gained while he was on the construction staff. There were, Freier alleged, facilities dedicated to special circular aircraft(!), to the "Amerika Raket", the intercontinental ballistic missile capable of reaching the United States, and research facilities of atomic experiments under the direction of Dr. Kurt Diebner, and a complete underground factory for the production of heavy water![23]

But most importantly, Freier alleges that the "atomic weapon" was ready on July 2, 1944! [24] What type of atomic weapon is meant here? A "dirty" radiological bomb, designed to spray a vast area with deadly radioactive material but far short of an actual nuclear fission bomb? Or an actual atom bomb itself? Freier's choice of words is not clear. But one thing does stand out, and that is the date of July 2, 1944, the same month as the attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler in the - very aptly named - "Bomb Plot" approximately two weeks later. The consequence of a successful German development of even a radiological bomb might thus be one of the primary motivations for the anti-Hitler conspirators to attempt to remove the Fuhrer when they did, and might explain their hidden logic in assuming that the Allies would negotiate with an anti-Nazi (or at least un-Nazi) provisional German government in spite of the Allies' own demands for an unconditional surrender, for the possession of such a weapon would have given the conspirators considerable negotiation leverage. And if the conspirators knew of the existence of the weapon, and of Hitler's plans to deploy it in actual use, it may have been the final moral compulsion for them to act.

23. Meyer and Mehner, das Geheimnis., p. 242.

24. Ibid., p. 245. According to Freier's allegations, the bomb was ready on July 2, 1944, but not its delivery system, meaning presumably the "Amerikaraket" (p. 249).


In any case, the most problematical aspect of the alleged test of an atom bomb by the Nazis in the Ohrdruf-Three Corners region of Thuringia comes from a rather specific, and rather startling, assertion. According to Freier, the test took place on March 4, 1945 at the old troop parade ground at Orhdruf. There, a small scaffold about 6 meters high had been erected, a the top of which a small "atomic weapon"[25] was placed. The weapon, according to Freier, was "100 g", a mere one hundred grams! This is one of the most significant, and highly problematical, allegations regarding the real nature of the Nazi atom bomb project, made by someone supposedly involved in it, for as will be immediately obvious, 100 grams is far short of the 50 or so kilograms of critical mass reportedly needed for a uranium-based atom bomb, as has been seen, and it is still well below the amount needed for the critical mass for a typical plutonium bomb.

Yet, Freier is insistent upon this point, and moreover alleges that all the "slaves", the luckless concentration camp victims that were forced to take part in the test, within a circle of 500-600 meters from ground zero were killed.[26] This would give an area of approximately 1 to 1.2 kilometers of blast damage, roughly the effect of a modern tactical nuclear bomb. Such a blast radius would require an enormous amount of the then available conventional explosives, and that amount would far exceed the mere 100 grams Freier alleges for the device. These points indicates that the "A- Waffe" or "atomic weapon" was in fact a fully fledged atom bomb. So how does one explain the extraordinarily small critical mass, especially since the Manhattan Project was aiming for a uranium critical mass of around 50 kilograms?

This question deserve serious consideration, for it affords yet another possible clue - if the allegation is to be credited with accuracy - into the real nature of the Nazi atom bomb project. We have seen already that the project was developed under several different and discreet groups for reasons partly due to security, and for reasons partly due to the practical nature of the German

25. "A -Waffe", the wording again is not "Atombombe" but only A-waffe, or "A-weapon".

26. Meyer and Mehner, Das Geheimnis, p. 245.


program. For security reason, I believe the "Heisenberg" group and the high-profile names associated with it were deliberately used by the Nazis as the "front" group for public, namely Allied, consumption. The SS security and intelligence apparatus would have undoubtedly concluded, correctly, that these high profile scientists would be high priority targets for Allied intelligence for kidnapping and assassination. Accordingly, it is highly unlikely that the Nazis would have concentrated any genuine atomic bomb secrets or development exclusively in the hands of this group. The very existence of the Allied Legend for so many years after the war is direct testimony to the success of this plan. The real atom bomb development occurred far from the prying eyes of Allied intelligence, under the auspices of the Reichspost and more importantly, under the direct auspices of the SS.

The second facet of the German atom bomb program we have likewise previously encountered: its emphasis on what was practically achievable during the war. Hence, while the Germans knew of the possibilities of plutonium and a plutonium-based atom bomb, and therefore knew that a functioning reactor used to produce plutonium for bombs would thereby enable Germany to develop more bombs for the same investment of fissile material, they also knew that a major technical hurdle lay across the path: the development of a successful reactor in the first place. Thus, as has been previously argued, they opted to develop a uranium-based bomb only, since uranium could be enriched to weapons grade purity without the necessity of the development of a reactor, and since they already possessed the necessary technologies to do so, if employed en masse. Like its American Manhattan Project counterpart, the SS-run program relied on massive numbers of enrichment units to separate and purify isotope.

Now let us extend this line of reasoning further. Germany was also seeking to be able to deploy such bombs as warheads on its rockets. And that meant, given their limited lift capabilities, that the weight of the warheads had somehow to be reduced by several orders of magnitude for the rockets to be able to carry them. And there is an economic factor. Knowing that their industrial capacity would be stained by the effort, even with the help of tens of


thousands of slave laborers from the camp-, another problem may have presented itself to the Germans, a problem illuminated for them by their own knowledge of the possibilities offered by plutonium-based bombs: How does one get more-bang-for-the-Reichsmark without the use of plutonium? Is there a way to rely on less uranium in a critical mass assembly than is conventionally thought?

And so we return to Freier's statement of a remarkably small 100 g atom bomb test at Ohrdruf on March 4, 1945. There does exist a method by which much smaller critical masses of fissile material can be used to make a bomb: boosted fission. Essentially, boosted fission simply relies on the introduction of some neutron- producing material - polonium, or heavy hydrogen: deuterium, or even tritium - to release more neutrons into the chain reaction than is actually released by the fissile critical mass assembly by itself. This raises the amount of free neutrons initiating chain reactions in the critical mass, and therefore allows two very important things:

(1) It allows slightly lower purity of fissile material - materially not considered of sufficient purity to be weapons grade without boosted fission - to be used for an actual atom bomb; and,

(2) it requires less actual fissile material for the critical mass assembly to make a bomb.

Thus, "boosted fission" would have afforded the German bomb program a practical way to increase the number of bombs available to them, and a reliable method for achieving an uncontrolled nuclear fission reaction with lower purity of enriched material.[27] it is perhaps quite significant, then, that Freier's testimony concerning the Three Corners underground weapons factories also mentions the existence of an underground heavy water plant in the facilities, for heavy water, of course, contains atoms of deuterium and tritium (heavy hydrogen atoms with one and two extra neutrons in the nucleus respectively).

27. Q.v. Meyer and Mehner, Hitler, pp. 121-123.


In any case, the test of a small critical mass, boosted fission device of high yield at Ohrdruf on March 4, 1945, is at least consistent with the parameters of the German bomb program and its practical needs. But there are interesting, and intriguingly suggestive, corroborations of the test. According to Freier, Hitler himself was indeed in the Three Corners headquarters for a brief period at the end of march 1945.[28] It is known that Hitler did personally visit and address the officers of the German Ninth Army, operating in that precise area, in March of 1945., and stated to them that there were still things that needed to be "finished", an interesting comment if seen in the light of Freier's allegations that it was not the bomb that Germany needed, but the delivery systems. It does make sense that if there were such a test, that Hitler would have been present as an observer to witness the final success of German science in delivering to him the "ultimate weapon".

But perhaps the most persuasive bit of evidence that there is far more about the end of World War Two than we have been told can be found in two exceedingly odd facts that emerge from the Three Corners region of Thuringia in south central Germany. In a statement made on March 20, 1968, former German General Erich Andress was in the Three Corners region at the end of the war, when suddenly, more American military personnel (who were already occupying the area), arrived with jeeps and heavy transports, and immediately ordered all the buildings and houses in the area to have their windows totally blacked out, leaving one to conclude that the Americans were removing something from the area of great value to them, something they wished no one to see. The second odd fact is even more curious, for it is a fact that, of all the areas in modern Germany, the region of Thuringia, precisely in the area of Jonastal and Ohrdruf, is the region of Germany with the highest concentration of background gamma radiation.[29]

So, what is really signified by the unique exchange of remarks between former Reich Minister of Armaments Albert Speer, and Chief American Prosecutor Jackson at Nuremberg? That Jackson is privy to information similar in nature to reports only recently

28. Meyer and Mehner, Das Geheimnis, p. 228.
29. Meyer and Mehner, Das Geheimnis, p. 251.


de-classified is clear from his question. That this information concerns the real nature of German atom bomb research and its-what appear to be astounding achievements completely at variance with the post-war Allied Legend - would also seem to be indicated. And that Albert Speer seems either unwilling to talk about them candidly, or is simply entirely ignorant of them, also seems indisputable. Thus Jackson's question would seem to imply a test of the extent of Speer's knowledge of the program and his complicity in the two tests at Rugen and Ohrdruf. If the Minister if Armaments for the entire Third Reich knew nothing of it, then indeed, we are dealing with a Black Reich within the Black Reich, a beast in the belly of the beast, of which even high-ranking Nazis such as Speer knew very little, if anything. The great secret of World War Two, one which the victorious Allies and Russians wish to keep secret to this day, was that Nazi Germany was indisputably first to reach the atom bomb, and was indisputably for a very brief period before the end of the war, the world's very first nuclear power. But why is the Allied and Russian secrecy continued even to the present day? The answer to that disturbing question will be addressed more completely in the subsequent parts of this book, for the answer, disturbing as it is, concerns far more than mere nuclear weapons. But why didn't the Nazis use their bombs if they had them? The answer to that question has already been partly addressed in this chapter: if they used any weapons of mass destruction, nuclear or Otherwise, they would have been far more likely to have used them in a fashion consistent with their racist and genocidal ideology, as well as against the enemy that was their largest military threat: on the Eastern Front, against the Soviet Union, where a paranoid Stalinist regime would have been loathe to admit to the world or to its own war-savaged people that they faced an enemy with overwhelming technological superiority.

Such an admission would likely have so demoralized the Russians, already forced to spend rivers of their own blood in every engagement with the Wehrmacht, that Stalin's regime itself may not have survived such an admission. But why not use them against the Western Allies in the last stages of the war, as the military situation grew increasingly


desperate? There is every indication that the Nazi leadership contemplated just such an operation....



"Gerlach goes on to explain that the Nazi party seemed to think that they were working on a bomb and relates how the Party people in Munich were going around from house to house on the 27th or 28th of April last telling everyone that the atomic bomb would be used the following day."

--Jeremy Bernstein, Hitler's Uranium Club: The Secret Recordings at Farm Hall [1]

The United States was in a unique position among all the powers nvolved in World War Two. For the last time in its history, it was able to undertake military operations on a global scale relatively free of the fear of enemy reprisal. Its cities and factories were beyond the reach of any known enemy bomber. Moreover, much of its industrial capacity was located in its interior, far from the northeastern Atlantic States or the Pacific coast. According to conventional wisdom that has been reiterated countless times in numerous standard histories of the war, there was absolutely nothing the United States had to fear from Nazi Germany with its "tactical mission-oriented Luftwaffe" or its puny navy. To this day, many Americans, even ones relatively familiar with the operational details of Word War Two, believe that Germany had no aircraft even capable of reaching the United States and returning to Europe, much less of carrying a heavy enough payload, or being available in sufficient numbers, to be of any military significance.

All that changes, however, if Germany had the atomic bomb and if she possessed aircraft capable of delivering one and of returning successfully to Europe. In that case, only one bomber need be used to strike a significant military and psychological blow against the United States. Was such an operation feasible? Did Germany have such aircraft at least capable of being modified to

1. Jeremy Bernstein, Hitler's Uranium Club: The Secret Records at Farm Hall (Copernicus, 2001), p. 126.


carry an atom bomb? Are there indications that such studies and operations were contemplated by the Nazis?

A. The Oberkommando der Luftwaffe's Unusual Map

In 1943 the Supreme Command of the Luftwaffe (Oberkommando der Luftwaffe) conducted a highly unusual study. The study consisted of a map, a map of lower Manhattan Island. On the map are concentric circles detailing the blast and heat damage- radii of an atomic bomb detonation over New York City. But the most unusual aspect of this "study" is that it shows the detonation of an atom bomb in the 15-17 kiloton range, approximately the same yield as the Little Boy uranium bomb dropped on Hiroshima, an odd "coincidence" in the series of "odd coincidences" we have-already encountered.

The Luftwaffe's intentions are quite obvious and clear. The destruction of the financial and business center of New York City would alone have been an unparalleled military and psychological blow against the American war effort. Beyond this, given the fact that New York City was an important point of embarkation for American shipping and troops, as well as a naval base, and a transportation hub for the entire American northeast, such a blow would have been incalculable.

For the Nazi leadership, such a blow would have made military and political sense. It would have demonstrated conclusively to the United States that Germany was capable of mounting significant military operations against the American mainland, and at levels of destructive capability that were militarily, economically, and psychologically devastating. From their point of view, such a blow would arguably been seen as weakening American resolve and perhaps, after a succession of similar such blows against prominent targets such as Boston, Philadelphia, Washington DC or Norfolk, would conceivably have led to America's exit from the war, leaving Britain to follow not far behind. The war against the Soviet Union could then either have been prosecuted without mercy until the inevitable Soviet capitulation, or at the minimum, a negotiated peace highly favorable to the Reich.


In October of 1943, then, such a study was a tempting prospect. But is there any indication that the OKL's "study map" was anything more than a study? From the evidence presented thus far, the answer is clearly that the Luftwaffe was not merely conducting the typical staff exercises that all general staffs conduct, even in wartime. For the Luftwaffe, the study was a practical and immanent feasibility.

The OKL 's "Feasibility Study" of an Atom Bomb Blast of Hiroshima Size over Manhattan Island in New York City


But what of Freier's allegations that the bomb was ready, but the delivery systems were not? Without a delivery system the German Wehrmacht could have possessed all the atom bombs it wished, but they would have been utterly useless, expensive toys, without a viable means to deliver them to its most significant militarily and economically powerful opponent.

B. Strange Flights

Did the Germans possess any strategic bombers or aircraft capable of reaching the North American continent with a significant payload, and returning to Europe? Beyond the relatively well-known Messerschmitt 264, a four-engine bomber that looks far too similar to the American B-29 to be coincidental, Germany possessed in small numbers a quantity of heavy-lift, ultra-long range transport craft, including the four engine Junkers 290 and its massive six engine cousin, the Junkers 390.

The Junkers 390

Only two of these massive aircraft were ever built. The Junkers 390 assumes an odd significance here (and later) in our story, for in


1994, one such Ju-390 took off from Bordeaux, France, and flew to within 12 miles of New York City, snapped a picture of the Manhattan skyline, and flew back, a non-stop flight of 32 hours.

Within the context of the German SS atom bomb project, this flight was more than a mere feasibility study. Photo reconnaissance could only be for target identification. And the flight itself, to within 12 miles of the city, could conceivably have been a test of American air defenses and reactions. In any case, the fact that such a flight returned safely can only indicate that the American Army Air Force simply was not expecting a visit from the Luftwaffe at all, reconnaissance, feasibility study, or otherwise.

The Messerschmitt 264 Long Range "Amerikabomber ", Note the Curious Resemblance to the Boeing B-29 Superfortress

C. Unknown Cargoes and a Curious Airfield

The Ju-390 and is smaller four-engine cousin the Ju-290 will play another important role in subsequent parts of this book. But perhaps they had a role envisioned for them in conjunction with another little-known, but nonetheless important, fact. In 1945 the Luftwaffe completed construction of an enormous airfield near


Oslo, Norway, capable of handling very large aircraft like the Me-264, the He-177, and the Ju-290 and 390. In an article for the June 29, 1945 issue of the Washington Post, a report that originated from 21st Army Group headquarters outlines the frightening discovery that awaited Allied military personnel who came to occupy Norway after the German forces there surrendered:

R.A.F. officers said today that the Germans had nearly completed preparations for bombing New York from a "colossal air field" near Oslo when the war ended.

"Forty giant bombers with a 7,000 mile range were found on this base - the largest Luftwaffe field I have ever seen,' one officer said.

" They were a new type bomber developed by Heinkel. They now are being dismantled for study. German ground crews said the planes were held in readiness for a mission to New York.

It is known that Heinkel undertook special modifications of its He-177 four engine heavy bomber late in the war, adapting it to carry large atom bombs, radiological bombs, and biological and chemical bombs.[2] Within the context of the SS atom bomb program and the earlier flight of the Ju-390 from France in 1944, however, a purpose immediately suggests itself. The loss of France to Allied forces in 1944 deprived the Luftwaffe of its large French airfields. Norway, however, as has already been stated, remained in German hands up until their very surrender, and thus constituted the only remaining base of operations available to the Germans for any type of offensive operation against the North American continent.

The presence of such an airfield and its deliberate construction so late in the war also strongly suggests a connection to the SS atom bomb program in an entirely different way, since its construction would likely have fallen under the jurisdiction of the SS Building and Works Department, which was under the direction of none other than SS Obergruppenfuhrer Hans Kammler. It is also significant that jurisdiction over all long-range aircraft was also in Kammler's hands by war's end, thus linking the precious long-range

2. Q.v. Friedrich Georg, Hitlers Siegeswaffen band 1: Luftwaffe und Marine: Geheime Nuklearwaffen des Dritten Reiches und ihre Tragersysteme pp. 131, 133.


bombers on the Oslo field to Kammler as well. Moreover, Mayer and Mehner speculate that at least two atom bombs were built and possibly transported on the mission of the U-234. In their view, the surrender of the U-boat to the American authorities thus not only provided the Manhattan Project with much-needed stocks of enriched uranium, but quite possibly also with two fully functional atom bombs as well.

Professor Friedrich Lachner was assistant for twenty years to professor Mache at the Department for Technical Physics at the Technical University of Vienna. Familiar with aspects of the German bomb project, Lachner unburdened himself of his knowledge to researchers Mayer and Mehner. Among his allegations were that at least one completed bomb of German construction was transported from Thuringia to Salzburg by the SS near the end of the war.[3]

Lachner's letter is intriguing for two reasons. First, because it corroborates the existence of a large atom bomb program in the Three Corners region, and corroborates Freier's allegations of a successful test in March 1945. By mentioning the transportation of such weapons out of the region, he gives some credence to the idea that the U-234 might have been used to transport at least one such weapon to Norway.[4]

But a more curious allegation is made in Lachner's letter to Mayer and Mehner, and with it, we begin to approach the even more horrendous potentialities of Nazi wartime secret weapons research. Citing the letter of a British espionage agent who was well-aware of the multi-tiered nature of the German atom bomb program, and who was aware of a "third team that sought another

3. Mayer and Mehner, das Geheimnis, p. 81. Lachner also asserts unequivocally in his letter to Mayer and Mehner that the bomb dropped on Hiroshima was German (p. 82). Lachner also states that there were no less than fifteen atom bombs in German hands by the war's end. Again, on first glance, this seems a sheer fantasy, unless they had already mastered the techniques of boosted fission. The Salzburg bomb story may not be fantasy, as American tank units were operating in the area late in the war (q.v. pp. 84-85) in conjunction with Patton's drive on Pilsen and Prague.

4. Italian officer Luigi Romersa mentions as well that the Russians captured two such bombs (Das Geheimnis, p. 105).


way" of making the bomb (boosted fission), [5] he then mentions a "fourth team":

Yes, and then there was also the fourth team, about which we heard rumors during the last phase of the war. This was certainly so shadowy and fantastic, that one could only construe it as a ploy. But after the war it became evident that the world had avoided a colossal catastrophe by a hair's breath.... This fourth team worked in a field that was monstrous on a daily basis. And when I say this, I meant thereby that they experimented with things that a well-informed public would to thus very day think then to be unthinkable and unbelievable, and thus imaginary. I mean to imply that these specialists worked in conceptions that totally abandoned conventional physical laws. [6]

Mayer and Mehner then point out the implications of the agent's remarks in an age long accustomed to think in terms of the destructive power of hydrogen bombs:

That the Germans were working on an atom bomb no one may any longer question, but that they also possessed a team that was working on the destruction of the world is an unbelievable concept. This could only mean that there was a weapons system that possessed enormous range and degree of efficiency that lay beyond that of nuclear weapons technology. Did the Third Reich really prepare the Doomsday Weapon? And if so, where is this technology today? Was it discovered by the Allies or does it lurk secretly deep in the earth waiting for its rediscovery? If such an Ultimate Weapon has already been in existence for more than fifty years, then it is a legitimate question to ask what today's military really, actually possesses. [7]

The truthfulness of these stupendous allegations appears to be substantiated by a brief remark uttered by Adolf Hitler to a gathering of Axis elite in April 1944. According to Italian officer

5. Mayer and Mehner, Das Geheimnis, p. 89. It should be noted, however, that the name of this "well known" British agent is never mentioned.

6. Ibid., p. 91, my translation and emphasis. The agent then mentions that he is not aware of which side ended up with this technology.

7. Ibid., pp. 91-92. it is also a legitimate question to ask whose military possesses it, or alternatively, is it in the possession of some altogether unknown entity?


Luigi Romersa once again, who was present when Hitler made the remarks, the Fuhrer strolled through the room and said, "We have invisible aircraft, submarines, colossal tanks and cannon, unbelievably powerful rockets, and a bomb with a working that will astonish the whole world. The enemy knows this, and besieges and attempts to destroy us. But we will answer this destruction with a storm and that without unleashing a bacteriological war, for which we are also prepared.... All my words are the purest truth. That you will see!" [8]

Bacteriological war? Bombs with an unbelievable working? Teams of specialists working in areas that defy conventional laws of physics that would threaten a global catastrophe? This is not the picture of a Germany tinkering with V-1 buzz bombs, V-2s of limited operational range and strategic value, clumsy and belated attempts to construct a working atomic reactor, and tottering on the brink of total collapse that we have been led to believe. All the evidence presented thus far tends to the opposite conclusion, that at a minimum the Third Reich possessed functioning atom bombs and was preparing to use them against the West, if she had not already done so against Russia. So the cargoes intended to fly out of that Norwegian airfield may have not only been nuclear, but something far more horrendous. Already the path through Nazi Germany's nuclear programs have led into very unexpected places and developments, developments only made possible by the recent German reunification and the declassification of German, British, and American archives that it provoked, and suggesting that behind that nuclear program lurks something even larger and far more monstrous. In any case, it now seems clear why, in spite of Oppenheimer's statement in the middle of May 1945 that the earliest an atom bomb could be ready was in November of 1945,[9] that America was able to

8. Mayer and Mehner, Das Geheimnis, p. 97.
9. Ibid., p. 131. It is significant that Oppenheimer made these remarks before the capture of the U-234.


overcome all fusing problems and fissile material shortages in a mere two months after the German surrender.

The June 29, 1945 Washington Post article on the Luftwaffe Airfield in Oslo and its forty long-range bombers



"Pilsen and the Skoda Works were captured by Combat Command B Third Armored Division, the same unit that captured Kammler's unique metropolis, with its treasure trove of missiles and jet engines, at Nordhausen in Saxony on April 11."

--Tom Agoston, Blunder! How the U.S. Gave Away Nazi Supersecrets to Russia [1]

World War Two ended in Europe with the armored divisions of U.S. General George S. Patton's Third Army lunging deep into the tottering Third Reich, toward Arnstadt in Thuringia and toward the immense Skoda munitions works at Pilsen, Czechoslovakia. This little appreciated fact links together two of the war's most famous and powerful generals and perhaps affords a basis to speculate on the real reasons for the mysterious death of the one, and the equally mysterious "death" of the other.

The generals in question are General Patton, well-known to military history and America's most famous and capable field commander during the war in Europe, and SS Obergruppenfuhrer Dr. Ing. (doctor of engineering) Hans Kammler, now little known to popular history, architect of the infamous Auschwitz death camps, responsible for the demolition of the Warsaw ghetto, and by the end of the war, the Third Reich's plenipotentiary for all secret weapons research, responsible directly to Reichsfuhrer SS Heinrich Himmler and to Adolf Hitler himself.

1. Tom Agoston, Blunder! How the U.S. Gave Away Nazi Supersecrets to Russia (New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1985), p. 65.


A. Introduction: The Rediscovery of the SS Sonderkommando, Kammler, and a Brush with "the Legend"

As previous chapters have indicated, there is some entity within the Third Reich that appears to have coordinated extremely sensitive and secret weapons research projects, including possible oversight of Germany's apparently large uranium enrichment program. However, this entity, as we shall subsequently see, was responsible for a great deal more than that. It is necessary at this juncture to say something about it, however, as it now directly enters the picture in the speculative reconstruction of the strange death of the one, and the disappearance of the other, of these two very important generals.

This entity first came to public light in the aftermath of World War Two, in the 1950s, in a series of publications in West Germany, and in a book by former German major Rudolf Lusar. These publications alleged that Nazi Germany had created and successfully tested "unusual" aircraft, including flying disks or saucers. Thus was born the "Nazi Legend" of the "real origin" of UFOs. More will be said about this Legend in the subsequent parts of this book. Here it suffices to note that the Nazi Legend maintained that this secretive development occurred under the direct auspices of the SS.

The allegations of an ultra-top secret entity coordinating and controlling the Nazi secret weapons research in the final years of the war tended to be discounted, along with its more sensation component, the "flying saucers" themselves. Moreover, discounting these allegations was easy to do, since they rested upon the isolated testimony of a disenchanted German major with definite Nazi sympathies (Lusar) and the "eye witness" statements of one or two others who came forward to corroborate the story, each with their own shady associations.

All that gradually began to change, however, by a sequence of events ranging from the publication of a book by a former British intelligence officer, Tom Agoston, in 1985, by the German reunification itself in 1989, which made a host of archives of the former East Germany available to researchers. A number of books


has appeared in Germany since the reunification made these archives accessible, and moreover, the formerly inaccessible SS secret underground facilities and complexes finally became accessible to the public. Aided and abetted in their efforts by the declassification of several documents by the Clinton administration in the United States, German researchers began to probe the new information, reconnecting the dots, and presenting a chilling picture of the actual state of Nazi wartime research and its enormous discrepancy with the post-war Allied Legend. This body of work has been almost entirely ignored in North America.[2] Agoston's work was the first indication from the "mainstream" that there may have been something behind the Nazi Legend. Agoston revealed his story for the first time after his source, none other than close Kammler associate at the famous Skoda Works, Dr. Wilhelm Voss, died. The story that Voss told Agoston at the end of the war was, according to Agoston, in confidence.

As Agoston notes rather sarcastically, Kammler boasted almost the perfect "corporate resume" and a documentable record of "whole person management" as a "team player":

A modern day management consultant who was talent hunting for a "total professional with total involvement" would certainly have been fascinated by the bizarre curriculum vitae Kammler could have submitted. He could demonstrate a "track record" in "very senior appointments," with skill in putting across "aggressive growth plans."...

2. The most prominent post-reunification German sources for this story are Friedrich Georg's series on secret weapons, Hitler's Siegeswaffen series in three volumes; and the studies of Edgar Mayer and Thomas Mehner, Das Geheimnis der Deutschen Atombombe; Die Atombombe und das Dritte Reich; Hitler un die, Bombe"; Harald Fath's 1945 -Tthuringens Manhattan Projekt ami Geheime Kommandosache-S-III Jonastal und die Seigeswaffenproduktion. Also not to be neglected is Robert K. Wilcox's Japan's Secret War: Japan's Race against Time to Build its Own Atomic Bomb, for the latter book raises the question of where Japan acquired its enrichment capability and stocks of uranium in no uncertain terms (see chapter 7 of this book). Also important is Karl Heinz Zunneck's Geheimtechnologien, Wunderwaffen und die irdischen Facetten des UFO-Phanomens.


In the Third Reich, within a span of a few years, the number of positions he had held in turn was phenomenal. [3]

Among these "senior appointments" Kammler once commanded were:

(1) Operational control of the V-1 and V-2 terror bombardments of London, Liege, Brussels, Antwerp and Paris;

(2) Operational control of all missile production and research, including the V-2 and the intercontinental ballistic missile. the A-9/10;

(3) Design and construction oversight of the world's "first bombproof underground aircraft and missile factory sites," including sites for the production of jet engines and the Messerschmitt 262;

(4) command of the SS Building and Words Division, the department which handled all large construction projects for the Reich, including death camps, "Buna factories," and supply roads for invading German legions in Russia;

(5) Design and construction of the world's first underground testing and proving range for missiles;

(6) Command, control and coordination of all of the Third Reich's secret weapons research by the war's end.[4]

This warped and twisted administrative genius first came to the attention of Himmler and Hitler "with a brilliant hand-colored design for the Auschwitz concentration camp, which he subsequently built. Later he was called in to advise on the modalities for boosting the daily output of its gas chambers from 10,000 to 60,000." [5]

All this is to say that not only was Kammler a butcher, but that by the war's end, Hitler had "concentrated more power in Kammler's hands than he had ever entrusted to a single person,"

3. Tom Agoston, op. cit., p. 5.
4. Agoston, pp. 5-6.
5. Ibid., p. 6.


bar none.[6] If one were to compare Kammler's position to a similar hypothetical position in the former Soviet Union, such a position would mean that the general who (commanded) the SS-20 rockets in Europe and Asia (the Commander in Chief of Strategic Rocket Forces) would also head research, development, and production of missiles. In addition, he would be in charge of producing all modern aircraft for the Red Air Force and have overall command of the mammoth civil engineering projects or the production centers in Siberia's sub-zero climate. Last, but very much not least, he would lead the national grid of gulags. To match Kammler's position in the SS, the Soviet general holding all these variegated commands would also be third in the KGB pecking order.[7]

Indeed, one would have to add to Agoston's list, for such a Soviet general would also have had to be in charge of the coordination of all the most post-nuclear and super secret advanced scientific research and black projects in the entire Soviet Union. It is thus in the person of SS Obergruppenfuhrer Hans Kamtnler that all the lines of our investigation meet: the Buna factory and slave labor of the camps, exploited for grizzly medical experimentation and labor in the secret underground laboratories and production facilities, the atom bomb project, and as will be seen in the subsequent parts of this book, even more horrendous and monstrous aircraft and weapons development. If there was a gold mine of information, then it was available in the blueprints and files that were locked in Kammler's vaults, or even more securely in his brain. It is this fact and Kammler's extraordinary dossier thatmake his post-war fate even more problematical. But what of Kammler's "Special SS Command" (Sonderkommando) structure itself? What was it that was so revolutionary that Dr. Voss would have required Agoston to maintain confidentiality until after his death?

Voss had joined Skoda in 1938, when the plant was ceded to the Reich under the Munich Pact - Hitler, Chamberlain, Mussolini and Daladier, allotting the Sudeten German areas of Czechoslovakia to Germany

6. Agoston, op. cit., p. 4.
7. Ibid., p. 7.


and became an affiliate of Hitler's principle arms maker Krupp. With his flair for quiet diplomacy, Voss was immensely popular with the Czech executives, who had remained in leading positions at the time of the German takeover of Skoda. Voss even saw to it that Czech workers, paid on the local and not Reich wages, were paid more [8] money.

Also important to the Skoda-SS relationship is the fact that all of Bohemian Czechoslovakia became a "Reich Protectorate," in effect turning total political, administrative, and military control of Bohemia over to the SS. It is in this context that the special relationship between Voss and Kammler developed.

By quirk of fate, the careers of Kammler and Voss overlapped at Skoda, where they jointly set up and operated what was generally regarded by insiders as the Reich's most advanced high-technology military research center. Working as a totally independent undercover operation for the SS, the center was under the special auspices of Hitler and Himmler. Going outside the scope and field of Skoda's internationally coveted general research and development division, it worked closely with Krupp and was primarily concerned with analysis of captured equipment, including aircraft, and copying or improving the latest technical features. In so doing the SS group was to go beyond the first generation of secret weapons.[9]

Thus one has the first component of this Special SS Command: the analysis, duplication, and improvement of all recovered foreign and enemy technology. This in itself is not surprising, since all major combatants during the war maintained such research facilities.

The second thing one must note is the careful and deliberate camouflaging of the SS Special Command inside the normal engineering division of the Skoda works. But the real operational goals of this Special command were far more than the mere analysis of captured enemy equipment, as Voss detailed to Agoston.

Its purpose was to pave the way for building nuclear-powered aircraft, working on the application of nuclear energy for propelling missiles and aircraft; laser beams, then still referred to as "death rays"; a

8. Agoston, op. cit, p. 11.
9. Ibid., p. 12.


variety of homing rockets and to seek other potential areas for high- technology breakthrough. In modem high-tech jargon, the operation would probably be referred to as an "SS research think tank." Some work on second-generation secret weapons, including the application of nuclear propulsion for aircraft and missiles, was already well advanced.[10]

Nuclear powered aircraft would require the development and miniaturization of functioning atomic reactors, something the Germans were not, according to the Allied Legend, supposed to have achieved. And though the mention of lasers seems to stretch one's credulity beyond all reason, there is credible evidence that the Germans were up to just that, and more besides.[11]

But the most remarkable thing about this "SS think tank" was that it was established entirely without the knowledge of Goring, Speer, or any of the other big-wigs or research centers in the Reich.[12] This would not only explain Speer's puzzlement at Jackson's question that we encountered earlier, but would also explain the apparent lack of information on the part of the Farm Hall scientists interred in England after the war.

These two facts alone indicate that the SS Special Command headquartered at the Skoda Works in Pilsen was more than just a secret weapons project being run through ordinary channels. Unlike even its Manhattan Project counterpart, it had no connection to the standard branches of the German military, the German state, or even the Nazi Party; it was entirely off the books. It is, in every sense that we have come to know it, a Black Project, coordinating all black projects in Nazi Germany. So extensive was the mandate given to this group that if there was a large uranium enrichment program underway in Germany for the production of atom bombs, then this is the entity most likely coordinating it.[13]

10. Agoston, op. cit., p. 12.
11. Q.v. the remaining parts of this book.
12. Ibid., pp. 12-13.
13. Agoston alludes to the existence and connection of the uranium enrichment program to the Kammler Staff when he states "Even fissile uranium-235 was reportedly made available to Berlin's prime Axis ally.(p. 32)." While the enormous implications of this statement are obvious, Agoston does not pursue the atom bomb component of the Kammler Staff in his book.


Moreover, not only did Skoda's "overtly operating research and development division" work closely with the SS on some less sensitive projects, it "provided a convenient cover for the Kammler Staff specialists, culled in great secrecy from Germany's research institutes to supplement the in-house experts. All were picked for their know-how and not for their Party records, Voss said. All had to have the ability to tackle visionary projects. "[14] The Kammler Staff Special Command even circulated top secret scientific paper and memos to the various scientists within the group itself via a central office of scientific reports. Some of these reports were then used as a basis of recruitment of top scientists.[15]

So what was the Kammler Staff, or Kammlerstab, as outlined by Voss and Agoston?

First, it was the continuation of "normal" science, free of the constraints of Nazi party ideology, but under the control of the SS! But it was much more. Not only was it a "think tank," but it was also a central clearing house for ideas, for mapping out precise technology trees for the acquisition of second and third generation weapons. But it was more, it was also a fully-funded research Black Programs coordinating office with its own "inexhaustible" and expendable labor pool.

All of it was coordinated by SS General Hans Kammler.

All of it was headquartered at the Skoda Works in Pilsen.

And one more thing. By the war's end, Kammler also had control of the Reich's heavy-lift long-range transport aircraft, consisting of several Ju-290s and the two enormous Ju-390s, one of which, according to Agoston, made a polar flight to Japan on March 28, 1945.[16]

though he surely would have suspected it. The link of the Auschwitz "Buna plant" to the SS via the death camp there already provides one link to Kammler, since the "Buna plant" fell under SS jurisdiction via the camp itself, and thus the connection to Kammler is direct.

14. Agoston, op. cit, p. 13, emphasis added.

15. Ibid., p. 14

16. This fact is merely reported by Agoston without substantiation, leading one to the conclusion that the source of the information must have been Dr. Voss. It is worth noting that Nick Cook reports that Kammler had control of the Ju-390s as part of another SS Special Evacuation Command, which was the


If ever there was a reason for the Allied High Command to by-pass Berlin and head south to central Germany (Thuringia) and for Patton's Third Army to make a beeline for Pilsen and Prague, thiswas it. Thus, only in the recently revealed context of the existence of the Kammlerstab do any of the Allied or German military deployments or operations at the end of the war make any genuine military sense. The "National Redoubt" story was likely just that, a story put out by the American OSS to force the Allied commanders to change objectives, without disclosing the real nature of their concerns, priorities, and intelligence objectives.

B. The Four Deaths of SS Obergruppenfuhrer Dr. Ing. Hans Kammler

General Kammler, in addition to his "accomplishments" in streamlining death camp efficiency, his methodical and efficient leveling of the ruined Warsaw Ghetto and meticulous accounting of every last brick and stone removed, his coordination of the most arcane, and perhaps the biggest, secret weapons black projects program in human history, has also another odd distinction to his credit. He of all the high-ranking Nazis indicted and tried at Nuremberg either posthumously or in absentia, was never formally indicted, much less brought to trial. He is altogether missing from the docket, and altogether just simply missing. Kammler has yet another distinction. He appears to have been not only a very accomplished messenger of death for others, but also appears to have achieved the astonishing feat of having died himself no less than four times, each under different circumstances. Agoston commented at length on the odd assortment of "facts" surrounding Kammler's fate: brainchild of none other than Martin Bormann. The purpose of this special command was to evacuate... something. Cook reports that one of these enormous Ju-390s simply went missing at the end of the war.


Analysis of the voluminous documentation (at has accrued since embarked on the first left of the fascinating project in 1949 shows crude discrepancies, the inconsistencies of which grow with almost every addition to the mosaic of information that enters the picture Basically three major facts stand out:

In almost four decades, official records show no positive confirmation of Kammler's death. No court of law, no media editor would accept the uncorroborated statement of "unknown comrades," still so referred to in official records as conclusive evidence of death especially if the death was alleged to have taken place in the chaos of collapsing Germany.

The record shows no subsequent sworn corroborative statement Such a statement would automatically have been entered in the Red Cross and other dossiers on Kammler.

None of the persons reporting any of the four versions of the general's death had conformed with the prescribed duty of all servicemen to detach one-half of a dead man's Soldier's paybook or officer's identity document, to the nearest unit, relevant records office, Red Cross, or holding power, if the surviving serviceman had become a prisoner of war, to help notification of next of kin. Germans are traditionally meticulous and, to say the least, most sentimental in such matters.

Thus, in spite of "the proliferation of un-substantiated evidence that permeates all four versions of Kammler's death, the shell of the case contains sufficient facts to suggest a more than coincidental pattern of seemingly targeted and organized disinformation."[17] The origin of this disinformation, according to Agoston, was probably within the SS itself, a program necessitated by Kammler's disappearance and likely treason to one of the victorious Allied powers.

The "first death of General Hans Kammler" is recounted by Albert Speer himself, in his last book. In this most simple version, Kammler ordered his adjutant to shoot him. The "suicide" allegedly took place in Prague as Kammler realized the war was lost and, according to Speer, "acted in elitist SS loyalty."[18] As Agoston quips, "even the most ardent worshipper of Teutonic creed could

17. Agoston, op. cit., pp. 102-103, emphasis added.
18. Ibid., p. 103.


not possibly suggest that elitist SS loyalty can be demonstrated three times, in three locations, and all on the same day."[19] The second version of the story, related to Agoston by Kammler's "civilian" aide Dr. Wilhelm Voss, was that the general took cyanide somewhere "on the road between Pilsen and Prague on May 9."[20] We will have more to say about Voss's association with Kammler's vast SS secret weapons think tank in due course. The third version of Kammler's death was doled out by V-2 rocket expert, General Walter Dornberger, subsequently employed by the American firm of Bell Aerospace. According to Dornberger, Kammler's mental and emotional state had quickly deteriorated in the final days of the war, and the general overheard Kammler ordering his aide to shoot him if things became "hopeless."[21] But this does not square with Dornberger's close associate, Dr. Werner Von Braun's own recollection of a conversation he overheard between Kammler and his aide Starck fully two weeks later. According to Von Braun, Kammler and Starck discussed the possibility of "going underground" before the Americans arrived, disguising themselves as monks in a nearby abbey.[22]

Thus report, if true, is perhaps the most interesting, since it indicates that Kammler had no intentions of surrendering himself to any of the Allied powers, but rather, intended to survive, perhaps independently continuing his oversight of secret weapons development.

Another version of Kammler's death has him giving a speech to his assembled aides in Prague in early May 1945, dismissing them from their duties and advising them to return home, and then walking into a woods where he then shot himself.[23] And lastly, there is a version of Kammler's death that has him dying a typical SS hero's death, fighting and going down in a blaze of "glory" in the face of rebelling and revolting Czechs.[24]

19. Agoston, op. cit, p. 104.
20. Ibid.
21. Ibid., pp. 103-104.
22. Ibid.
23. Ibid., p. 99.
24. Ibid., p. 92.


What emerges from all this is that no one, no where can advance anything like a consistent account of the date, location, time, or even method of Kammler's death. Now it is suicide by poison, then suicide by gunshot, suicide by ordering an aide to shoot him, a fighting death, or disappearance into a Roman Catholic monastery. Now he is in Prague, now he isn't; now he's with people, now he isn't; now he's suffering mental and emotional collapse, now he isn't.

In all likelihood, therefore, Kammler did not die at all; he disappeared. The important question is, where?

C. The Ironic Death of General George S. Patton

While Obergruppenfuhrer Kammler was busy dying four times in various locations by various means, another general was busy lunging his troops with the precision of a surgeon into the nerve centers of Kammler's black projects empire: General George S. Patton. His troops formed the spearhead of the Allied lance that, much to the surprise of the Nazi, Soviet, and Allied field commanders themselves, suddenly turned from its victorious drive on Berlin to a militarily questionable operation designed to take the alleged "Nazi redoubt."

By the spring of 1945, the Redoubt had ballooned to become a major military concern to the Allied High command, "despite the caveats from British and us military intelligence."[25]

Agoston traces the origin of the "redoubt" theme of the postwar Allied Legend to the USA's Office of Strategic Services, or OSS, the precursor to the modern day CIA. The OSS had apparently not bothered, according to Agoston, to check out the sources of its intelligence or the truthfulness of the "redoubt."[26] The final decision to abandon Berlin as a military objective and drive south toward Thuringia was made by Eisenhower on April 11, 1945.[27]

25. Agoston, op. cit., p. 22.

26. Ibid., p. 23.

27. Ibid., p. 23. A possibility is that Kammler arranged to turn over his secret weapons treasure trove to the OSS in exchange for his life. It could have been arranged by fellow SS General Wolff, already in negotiation with Allen


The date of General Eisenhower's decision is crucial, for it means that the military objective shifted from Berlin toward south central Germany after the alleged atom bomb test at Ohrdruf on March 4, 1945. It is therefore possible that the OSS was in receipt of extremely secret intelligence concerning this weapons program and its centers of production, for Patton drives his troops with unerring accuracy right toward this super-secret installations, many of them underground and carefully camouflaged. Given the sensitivity of the Manhattan Project within the structure of the Allied command, it is also plausible that the OSS decided not to share this information with the Supreme Allied Command, and proffered the "Redoubt" and "fleeing Nazis" and a transferred German war archives as a cover story to sell the Allied command on a shift of objectives away from Berlin. If indeed the OSS "Redoubt" reports were a component of an OSS psychological operation designed against the Allies' own military command structure, designed to divert Allied military operations to a gold mine of military technology and research, then one and only one general was in a position to know the real, and the whole story about the Redoubt, and what was actually recovered in Thuringia, Pilsen, and Prague, and that was General George S. Patton. Patton, as his troops entered the Skoda works at Pilsen and the underground factories and laboratories at the Three Corners region in Thuringia would have been privy to the top secret reports of his divisional commanders entering these super-secret Reich facilities. Patton would thus have a thorough first hand knowledge of the complete inventory of the Reich's most sensitive black programs. As Agoston himself notes, without seeming to realize the importance of his own observations in the light of post-war events, "the sudden switch in Allied planning...." brought at least one Dulles, OSS station chief in Zurich. If so, then the sudden shift of Allied objectives to south central Germany may have originated from intelligence originating within the Kammlerstab itself. This intelligence would have been easily verifiable by Allies who would naturally have wanted to check its veracity by means of aerial reconnaissance of the installation sites presumably leaked to them by someone in the Kammlerstab


bonanza. The rapid eastward drive of the U.S. Third Army brought to Kammler's secret metropolis well ahead of the Russians in whose designated zone it lay."[28] The "holy grail" of all this research were the files and blueprints in the central coordination office of Kammler's black programs think tank inside the Skoda Works at Pilsen. And it is likely that General Patton therefore knew much of the general outlines of this treasure trove and what it portended for future secret weapons development. There is thus a direct and immediate link between General George S. Patton, General Hans Kammler, and the little-known world of top secret weapons research that Kammler headed.[29]

And this in turn may lend some credence to those who view General Patton's ironic death after the war as being something more than an ironic accident. The factual circumstances of Patton's death are plain enough. While on an inspection tour with his driver and Major General Hobart Gray on December 9, 1945, Patton's car swerved to avoid hitting a heavy U.S. Army transport truck that had turned in front of them. Patton's driver, attention momentarily diverted away from the road by a remark that Patton himself had made, belatedly noticed the truck in front of them, and swerved the General's car to avoid a head-on collision.

None of the others involved in the accident were hurt, and all were able to walk away from the accident. Not so General Patton. He had suffered a broken neck, and the prognosis was paralysis from the neck down. From this point the General recovered rapidly at the military hospital in Frankfurt, making such good progress that until the afternoon of December 19th, his doctors were seriously considering moving him to Boston. But that afternoon his breathing difficulties increased dramatically and suddenly. On December 20th he suffered breathlessness and pallor, and Patton, who had had a prior history of embolism, died in his sleep on December 21st at 5:50 P.M.[30]

28. Agoston, op. cit., p. 27.
29. This fact is adequately appreciated by Mayer and Mehner, Das Geheimnis, p. 156.
30 Ladislas Farago, Patton: Ordeal and Triumph, pp. 787-794.


The fact that Patton alone of all the victims of the automobile accident suffered serious injuries, plus the lack of his recovery and then sudden decline in a military hospital, have fueled various conspiracy theories. One of these, that Patton knew of the Soviet shooting of American, Canadian, and British prisoners of war and threatened to expose the Allied knowledge and cover-up of the affair, was revealed by a Ukrainian defector with close ties to the Soviet KGB, who alleged that Patton's accident was no accident, and that the KGB had been behind it. Another version is similar, but has the OSS or other Allied entity performing the "accident" and subsequent "medical complications."

If there is any truth in the idea of a conspiracy behind the ironic death of America's most decorated and celebrated general officer of the Second World War, then the explanation is likely to lie in the more esoteric and arcane secrets he and his intelligence officers uncovered in Thuringia and at the Skoda Works in Pilsen. Having performed a preliminary assessment of the second and third generation weaponry Kammler's scientists had begun to research, the OSS specialists who arrived at these sites must have immediately realized the material would require the tightest security and highest classification then possible, beyond that even of the Manhattan Project, not least because what was uncovered would give lie to the emerging Allied Legend of nuclear technological superiority. Patton was a potential threat to the security of this operation and a risk to the continued secret American development of Kammler's technology in conjunction with Operation Paperclip.[31]

If there is truth to the conspiracy theories of Patton's incongruous death, then of all the theories, this would seem to be the most plausible motivation and explanation for the murder of America's famous general.

Patton, and his famous mouth, had to be silenced.

31. It is significant in this respect that Mayer and Mehner report in Das Geheimnis (p. 187), that all of the documents of Patton's troops in Ohrdruf are still sealed and classified.


D. The Kammler SS Sonderkommando Secret Weapons Empire

Were the secrets of Kammler's SS empire worth changing the entire Allied operational plan at the end of the war, and were they worth the possible deliberate assassination of one of the war's most famous generals? "Pilsen and the Skoda Works were captured by Combat Command B, Third Armored Division, the same unit that captured Kammler's unique metropolis, with its treasure-trove of missiles and jet engines, at Nordhausen in Saxony on April 11."[32] Suspiciously, Agoston's Freedom of Information Act request for the war diaries of Patton's armored units that captured the SS facilities in Pilsen and Prague could not be located in he U.S. National Archives.[33]

However, Agoston presents evidence that Allied intelligence, at least from the British point of view, had little to no knowledge of the Kammler Group. British Lieutenant Colonel James Brierley, commanding the first British intelligence group to arrive in Pilsen after its capture, stated that the Skoda plant workers and engineers themselves reported that everything was microfilmed, that the buildings which housed their blueprints and development projects had been demolished, and also that the files had been stored outside Pilsen.[34]

Destroyed by whom? And stored outside Pilsen by whom?

Presumably by the SS itself. It is perhaps pertinent to this idea that many of the reports of Kammler's death place him in the area, not to die, but to remove the most sensitive data and to vouchsafe it for security.

At this point it is necessary to say something about Agoston's own thesis concerning the disappearance of the Kammler Staff's files. The whole thesis of Agoston's book is obvious from its title, i.e., that in the confusion of the transfer of the Skoda Works from American to Russian military occupation, the Kammler Group's entire secret inventory was handed over to the Soviet Union. This

32. Agoston, op. cit, p. 65.
33. Ibid., p. 70.
34. Ibid., p. 75.


much is recounted to Agoston by Voss. However, if Kammler had previously removed, or even duplicated, the most sensitive items, blueprints, and papers and secreted them somewhere, as would seem to be indicated by the Czech reports to British intelligence, then it is likely that all the Soviets received were the table scraps. Kammler had previously removed the most sensitive items, and Patton's men, and presumably the OSS, would have thoroughly scoured the remaining material.

Another possibility thus emerges in the "conspiracy" view of Patton's death. Could he have been assassinated because he himself was the point man to bring Kammler and his secrets and technicians and scientists into the emerging Operation Paperclip? While we will probably never know for sure, it is interesting to note that when Dr. Voss gave "the full story of the secrets leakage at Pilsen and Kammler's disappearance to us Intelligence in West Germany," he was informed "at the highest level to keep the matter under wraps, along with the briefings he than gave us Intelligence of he areas covered by the SS research at Pilsen."[35] Who was it that debriefed Voss for us military intelligence? None other than fellow general officer Lieutenant General Lucius D. Clay, a man well known to Patton.[36]

What happened to Dr. Voss after the war? Perhaps not unusually, he became involved in a joint CIA-West German BND Bundesnachrichtendienst, West Germany's version of the CIA) effort to build armaments plants for Egypt's Gamel Abdul Nasser, and to train its army. Voss became the overall coordinator of an effort to supply Egypt with former Wehrmacht officers and the latest in missile technology. Also involved was former Reichsbank president Hjalmar Schact, father-in-law to famous SS commando, and later coordinator of the notorious ODESSA {Organization der Ehemalige SS Angehdriger or Organization of Former SS Members), Otto Skorzeny.[37] This effort was part of a much broader postwar effort on the part of the West German government

35. Agoston, op. cit., p. 94. Agoston notes that this secrecy order to Voss kept him from disclosing the story until after Voss' death.
36. Ibid., p. 116.
37. Ibid., pp. 116-118.

to expand its markets for high technology military equipment to the Arab-Muslim world, a drive that has continuing political repercussions down to our own day. There is more than meets the eye in this post-war SS-Arab connection, that will be explored further in the subsequent parts of this book.

In any case, taken together the picture of the post-war behavior and associations of Dr. Wilhelm Voss, the multiple "deaths" of Obergruppenfuhrer Kammler, his more likely disappearance into you another black programs empire, and the ironic if not suspicious death of General George Patton are further corroboration that the Nazi Reich was up to far more than V-1s and V-2s. It was in the possession of prototypical technologies and military capabilities of such extreme power and sophistication that many of these secrets remain classified. Before we can examine what these secrets might be and the type of physics that they imply, we must, however, take a detour to the other Axis power seeking its own path to the atom bomb on the other side of the world.



" Contrary to the widely held view, the United States may have known about the Japanese project before the end of the war, and this information might have influenced President Harry Truman's decision to use the bomb on Japan. [1]

"... when UN forces had been at Hungnam in connection with the retreat from Chosin, a mysterious installation in the mountains around it had been discovered." [2]

--Robert K. Wilcox, Japan's Secret War.

An ancient Japanese legend has it that the Japanese people are descended from a blonde-haired blue eyed race that came from the stars, a legend remarkably similar to the doctrines that percolated in the secret societies that fostered and mid-wifed the Nazi Party into existence in Germany between the World Wars. Nor did this legend play a small part in the history of World War Two, for it was partly because of its mere existence that Hitler could proclaim the Japanese "honorary Aryans" and conclude the incorporation of Japan into the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis without contradicting Nazi Party racial ideology. This was in no small part due to the Japanese ambassador in Berlin's diplomatic skill in pointing out this little known fact of Japanese legends to the Germans. Of course, there were pressing military and political reasons for Italy and Germany to conclude an alliance with Japan, but for the race and ideology obsessed Nazi government, so much the better if the Japanese had some sort of Nordic-Aryan connection, no matter how tenuous that might be. An early and continuous problem for the three Axis partners was to arrange the transfer of technology and raw materials from Europe to the Far East. Most transfers occurred via U-boats or Japanese submarines, though both Germany and Italy undertook

1. Robert K. Wilcox, Japan's Secret War: Japan's Race against Time to Build is Own Atomic Bomb, p. 18.
2. Ibid., p. 211.


long range, and militarily quite risky, flights to Japan as well. The Italians, for example, mounted such a flight with a Savoia Marchetti S-75 GA during 1942, ostensibly for the purpose of supplying the Italian embassy in Tokyo with copies of new Italian code books, since the Commando Supremo had concluded that the Allies had broken Italian codes.[3]

As the war progressed, the Germans found themselves increasingly trading their high technology for very little in return other than the prospect of stiffening Japanese resistance and perhaps drawing American force to the Pacific and lessening pressure on the Reich. And the Japanese, their industry hard-pressed to maintain pace with American and British technological developments, were always very eager, and very specific, in their demands for high technology from their Aryan brethren.

Even the conventional military technology transfers form Germany to Japan are staggering enough. By 1944 Japan had requested and received either working models or full production designs for the following:

German techniques for manufacturing cartridge steel for large gun barrel linings;

Finished artillery pieces;

105mm and 128mm heavy anti-aircraft (FLAK) guns;

the 75mm and 88mm field pieces and anti-tank guns;

the Wurzburg radar system;

750-ton submarine pressure hulls;

the PzKw VIa Tiger I tank;

The Focke Wulfe 190 fighter;

The Henschel 129 tank-busting aircraft [4]

3. Dr. Publio Magini, Military History Quarterly, Summer 1993. I am very grateful to Frank Joseph for uncovering and sharing this information with me. The updating of Italian code books would be a pressing enough matter for the Italians to undertake such a flight.

4. This rather odd-looking twin-engine aircraft had a bulbous cupola slung beneath the nose of the main fuselage, in which was mounted a 75mm automatically reloading high velocity anti-tank gun projecting from its nose. It was a deadly and efficient tank-busting airplane used with great effectiveness on the Eastern Front, curiously resembling a similar ground assault aircraft in the modern American arsenal, the A-10 "Warthog."


The Heinkel He-177 heavy bomber;

The Messcrschmitt 264 long-range Amerikabomber;

The Messerschmitt 262 jet fighter;

The Messerschmitt 163 rocket-powered fighter;

The Lorenz 7H2 bombsight;

The B/3 and FUG 10 airborne radars; and perhaps significantly,

Twenty-five pounds of "bomb fuses." [5]

Fortunately for American and Commonwealth forces in the Pacific theater, these weapons never saw full-scale production by the Japanese. What is intriguing is the last item. Why bomb fuses? Surely the Japanese, who had been raining bombs all over China, Indochina, Burma, and the Pacific knew how to fuse a conventional bomb. The request suggests that the fuses were of a sophistication beyond the capabilities of Japanese industry. And why a request for heavy bombers so close to the end of the war, at least one of which was reputedly capable of ultra-long-range flight and heavy payload?

A. Strange Rumors

As with the end of the war in Europe, the end of the Pacific war carried with it the odd rumor or two, some of which managed to appear in short articles in the Western Press, before the curtain of the Allied Legend slammed down to hide their implications from view. Robert K. Wilcox, in a book that may well in retrospect be the first book on the German bomb project from a revisionist perspective, Japan's Secret War, revitalized these reports and rumors:

Shortly after World War II had ended, American intelligence in the Pacific received a shocking report: The Japanese, just prior to their surrender, had developed and successfully test-fired an atomic bomb. The project had been housed in or near Konan (Japanese name for Hungnam), Korea, in the peninsula's North. The war had ended before

5. Joseph Mark Scalia, Germany's Last Mission to Japan: The Failed Voyage of the U-234, pp. 7-9.
VIDEO: Japan's A-Bomb

In 1931 Dr. Nishina received his own laboratory at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research. In 1936 this facility built a 26-inch cyclotron. Nishina knew that building a uranium bomb was possible and fearful that the Americans were already at work on such a bomb. In 1937, Nishina had a 220-ton 60-inch cyclotron built. By October of 1940 Lt. General Takeo Yasuda of the Japanese Army concluded that building such a bomb was practical so by July of 1941 the program was funded. B-29 raids hampered the final work to a point that in early 1945 that some equipment is believed to have been shipped to Konan, Korea, which was not under attack.

PART 1 Japanese Army a-bomb project




PART 3 IJN a-bomb project


PART 4 slave laborers dug industries under ground to avoid bombing


PART 5 David Snell reported in 1946 that Japan had detonated an a-bomb, allies cover-up to perpetuate American a-bomb ego trip



this weapon could be used, and the plant where it had been made was now in Russian hands.

By the summer of 1946 the report was public. David Snell, an agent with the Twenty-fourth Criminal Investigation Detachment in Korea... wrote about it in the Atlanta Constitution following his discharge.[6]

Snell's source for the allegation was a Japanese officer returning to Japan. The officer informed him that he had been in charge of security for the project. Snell, paraphrasing the officer in his article, stated:

In a cave in a mountain near Konan men worked, racing against time, in final assembly of "genzai bakudan," Japan's name for the atomic bomb. It was August 10, 1945 (Japanese time), only four days after an atomic bomb flashed in the sky over Hiroshima and five days before Japan surrendered.

To the north, Russian hordes were spilling into Manchuria. Shortly after midnight of that day, a convoy of Japanese trucks moved from the mouth of the cave, past watchful sentries. The trucks wound through valleys, past sleeping form villages.... In the cool predawn, Japanese scientists and engineers loaded genzai bakudan aboard a ship at Konan.

Off the coast, near an islet in the sea of Japan, more frantic preparations were under way. All that day and night, ancient ships, junks and fishing vessels moved into the anchorage.

Before dawn on August 12, a robot launch chugged through the ships at anchor and beached itself on the islet. Its passenger was genzai bakudan. A clock ticked.

The observers were 20 miles away. The waiting was difficult and strange to men who had worked relentlessly so long, who knew their job had been completed too late.

The light in the east, where Japan lay, grew brighter. The moment the sun peeped over the sea there was a burst of light at the anchorage, blinding the observers, who wore welder's glasses. The ball of fire was estimated to be 1,000 yards in diameter. A multicolored cloud of vapors boiled toward the heavens, then mushroomed in the atmosphere.

The churn of water and vapor obscured the vessels directly under the burst. Ships and junks on the fringe burned fiercely at anchor.

6. Wilcox, op. cit, p. 15.


When the atmosphere cleared slightly the observers could detect several vessels had vanished. Genzai bakudan in that moment had matched the brilliance of the rising sun to the east. Japan had perfected and successfully tested an atomic bomb as cataclysmic as those that withered Hiroshima and Nagasaki.[7]

There are a number of things to note about this account. How had Japan, hard-pressed for even conventional military technology, pulled off this feat of testing an atom bomb of the same approximate yield as Hiroshima and Nagasaki? Where did they get the enriched uranium for the weapon? Moreover, the Japanese had tested their bomb only three days after the plutonium "Fat Man" fell on and obliterated Nagasaki. Small wonder then, that the Japanese cabinet debated whether or not to surrender. This important fact, in conjunction with Wilcox's startling revelations, will serve as the basis for further speculation in a moment. Finally, the test itself suggested that the Japanese envisioned deploying the weapon against naval targets. What possible thoughts may have been going through the Japanese cabinet's surrender debate? Possible clues lie in the nature of the Japanese program itself, and its significant reliance on technology transfers from Germany.

The chief physicist involved in the Japanese project was Yoshio Nishina, a "colleague of Niels Bohr."[8] It was Nishina who in fact headed the Japanese army team that investigated Hiroshima after the bombing of that city.[9] The reports of the Japanese test at Konan were a steady source of consternation and mystification to American intelligence units in occupied Japan after the war, for unlike its obsession with the German bomb program, Allied intelligence consistently placed the Japanese far behind, as conducting only theoretical studies, and maintaining that the Japanese "had neither the talent nor the resources to make a bomb."[10] Resources Japan may have lacked, but there was no lack

7. Wilcox, op. cit., p. 16.
8. Ibid., p. 17, referencing an article in the January 1978 edition of Science magazine.
9. Ibid.
10. Ibid.


of talented physicists who understood bomb physics. In any case the reports caused enough concern for the American occupying forces to send several intelligence teams throughout Japan to destroy its cyclotrons, of which there were no less than five, and presumably more! [11] This curious fact raises a question. What were the Japanese doing with that many cyclotrons? Could they have perhaps been given the secrets of Baron Manfred Von Ardenne's method of mass spectrograph separation and enrichment of uranium 235? Or did the Japanese physicists, like their German and American counterparts, come to the realization that the cyclotron afforded a method for isotope enrichment? Both are possible, and the latter is probable.

B. Strange Industrial Complexes: Kammler Revisited, Noguchi Style

Further confirmation of a Japanese atom bomb test led Wilcox to connect Nishina to a Japanese industrialist named Noguchi. Searching through American declassified records, Wilcox quickly concluded that subsequent directives in the same boxes ordered reinvestigations in 1947 and 1948 of Japanese wartime atomic research, indicating that (American intelligence) still did not know exactly what had happened. In fact, (it) was continually ordering reinvestigations of Japanese wartime atomic research and discovering new facts at least up until 1949, according to additional documents that I found."[12] Then Wilcox struck a very rich vein:

Box 3 of Entry 224 yielded a high mark of my two days at Suitland:[13] an interrogation of a former engineer at the Noguchi Konan complex, Otogoro Natsume, conducted on October 31, 1946. "Subject" of the interrogation was listed as "Further questioning the newspaper story about atomic bomb explosion in Korea."

In attendance were head(sic) of the Science and Technology Division, Dr. Harry Kelly; an interpreter, "T/4 Matsuda," and a "Mr. Donnelly," identified only as "5259 TIC." He apparently was some

11. Wilcox, op. cit., pp. 17, 192.
12. Ibid., p. 222.
13. "Suitland" is Wilcox's nickname for the us National Archives.


sort of intelligence officer and, judging from their questions, the interrogators had more information about the Konan-Hungnam story than was in the newspaper.

Natsume, a chemical engineer, according to the interrogation, had been imprisoned by the Russians and then released to run a Konan plant until he escaped "on a small sailing boat" in December 1945. He told the investigators he'd heard the rumors about the atomic bomb explosion at Konan but knew nothing about it. According to the transcript, the following exchange then ensued:

Kelly: "Did any of the plants have accidents during the war?"

Donnelly: "We haven't actually found anything concrete. Last few days we have been talking with people here in and around Tokyo and asking them about report(s) of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide and asking them if they knew about it or which plant it was."

Kelly: "Did any of the plants have accidents during the war?"

(Natsume through Matsuda): "There were none."

Donnelly: "Ask him if he knows anything about the NZ plant making hydrogen peroxide." Matsuda: "He says that he heard about the factory but it was under the Navy and highly secret. He had never been in it."

Kelly: "What was the name of the plant?"

Matsuda: "He says just NZ plant."

Donnelly: "ask him what NZ plant made and what does NZ mean?" Matsuda: "He doesn't know." A few more questions about the ownership and location of the plant, then:

Kelly: "About how many chemists worked up there?"

Matsuda: "He says there are so many classes of chemists. Do you mean University Graduate?" Kelly: "yes." Matsuda: "He says that there are two factories under management of this company - one in Konan and one in Honbu. There are about 700 chemists altogether (approximately 300 at Konan)."

In a lengthy exchange, Natsume indicated that most of the scientists, engineers, and workers at Konan were arrested and then later released to go back to work. But six key technical people from NZ, whom he later named, were not released and he had "no idea" what the Russians were doing with them except they were being held in the "secret plant."

Kelly: "Has he got any idea as to how we can get these secret plans?"


Matsuda: "The six men mentioned are the only ones who knew much about the secret plant." [14]

As we shall see momentarily, perhaps the most significant thing about this interrogation is the date, October 31, 1946. It is also significant that the bulk of the scientists involved appear to have been chemists. Finally, as is apparent from the interrogation, the plant or plants at Konan were of significant size.

So what was the Konan complex? To reconstruct it requires a similar process to that used in examining the German uranium enrichment program. The transcript connects the Konan complex and a Japanese industrialist named Noguchi.

Jun Noguchi had built the huge Japanese complex of factories that nestled about the Yalu, Chosin, and Fusen rivers. The latter two rivers had been dammed by Noguchi to supply the enormous electrical power needed by his factories. "Together the three rivers delivered more than 1 million kilowatts of power" to the complex.[15] This was for the time a prodigious amount of electricity, especially in view of the fact that all of Japan produced no more than 3 million.[16] Begun in 1926 in a deal struck with the Japanese Army Noguchi's Konan empire expanded along with Japan's imperial appetites.

So, like the I.G. Farben "Buna" plant at Auschwitz, we note already two key ingredients are present at Konan: large electrical power production infrastructure, and proximity to large amounts of water. Konan, in fact, was the largest industrial complex in all of Asia, and relatively sheltered and even unknown to Allied bomber and the intelligence committees that prepared their targets lists.[17] But there is more.

Declassified documents noted that Konan was also near uranium ore deposits. "This was the logical place for an end-of-the- war atomic bomb project."[18] Moreover, as Wilcox discovered,

14. Wilcox, op. cit, pp. 222-224.
15. Wilcox, op. cit., p.63.
16. Ibid.
17. Ibid., p. 27.
18. Ibid.


"More digging...turned up a lengthier summary." Dated May 21, 1946 and originating within the U.S. Army's chief of staff office in South Korea, it stated:

Of increasing interest have been recent reports dealing with an apparent undercover research laboratory operated by the Japanese ... at ...Hungnam.... All reports agree that research and experiments on atomic energy were conducted.... The two chief scientists were Takahashi, Rikizo and Wakabayashi, Tadashiro.... The recent whereabouts of these two individuals is not known, inasmuch as they were taken into custody by the Russians last fell. However, before their capture they are reported to have burned their papers and destroyed their laboratory equipment.... Some reports... say... the Russians were able to remove some of the machinery. Further reports stated that the actual experiments on atomic energy were conducted in Japan, and the Hungnam plant was opened for the development of the practical application of atomic energy to a bomb or other military use. This section of the ... plant ... was always heavily guarded.... These reports received separately are surprisingly uniform as to content. It is felt that a great deal of credence should be attached to these reports as summarized.[19]

We may now speculate as to the real significance of these U.S. Army intelligence reports in the light of subsequent events.

Clearly, the U.S. Army is taking seriously allegations of a Japanese atom bomb project based in the northern Korean Peninsula, very close in fact, to the international border with China, and scene of one of the Korean War's bloodiest battles. At the Chosin Reservoir, General of the Armies Douglas MacArthur had been dealt a significant defeat and was forced to retreat. Indeed, after his celebrated landing at Inchon, MacArthur had relentlessly driven his troops northward in a classic blitzkrieg style campaign, designed in part to seize the Yalu River crossings, crucial to any further operations in China, as well as for defense against any Chinese invasion of the peninsula. And the Chosin Reservoir, and hence Noguchi's vast Konan complex, was also a prime military target. With MacArthur's insubordination and the subsequent

19. Wilcox, op. cit, p. 28.

Chinese entry into the war, Truman fired MacArthur. So goes the standard history.

But could the real motivations for MacArthur's lightning dash up the peninsula toward Chosin after the Inchon landings in fact have been based on a very different, and highly secret, agenda of military objectives? Given the U.S. Army's own intelligence memoranda concerning the Konan complex and Russian activities it seems all too likely. And this in turn may mean that the real motivations for his subsequent firing by Truman may also lie in what he uncovered there: certain knowledge of the extent, capabilities, and actual achievements of the Japanese scientists and engineers working on the genzai bakudan.

But what would have been so sensitive about the Japanese atom bomb project, beyond its actual achievements? To answer this question, we must speculate once again. What isotope separation and enrichment methods were known to the Japanese? What did physicist Nishina and his team of scientists finally rely on? Like them German counterparts, the Japanese knew that the ultra-centrifuge was the simplest path, at least in theory, toward the uranium bomb. But Japanese scientists calculated the needed revolutions-per-minute of such a device to be between 100,000 and 150,000 rpms. The United States itself, because of the difficulties in designing turbines of this speed, decided to forego enrichment via this [20] process.

At this point, Wilcox's reconstruction begins to run into a bit of trouble, for the Japanese, he reports, were able to design, and apparently to build, a large ultra-centrifuge.[21] Their only problem, according to Wilcox, was a large enough supply or uranium.

However, there is a significant weakness in this construction, for the Japanese, it will be recalled, had to request German assistance in the design and production of jet engines, a request that led not only to the exchange of blueprints for the Messerschmitt 262, the world's first operational jet fighter, but of technicians able to show the Japanese the necessary production methods and tolerances to construct such high speed turbines operating under the stress of

20. Wilcox, op. cit, p. 119.
21. Ibid., p. 120.


tremendous heat. In other words, while Japanese theoretical capabilities were not lacking at that time, they did lack certain industrial expertise which only the Germans possessed. Moreover, as we have already seen, the centrifuge idea had originated and been developed by the Germans. So if the Japanese successfully designed and built a large ultra-centrifuge, it would seem likely that German assistance was involved at some point.

The other method, a cheaper method and certainly one well within Japanese wartime industrial capability, and one taken to extremely large size by them, was very much a German device.

What the Nishina group finally did settle on was a process called thermal diffusion. This had been one of the first isotope separation processes devised. But until it was perfected by two German scientists, Klaus Clusius and Gerhard Dickel, in 1938, it had not been practical. Stated simply, thermal diffusion relied on the fact that light gas moves toward heat. Clusius and Dickel constructed a simple device consisting chiefly of two metal tubes placed on inside the other. The inner tube was heated; the outer one was cooled. When the apparatus was turned on, the lighter U-235 moved to the heat wall; the U-238, to the cold wall. Convex currents created by this movement sent the U-235 upward; the U-238 downward.... At a certain point the U-235 at the top could be collected, and new gas pumped in. it was a simple and rapid way to get relatively large concentrations of U-235. [22] As Wilcox notes, this process, developed as it was in Germany, gave the Japanese access to the latest development of this simple and unusual technology. And as we have already seen, the Germans also deliberately fabricated an alloy - Bondur - to offset the highly corrosive effects of uranium gas.

used in large size and enough quantity - At Auschwitz and Konan - and perhaps in conjunction with other technologies of enrichment, Von Ardenne's mass spectrograph adaptations of cyclotrons, it is entirely feasible that the Japanese also had a highly secret uranium enrichment project being run near the Konan complex. So one may advance the line of speculation further: with the surrender of the U-234 and its cargo of infrared proximity fuses and

22. Wilcox, op. cit, p. 95.

their inventor, Heinz Schlicke, and Japan's own request for "fuses" and plans for German strategic heavy bombers, acArthur's troops at the Chosin Reservoir may have uncovered not only evidence of Japanese progress and eventual testing of a uranium atomic bomb but they may have uncovered further evidence of the success of the program that lay behind it: Nazi Germany's. Indeed, the fuses point to a possible plutonium bomb project underway in both countries.

And so we return to the decision of the Japanese cabinet, and speculate further. If the Japanese government knew of the German program, they may also have known of the extent of its success, two bombs had fallen, and according to the translator for Marshal Rodion Malinovsky, another had fallen but not detonated. In any case, the Japanese were probably aware that while America's single bomb project may not have been capable of delivering more bombs within a short span of time, there would have been no way to estimate how many bombs might have been taken as war booty from the Germans. And the failure of the U-234's mission would have told them that at the minimum, fuses capable of use in a plutonium bomb as well as a large supply of enriched uranium had fallen into Allied hands. By August 12, 1945, with the successful test of the Japanese bomb and the German test of October 1944. the war had gone nuclear.

Thus, if the Japanese had been informed of the successful test of the German atom bomb in October of 1944, then the debate of the Imperial Cabinet in Tokyo is understandable. Japan was faced with a potential rain of atom bombs "of German provenance," to quote Oppenheimer's curious remark once again. Surrender, ganzai bakudan notwithstanding, was the logical choice, even for a nation steeped in "proud samurai traditions of honor."

Perhaps it is significant, in the light of contemporary problems with a nuclear North Korea, that the Japanese government issued a strong warning to North Korea that it could arm itself to the teeth with nuclear and thermonuclear weapons in a heartbeat, and would not hesitate to do so if threatened.

In this light, perhaps the most significant fact uncovered by Wilcox is that "contrary to the conventional military history that Japanese atomic efforts were bombed into extinction by spring


1945... the project was continued and heightened even after the

Emperor's August 15 surrender."[23]

Wilcox does not elaborate much farther than this, but the statement raises a chilling prospect:

How could a Japanese project survive right under the noses of the occupying American forces? ... and what if it was not only the Japanese project that survived?

The Konan (Chosin) Region of North Korea

23. Wilcox, op. cit., p. 239.



" And there is something else interesting: Erwin K. Oppenheimer maintained that the bomb that was dropped on Japan was of German provenance. "

--Edgar Mayer and Thomas Mehner, Das Geheimnis der deutschen Atombombe [1]

One of the most problematical documents to explain from the standpoint of the post-war Allied Legend is the top secret memorandum concerning the development of an atom bomb anonymously submitted to the German Army Ordnance Bureau (Heereswaffenamt) in early 1942. This document not only correctly estimated the critical mass for a uranium-235 based bomb, but also indicated the possibility of transmutation of uranium into plutonium - called "Element 94" by the memorandum - and its use in a bomb. The memorandum's origin and authorship has been attributed to various interred Farm Hall scientists, including Dr. Kurt Diebner. But the authorship is unknown, and the problem of its existence remains: How could the German army, knowing that the required amount of uranium for a nuclear bomb was comparatively small and therefore technically feasible, not have pursued its development? And how could they have pursued such laughably pathetic attempts toward a functioning reactor?

The mystery only deepens when we consider a possible ancestry for the Heereswaffenamt memo written in a paper the previous year.

In 1941, Baron Manfred von Ardenne decided to circulate an unusual paper by his colleague Dr. Fritz Houtermans. The full title of the paper was "On the Question of the Release of Nuclear chain

1. Edgar Mayer and Thomas Mehner, Das Geheimnis der deutschen Atombombe: Gewann Hitlers Wissenschaftler den nuklearen Wettlauf doch? Die Geheimprojekte bei Innsbruck, im Raum Jonastal bei Arnstadt und in Prague, p. 122.


reactions, by Fritz G. Houtermans: A Communication from the Laboratory of Manfred Von Ardenne, Berlin-Lichterfelde-Ost."[2] The paper is remarkable in several respects, not the least for its revealing table of contents:

I. General Point of View

II. Competing Processes

III. Chain Reactions through Nuclear Fission with Fast Neutrons

IV. Nuclear Fission through Thermal Neutrons

Isotope Separation

Selection of a heavy Moderator Substance such as Hydrogen, especially Heavy Water

Relative Advance of the Probability for 1/v Process through Application of Low Temperatures

Self-Regulating reaction and the Significance of the Doppler Effect at Low Temperatures

V. Chain Reactions at Final Trial Volumes

VI. The Importance of a Chain Reaction at Low Temperatures as a Neutron Source as an Apparatus for Isotope Transformation [3]

The general outline suggests that Houtermans had already thought his way through the process, not only of initiating nuclear explosions via fast neutrons, but also of the transformation of U-235 into higher elements not chemical identifiable with it. This is the first step toward plutonium, and to the use of plutonium rather than U-235 as the explosive fuel for a bomb. The contents of the paper confirms that this is what Houtermans has figured out in no uncertain terms:

We are able to envision here an apparatus, that would allow...a certain amount of U-235 to undergo nuclear reaction, simultaneously as an isotope transforming apparatus. The advantage vis-a-vis an isotope enrichment apparatus is therefore that the newly-created product, which would have an atomic number of 93 or more, is not chemically identical with uranium, and therefore is separable by chemical methods. Now since much larger amounts, namely 139 times more, of

2. Thomas Powers, Heisenberg's War, p. 112. The table of contents page of the original memorandum may be found in Mayer and Mehner, Das Geheimnis, p. 33. 3 Ibid., p. 32.


U-238 are available, so the amount that would be convertible as fuel for a chain reaction is, from the standpoint of our theme, much more important than isotope separation that would result in mere U-235.[4]

In other words, before the 1942 Heereswaffenamt memo (which not only gave a critical mass of a bomb with U-235 as the explosive fuel that is within the range of accuracy, but which also indicates the transformation of uranium into plutonium in a reactor as an alternative fuel returning more-bang-for-the-Reichsmark) Houtermans has clearly seen another path to the atom bomb. He may therefore also be considered a leading candidate, if not the leading candidate, for the authorship of the anonymous Heereswaffenamt memorandum. His Jewish background would explain why the memorandum was authored anonymously.

So, having speculated in previous pages that Nazi Germany had actually pursued a uranium bomb as the primary component of its bomb, and conducted a large and very secret uranium enrichment project in order to acquire it, we now come to the subject of the possibility of a plutonium bomb project, conducted once again in secret, and far from the "public exposure" laboratory tinkering of the Farm Hall scientists. In this respect there has already been one indication: the allegation of a second nuclear test of a bomb with a very small critical mass via the process of boosted fission, near the Three Corners region of Thuringia, an area that has the highest gamma background radiation in all of Germany.

Are there corroborating indications that the Germans might have successfully developed an atomic reactor, and hence, plutonium, in the secret recesses of Kammler's SS black programs secret weapons empire? Henry Picker, in his book Hitler's Table Talk, makes one significant statement. Not only does he indicate that the Reichspost had something to do with the atom bomb project, but he offers more detail. The bomb was to be constructed in a plant "in an underground SS factory in the southern Harz mountains, which had a foreseen production capacity of 30,000

4. Mayer and Mehner, Das Geheimnis, p. 32.


workers."[5] Once again, the trail leads back to the SS, the southern Harz mountains of Thuringia, and large underground factories. This facility, according to Picker, "was transferred back to the USSR by the Red Army" after the German surrender.[6]

According to Picker, it was for this reason that Stalin reacted with such detachment when President Truman informed him of the successful test of the plutonium bomb at the Trinity site in New Mexico, for Stalin had already acquired the necessary technology to make his own atom bomb. Moreover, Stalin awarded Manfred Von Ardenne the "Soviet 'Nobel Prize,' the Stalin Prize."[7] Mayer and Mehner comment on the real significance of this series of admissions:

Everything clear? The Russians thus came into possession of some means of production - which from then until now remains unknown -and paid off Manfred Von Ardenne, who was certainly the best consultant in these things, who must have clarified for them the things the Russians had found there.[8]

It is an intriguing idea, for we have already discovered a possible plutonium bomb detonation near Ohrdruf very late in the war.[9] This would of necessity imply that the Germans had acquired a successful atomic reactor, the question is, where? In any case, the reason for lack of knowledge about this project is clear: it was in the control of the SS, and therefore, within the portfolio of the security-obsessed General Kammler.

In any case, Houtermans' reactor concept was significantly different than Heisenberg's, or for that matter, even Enrico Fermi's successful atomic pile at the University of Chicago,

5. Henry Picker, Hitler's Tischgesprachen im Fuhrerhauptquartier, 2 Auflage (Berlin: Propylaen taschenbuch bei Ullstein, 1997), cited in Mayer and Mehner, Das Geheimnis, p. 34.
6. Ibid.
7. Mayer and Mehner, Das Geheimnis, p. 34, citing Picker.
8. ibid.
9. Uranium could of course have been used in a boosted fission device, butthe process works better with plutonium, and plutonium would more likely account for such a small critical mass as was reported, namely, 100 grams, since more than that would have been necessary for a uranium bomb even with boosted fission.


since it aimed at the production not of energy, but of radioactive isotopes. For this reason, it would be able to operate at low temperature using liquid methane as a moderator, rather than heavy water or graphite. This meant that it would be an efficient producer of "element 93 or higher" that could be chemically separated and used as a nuclear explosive.[10]

This is significant, for it differentiates the Von Ardenne-Houtermans effort both from the Heisenberg effort to design and construct a working atomic pile, and from Enrico Fermi's success in doing so.[11]

So at one end of the war, ca. 1945, we find the allegations on tested weapon of small critical mass which, if true, is most liked that of a plutonium bomb using a process of boosted fission, and at the other end, ca. 1941, we have a paper outlining a project to achieve a reactor for the production of the explosive fuel of such a bomb. There is an odd piece of corroboration that the Germans may also have been perilously close to, if not in actual possession of, a plutonium atom bomb, from the Pacific Theater and the Japanese program. Robert Wilcox, in his Japan's Secret War, recounts how the Spanish Nationalist government successfully ran a spy ring both for the Germans and for the Japanese, an espionage operation that had no little success in penetrating the Manhattan Project, even to the extent of acquiring in 1943 the earliest Allied designs for a detonator for such a bomb. Interviewing Angel Alcazar de Velasco, the alleged head of the ring, Wilcox quotes a rather astonishing statement:

The information was that the American work on a nuclear weapon was very advanced but they had a long way to go. There were even notes

10. Rose, op. cit, p. 141. Researcher Frank Joseph has found another source for a reactor, and consider his information to be so crucial to this story, and so sensational, that cannot in good conscience mention it in this work. I believe that it is a story that he best tells himself, since it is his discovery. He was kind enough to share it with me as this book was being written.


about the detonator. It was similar to one already in use by the Germans. [12]

A complicated detonator - presumably for use in a plutonium bomb, since the detonator mechanism for a uranium bomb is a much simpler piece of equipment - already in use by the Germans in 1943!? Why would the Germans have had the need for such a complex detonator? The timing of the allegation is also disturbing, since it corroborates the assertions, examined earlier, of the Japanese military attache in Stockholm, that the Germans were using some type of weapon of mass destruction on the Eastern Front ca. 1943, in the region of Kursk.[13] But Houtermans was interested in more than just atom bombs. Even Paul Lawrence Rose admits that Houtermans' role in Nazi atom bomb research "remains enigmatic."[14] The reason why, though, is clear enough, once its enormous implications are understood, for Houtermans' real specialty lay in the first theoretical description of the process of thermonuclear fusion of heavy hydrogen (deuterium and tritium) atoms through high heat in stars, the very heat produced by an uncontrolled chain reaction.[15] With this, we are a step closer to unlocking the riddle of just exactly what types of weapons Kammler's "think tank" was working on, for if Hotelmans' idea was seized upon, then hydrogen bombs would have been the next logical progression in the

12. Wilcox, op. cit, p. 28, emphasis added.

13. The attache, it will be recalled, actually maintained that these weapons - whatever they were - were also used in the "Crimea", making it most likely during the siege of the Russian fortress of Sevastopol in 1942. Thus would seem to weigh very heavily against this mystery weapon being an atom bomb. But if not, what other weapon could have caused such destruction? This is a question that will be more fully addressed in subsequent parts of this book. Powers notes that Allen Dulles in Zurich received reports of a German project in "vast underground factories" that were after "putting out a new explosive in aerial bombs. He has even heard that the container of the explosive is spherical." (Rose, op. cit., p. 272, emphasis added) A spherical detonator, of course, is the type of implosion-compression detonator used to assemble the critical mass of a plutonium bomb.

14. Rose, op. cit., p. 51, n. 38.

15. Q.v. Powers, Heisenberg's War.


"technology tree" from the atom bomb, just as it was for the Americans and Russians after the war. Is there any indication the this was in fact the real ultimate goal of the secret German SS atom bomb program? In other words, was it really an atom bomb program at all? Or was it a hydrogen bomb program?

Fantastic as it may be to believe, the latter possibility would seem to be the actual case. The letter of Professor Lachner referred to previously also gives further illumination on the goal of Kammler's SS Sonderkommando:

Work was also conducted on the hydrogen bomb. A factory for the manufacture of heavy hydrogen was constructed in Norway but was of course destroyed by the enemy. The small uranium bombs were primarily intended as detonators for the hydrogen bombs, so their immediate use was not contemplated.[16]

Another corroboration for this astonishing assertion may be found in a pre-war Austrian patent for a "molecular bomb", an early version of the hydrogen bomb, from 1938.[17] In any case, Professor Lachner asserts unequivocally that the real goal of the project was weapon more terrifying and destructive than the atom bomb.

Another factor is worth mentioning in this regard. The pursuit of the hydrogen bomb would also explain why the Nazis were interested in small atom bombs, made smaller via boosted fission, for a hydrogen bomb, at least with the technology available back then, would have been an enormously heavy and cumbersome object. The quest for "miniaturization" was therefore another practical aim: any such bomb would have to be made small enough for German bombers or rockets to carry, and even then, only the very largest bombers or rockets would have been up to the task, if at all.[18]

16. Mayer and Mehner, Das Geheimnis, p. 80.
17. Ibid., pp. 255-256.
18. It should be recalled that the first hydrogen bomb, America's "Mike", weighed several tons, and was impractical as an actual weapon. America's first operational hydrogen bomb actually weighed several tons. It is difficult to imagine any existing aircraft in the German arsenal, not even the enormous Ju-390, as being up to the task of delivering a hydrogen bomb, and the specifications for the A-9/10 Amerikaraket are far below what would be needed


But to produce hydrogen bombs, one must have an adequate supply of the heavy hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium. Here again, however, the Allied Legend intervenes, and maintains that after the successful Allied destruction of the Norwegian heavy water plant at Ryukon, German production of the precious destructive substance was never able to recover, and, as a consequence, heavy water for a moderator in reactors (much less a hydrogen bomb!) was never in enough supply. The further implication of this assertion is, of course, that the failure of Heisenberg and other scientists to construct a reactor based on heavy water as a moderator was doomed to failure because of the lack of supply. But again, the reality was quite different. Dr. Diebner in an exchange with Dr. Wirtz - both later interred at Farm Hall -indicated that a complete heavy water plant was built in Germany by the end of 1943.[19] However, revelations made at the end of the war were even more important as a means of measuring the truly significant extent of German heavy water production: a large heavy water factory, hitherto entirely unknown, had been discovered by the Allies in Kiel in northern Germany. But most importantly, after the German reunification in 1989, when the vast SS underground factories in the Harz region of Thuringia in the former eastern zone were rediscovered, many of these were found to contain several large electrical generators, enough to supply power for a few small cities![20]

Such high electrical output would certainly not have been needed for the last Fuhrer Headquarters, but it certainly would have been required for factories separating uranium isotope(especially if they used Von Ardenne's cyclotron process), and that manufactured heavy water. Was the hydrogen bomb the real goal? Does this explain the reason that, if Germany did have the atom for such a bomb. The only practical method of delivering a hydrogen bomb, it seems to me, would have been via a large submarine or ship to a port city, a militarily quite risky venture, and one that, for the German crews involved, would have been a one-way venture.

19. Mayer and Mehner, Das Geheimnis, p. 197.
20. Ibid., p. 198.


bomb, it (or they) were seldom if ever actually used, being husbanded as detonators for something far more powerful? Does this also explain, in part, the real reason for the curtain of secrecy that fell over Kammler's special SS "think tank" command structure?

One indication that this may be so were remarks made by Dr. Josef Gobbels to the Italian officer Luigi Romersa who witnessed the Rugen atom bomb test, whom we encountered earlier. According to Romersa, Gobbels told him "Heavy water is an important material in the manufacture of the disintegration bomb.[21] We had already before the war made some headway in the direction..."[22] Headway indeed, if an Austrian patent for prototype had already been taken out in 1938![23]

That the ultimate goal of the German atom bomb project was the hydrogen bomb, and not the atom bomb at all, seems in retrospect both quite logical and quite disconcerting. As we shall discover in the remaining parts of this book, however, even hydrogen bombs pale by comparison not only just to the "paper projects" being studied in Kammler's SS Sonderkommando, but to the very real projects and experiments with forces of even larger potential destructive capability than hydrogen bombs. Having foreseen the thermonuclear future, the SS was already planning and experimenting with countermeasures, and with second and third generations of offensive strategic weapons even more horrifying.

21. Auflosungsbombe.
22. Mayer and Mehner, Das Geheimnis, p. 102.
23. Such a patent would have been immediately classified as a "Geheime Reichsache" or "secret state matter", i.e., a matter of national security as would now be said. As such, it would have definitely made its way directly to Kammler's "think tank," as will be seen in subsequent parts of this book.


The Allied Discovery of a Heavy Water Plant in Kiel after the end of the War



"Bagge in Berlin and Clusius and Dickel in Munich developed isotope separation methods but achieved little practical success. They never obtained enough U-235 to make the proper measurements and certainly too little for a bomb."

--David Cassidy, "Introduction," Hitler's Uranium Club [1]

The transcripts of the German scientists interred at Farm Hall seem like a microcosm of Nazi German culture itself, simultaneously charming and paranoid, moralizing and utterly amoral, suffused with brilliant subtlety and ham-fisted bluntness. In view of the thesis that has been examined throughout the previous pages, the Farm Hall transcripts also reveal an equal schizophrenic on the part of commentators ever since their declassification in the early 1990s by the British government. Consider for example the following remark by Jeremy Bernstein with regard to Samuel Goudsmit's "Alsos" mission to Germany at the end of the was "As the mission progressed, and the Alsos team learned more and more about the paucity of the German program, the concern focused on not letting the Russians get at the Germans and so glean 'any major bomb secrets.'"[2] If the German bomb program was in a state characterized as "paucity," and if there were fundamental "problems" in Heisenberg's understanding of nuclear fission and bomb physics - as there indeed were - then why the concern at all? But then early on in the transcripts an exchange betwen Heisenberg, Diebner, and Korsching occurs, in which the three German scientists discuss the possibility that they may have been viewed by the Allies and Soviets at Potsdam as war booty.

1. David Cassidy, "Introduction," in Jeremy Bernstein, ed., Hitler's Uranium Club: The Secret Recordings at Farm Hall, Second Edition, (new York: Copernicus, 2001), p. xxix.

2. Bernstein, op. cit, p. 47.


Barnstein then comments "presumably Heisenberg is worried here about being taken to task in German for failing to build a bomb. The notion that these ten German scientists would be discussed at the Potsdam Conference borders on the ludicrous."[3] If so ludicrous, then why inter them for months, secretly record their conversations and transcribe them, and then keep them classified until the early 1990s? Clearly it would seem that something more is going on at Farm Hall that either eludes commentators, or that they are simply ignoring. The conversations proceeds among the ten scientists, with one concern (prior to the announcement of the a-bombing of Hiroshima) being how to continue with their "work", totally oblivious to the fact that others had indeed carried on their "work" to brilliant conclusion.[4] The schizophrenia grows whenever the subject of isotope separation comes up in conversation. In the epigraph that began this chapter, reference is made to the Clusius tube "thermal diffusion" method perfected by Clusius and Dickel: "Bagge in Berlin and Clusius and Dickel in Munich developed isotope separation methods but achieved little practical success. They never obtained enough U-235 to make the proper measurements and certainly too little for a bomb." [5] However, in the transcripts themselves, Heisenberg remarks that one reason he and his fellow scientists were interred was that the Allies did not "want us to pass on our knowledge to other people." [6] However it is the editorial comment of this remark that really intrigues; the Germans, notes Bernstein, would have had little knowledge "that would have been of any use to the Allies," but a great deal of expertise that they would have wanted to keep from the hands of other powers such as France and Russia. Then follows another remark concerning Harteck's "ultra-centrifuge" technology, which "would have been an extraordinarily useful thing for any country to possess."[7] Indeed,

3. Bernstein, op. cit, p. 81, n. 16.
4. Ibid., pp. 82-84.
5. Ibid., Cassidy, "Introduction," p. xxix.
6. Ibid., p. 91, the conversation is between Heisenberg, Von Weizsacker, Wirtz, Harteck and Diebner on July 18, 1945.
7. Ibid., p. 91, n. 7.


this was a technology that even the U.S. and U.K. had not brought to such an advanced state of perfection.

And then, on July 26, 1945, a remark is made by Otto Hahn that only increases the mystery: "1 read an article in the Picture Post about the uranium bomb; it said that the newspapers had mentioned that such a bomb was being made in Germany. Now you can understand that we are being 'detained' because we are such men."[8] The editorial comment only increases the problem: "This was before the bomb was used on Japan, when its existence was kept in strict secrecy!" [9] Had Hahn unwittingly let the cat out of the box? It is an odd thing for a scientist of Hahn's stature to say, especially since, as we have seen, there were a wealth of "indications" of the size of the German project that appeared in short articles in the Allied press both during and after the war.

Then on July 21, 1945, the handsome and cynical Horst Korsching, discussing the prospects for making a living with Diebner and Bagge, offers a curious observation:

BAGGE: For the sake of the money, I should like to work on the uranium engine; on the other hand, I should like to work on cosmic rays. I feel like Diebner about this.

KORSCHING: Would you both like to construct a uranium engine?

DIEBNER: This is the chance to earn a living.

KORSCHING: Every layman can see that these ideas are exceedingly important. Hence there won't be any money in it. You only make money on ideas which have escaped the general public. If you invent something like artificial rubies for the watch making industry, you will make more money than with the uranium engine. [10]

Artificial rubies? Of course, such things were used in watchmaking before the invention of quartz movement. But in 1945, the idea was fantastic. Of course, by the time of the declassification of these transcripts, the world's first laser, which did in fact use an artificial

8. Bernstein, op. cit., p. 94.
9. Ibid., n. 19.
10. Ibid., p. 99.


ruby as the main component of the lasing optical cavity, was history, having been invented in 1961. But in July of 1945 the idea was more than a little ahead of its time. Is this another possible, though slight, indication that something else was going on inside Nazi Germany? Later in the conversation, Korsching expresses his desire to return to Hechingen to collect his telescope, lenses and prisms, an indication that he was perhaps involved in optical as well as nuclear research. But then, another curious statement from Korsching:

Of course it would be an idea to go to the Argentine with two people and say: "Here we are, we know how to do this and that; we have a good method for the separation of isotopes, we do not need to produce heavy water." Somehow in this fashion we have to do it. It would not come to anything if you collaborated with Heisenberg on a uranium engine. They did not even bring along the small fry to this place, that is how outsiders judge the work. [11]

If the thesis presented thus far is true, and there was a very secretive SS bomb project and if the Heisenberg represented a false front "sham" project being deliberately shut out of the loop by the SS and maintained for Allied consumption, then indeed there may be other motivations for the internment of the German scientists than are commonly supposed. If, for example, General Patton's Third Army troops did indeed find and discover components and scientists from the SS project, then it would have been crucial to ascertain whether or not the "big fish" - to paraphrase Korsching's rather self-important view of the scientists at Farm Hall - had had any knowledge of these SS projects.

Then, in the transcripts of conversations from August 1-6, 1945, Dr. Kurt Diebner briefly mentions a fact that carries great significance in the light of what we have discovered of the German atom bomb project and the SS Sonderkommando underground factories in the Harz Mountains in Thuringia. Diebner mentions very briefly that his supply of radium was obtained "from the Harz."[12] Bernstein's comment at this juncture is of a brevity huge

11. Bernstein, op. cit., p. 100.
12. Ibid.,p. 111.

with omissions: "A mountain range in central Germany." Bernstein does not have anything more to say about the subject. Is he ignorant of the claims being uncovered by contemporary German researchers? Or does the omission of mention stem from some other motivation?

In any case, the tenor and mood of the scientists quickly changes when they learn of the atom bomb dropped on Hiroshima. The first reactions, recorded by the British microphones, occurs between Hahn and Wirtz:

HAHN: They can only have done that if they have uranium isotope separation.

WIRTZ: They have it too.[14]

A discussion quickly ensues between all the German scientists, and again it is Diebner who makes a short statement pregnant with significance: "We always thought we would need two years for one bomb." [15] Moreover, Bernstein at this point betrays a hesitation and uncertainty unusual in his otherwise straightforward commentaries and annotations whose aim is clearly to maintain the Allied Legend: "I am not sure whom Diebner includes in his 'we' here or on what his estimate is based. But his use of the word 'bomb' is unchallenged by the others." [16] Who indeed were the people that Diebner referred to when he said "we"? Bernstein appears not to know, but given that Diebner has earlier referred to his supply of radium "in the Harz", we may rationally speculate that Diebner was referring obliquely, and no doubt intentionally so, to his colleagues in the SS run program.

Then follows a short, but astonishing, exchange between Hahn, Weizsacker, Harteck, Wirtz, and Diebner:

14. Bernstein, op. cit., p. 115, emphasis added.
15. Ibid., p. 117.
16. Ibid., p. 118.


HAHN: I think it's absolutely impossible to produce one ton of uranium 235 by separating isotopes. [17]

WEIZSACKER: What do you do with these centrifuges?

HARTECK: You can never get pure "235" with the centrifuge. But I don't believe that it can be done with the centrifuge.

WIRTZ: No certainly not.

HAHN: Yes, but they could do it with mass spectrographs. Ewald has some patent. [18]

DIEBNER: There is also a photochemical process. [19]

Now let us put all this in context, for this little exchange is an indication that a possible "farce" is being played out at Farm Hall, not only by the interred German scientists, but also possibly by the declassification of the transcripts themselves. What do I mean by this? Note that the transcripts are declassified by the British after the German reunification in 1989, an oblique admission, perhaps, that there was no more purpose in maintaining whatever secrets they still held, since there would now be other sources available to tell the story that had been long suppressed: that the Nazis had been either perilously close to, or had actually acquired the atom bomb before the Allies.

First, note in the above exchange that Otto Hahn, whose remarks began this chapter, has now changed his mind. His earlier

17. This comment, in the light of what has already been learned about the size of the German enrichment program, can mean only one of two things: (1) Hahn is deliberately lying here, to deflect his on possible involvement in the program; or (2) he is telling the truth, and knows nothing about it. Of the two, the latter is the much more likely.

18. Again, Hahn has pointed the way clearly to Baron Manfred von Ardenne's cyclotron modifications. Thus, the German scientists knew how to do it, and as is therefore extremely likely, the SS also knew which was the best method. Hence, the extraordinary power consumption at Auschwitz points, as does the most efficient method itself, to Von Ardenne's method as the method most likely used there and elsewhere to separate isotope.

19. Bernstein, op. cit., p. 118.


remarks mention isotope separation as the means to a bomb. Now, he has reversed himself, and all on the same day. But then comes Weizsacker's remark: What else would one used centrifuges for?[20] This is countered by remarks from the inventor himself, Paul Harteck, who maintained one cannot obtain "pure 235" via that process. Wirtz then chimes in with agreement, and then Hahn, ever the radio-chemist, reverses himself again, within a matter of minutes, by coming to the obvious conclusion from a scientific and engineering standpoint: the best way to obtain "pure" U-235 was via mass spectrography.

But then comes the bombshell. Diebner, who clearly has some connection to Kammler's SS "think tank" special projects empire in the Harz mountains, alludes to an unknown "photochemical" process for isotope separation and enrichment. Even Bernstein admits that whatever Diebner meant by this remark is "unclear"[21] In all likelihood, it is unclear, because it remains classified, somewhere, by someone. And that should give us pause, for it means that the Kammlerstab may have found a method of isotope separation and enrichment that remains otherwise unknown to this day!

Shortly after this revealing little exchange, Wirtz then offers another solution: "I would bet," he says, "that it is separation by diffusion with recycling."[22] Wirtz is clearly proposing that separation was a multi-staged process, with the result of one pass through the separation process then being used as feedstock for another pass for enrichment to greater purity, and the process being repeated until the desired grade of purity - weapons grade - was obtained. The diffusion process mentioned in this context is vague, for there were at least two methods known to the Germans, the Allies, and the Japanese under the name of "diffusion". One method, cited by Bernstein as the explanation of Wirtz's remarks, is the manufacture of uranium gas, and forcing it under pressure through sinterized metal. Sinterization simply means that a metal

20. As we shall discover, there may well have been another use to which this, or a modified, technology had been put by the SS.
21. Bernstein, op. cit, p. 117, n. 24.
22. Ibid., p. 118.


contains billions of micro-pores or holes of specific and tiny size, through which the atoms of different isotopes diffuse at slightly different rates of speed. "The original estimate was that 5,000 of these barriers would be needed for nearly complete separation, as opposed to 22,000 centrifuges."[21] The other process was thermal diffusion that was already examined more closely in chapter 7.

The thermal diffusion method is mentioned briefly in the published Farm Hall transcripts during the conversations of the German scientists on the day of the Hiroshima bombing by Weizsacker.[24] Bernstein notes of this method that it was being tried by Korsching, and that it consisted of a "glass tube and heating coil to separate isotopes. It never worked well for uranium."[25] But what Bernstein has described is the original Clusius-Dickel tube for thermal diffusion, a process that was not efficient, as Bernstein correctly indicates. However, a different method of Clusius tubes was described by Wilcox in reference to the Japanese program:

What the Nishina group finally did settle on was a process called thermal diffusion. This had been one of the first isotope separation processes devised. Bu until it was perfected by two German scientists, Klaus Clusius and Gerhard Dickel, in 1938, it had not been practical. Stated simply, thermal diffusion relied on the fact that light gas moves toward heat. Clusius and Dickel constructed a simple device consisting chiefly of two metal tubes placed one inside the other. The inner tube was heated; the outer tube was cooled. When the apparatus was turned on, the lighter U-235 moved to the heat wall; the U-238, to the cold wall. Convex currents created by this movement sent the U-235 upward; the U-238 downward. The result was something like a heated house in winter; hot air rising, cold air staying at the bottom. At a certain point the U-235 at the top could be collected, and new gas pumped in. It was a simple and rapid way to get relatively large concentrations of U-235.[26]

And with repeated passes through a series of such vessels, purity would be increased. In any case, there is some discrepancy in the

23. Bernstein, op. cit., p. 119, n. 28.
24. Ibid., p. 199.
25. Ibid., p. 83, n. 27.
26. Robert K. Wilcox, Japan's Secret War, p. 95, emphasis added.


method as described by Bernstein, and that by Wilcox. Perhaps the latter described a modification made to the original method, with extremes of heat and cold being applied.

Harteck, Wirtz, and Heisenberg then continue the subject to isotope separation and enrichment a little further on:

HARTECK: They have managed it with mass spectrographs on a large scale or else they have been successful with a photochemical process.

WIRTZ: Well I would say photochemistry or diffusion, ordinary diffusion. They irradiate it with a particular wavelength (all talking together).

At this juncture, Bernstein again observes that "it is not clear" what this photochemical process is.[27] In any case, whatever the process was, Wirtz's mention of it and of irradiation with a particular "wavelength" appears to have provoked a burst of conversation from the other scientists. Were they intentionally trying to drown him out and mask his statements so as not to be recorded? We will never know. But in any case, the conversation continues:

HARTECK: Or using mass spectrographs in enormous quantities. It is perhaps possible for a mass spectrograph to make 1 milligram in one day -say of "235." They could make quite a cheap mass spectrograph, which, in very large quantities, might cost a hundred dollars. You could do it with 100,000 mass spectrographs.

Again, Bernstein's comment is suggestive: "This is essentially what the Allies did."[28 But it is also, as we have seen, very probably what the Germans did at the "Buna plant" at Auschwitz and later, in the large underground factories run by Kammler's SS Sonderkommando. The Farm Hall scientists, as to be expected, seemed totally oblivious to this program, but have worked out the basic facts for themselves.

HEISENBERG: Yes, of course, if you do it like that, and they seem to have worked on that scale, 180,000 people were working on it.

27. Bernstein, op. cit., p. 120, n. 37.
28. Ibid., p. 120, n. 38.


HARTECK: Which is 100 times more than we had.[29] It may have been 100 times more than Harteck or any of the high profile scientists interred at Farm Hall had at their disposal, but it was certainly not a number beyond the SS, with its hundreds of thousands of concentration camp slave laborers. Hahn later reinforces the pathetic plight of the "Heisenberg group" by adding "Of course, we were unable to work on that scale."[30] Such facts and methods would doubtless have been known to the Kammlerstab, and doubtless he would have pursued them with his customary "focus."

Harteck then corroborated this view in a statement regarding the Clusius process, and his numbers reveal the dangerous potential for isotope separation and enrichment that lay within Nazi Germany's capabilities if worked on a similarly large scale as the Manhattan Project:

If it is a fact that an explosive can be produced either by means of the mass spectrograph - we would never have done it as we could never have employed 56,000 workmen. For instance, when we considered the Clusius-Linde business combined with our exchange cycle we would have needed to employ 50 workmen continuously in order to produce two tons a year. If we wanted to make ten tons we would have had to employ 250 men. We couldn't do that.[31]

For Harteck and the other Farm Hall scientists, the problem Was not means or methods, it was simply a labor shortage, a shortage the SS was not experiencing. Later, Harteck is even more specific:

Considering the figures involved I think it must have been mass spectrographs. If they had had some other good method they wouldn't have needed to spend so much. One wouldn't have needed so many men.

29. Ibid., p.120
30. Ibid., p. 121.
31. Ibid.


Korsching responds, and a small debate ensues, in which a sensitive topic is barely touched upon by Harteck, and Bernstein's editorial comment becomes either an exercise in ignorance, or deliberate omission:

KORSCHING: It was never done with spectrographs.

HEISENBERG: I must say I think your theory is right and that is spectrographs.

WIRTZ: I am prepared to bet that it isn't.

HEISENBERG: What would one want 60,000 men for?

KORSCHING: You try and vaporize one ton of uranium.

HARTECK: You only need ten men for that. I was amazed at what saw at I.G. [32]

Bernstein's only comment here is to note the obvious, that "I.G." means "I.G. Farben," nothing else is said. Either Bernstein is unaware of the Farben "Buna plant" and its mysterious properties of consuming more electricity than Berlin and producing no Buna, or he has intentionally omitted any further clarification of Harteck's remark. The Allied Legend, in so far as Bernstein is concerned, is intact.

For his part however, Harteck is either clearly implying that he saw some large scale effort underway by I.G. Farben, employed tens of thousands of workers, or his remarks might also be construed to indicate that the Germans had discovered a method to make the process less labor intensive. In any case, I know of no other Farben facility in Germany at the time that was known to be working on enrichment. The only facility with the requisite "enrichment facility" signature is the one at Auschwitz, and this means that Harteck may have seen not only a project as large as that at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, but one that was either more efficient - as we know Von Ardenne's mass spectrographs to be - than its

32. Bernstein, op. cit, p. 122, emphasis added.


American counterpart, as well as one less reliant on skilled labor, for the labor at Auschwitz, was "inexhaustible", and unfortunately, suspendable. In any case, if all this is so, then it is a strong indicator that Harteck's and possibly some or all of the other interred scientists' remarks in the Farm Hall transcripts are careful stage-acting, a script that reveals just enough engineering savvy to indicate that the scientists knew at least the broad outlines of how an atom bomb could be achieved without a nuclear reactor (or "uranium engine" as they called it), and yet interlarded with just enough ignorance on specifics to indicate either that they were not involved at the highest levels, or that they were deliberately dissembling. In Harteck's case, at least, we must opt for deliberate dissembling to a certain degree, for what he saw - if he was not completely involved with it - was a vast enrichment program proceeding on the emaciated backs of concentration camp laborers.

As if this were not enough, Weizsacker later corroborates the broad outlines of the top secret SS program we have outlined previously:

WEIZSACKER: If you had wanted to make a bomb we would probably have concentrated more of the separation of isotopes and less on heavy water.... If we had started this business soon enough we could have got somewhere. If they were able to complete it in the summer of 1945, we might have had the luck to complete it in the winter 1944-45.[33]

Note that he not only corroborates the broad time frame we have aleady found for the alleged German atom bomb test at Rugen, but more importantly, his statement comes after Harteck's clear allusion to the existence of just such a program in Nazi Germany.

A little later, the British military intelligence summary of the conversation that ensues interjects the following cryptic summary of comments made by Walter Gerlach, without any further commentary: "Gerlach goes on to explain that the Nazi party seemed to think that they were working on a bomb and relates how the Party people in Munich were going round from house-to-house

33. Bernstein, op. cit., p. 123.

on the 27th or 28th of April last telling everyone that the atomic bomb would be used the following day."[34] Bernstein's editorial note reflects his confusion, and confirms that he is in all likelihood not familiar with the allegations of the tests at Rugen and Ohrdruf: " It is not clear who has supposed to be using this weapon and against whom."[35]

In any case, so far from contradicting the possibility of a secret enrichment and bomb program, however, in the main the Farm Hall scientists seem to corroborate it.

Finally, Harteck again must have stunned his British captors with a remark made near the end of the transcript for August 6, 1945:

HARTECK: The multiplication factor with "235" is 2.8, and when one collides with the other how long is the path until it happens? 4 centimeters, Rx is the radius. Then you have to multiply that by the mean free path and divide it by the square root of the multiplication factor. That should be 3.2. Rx is about 14 centimeters, the weight is200 kilograms; then it explodes.[36]

Even Bernstein cannot ignore this, and his comment indicates the there is a "possible something" lurking behind Harteck's figures:

This apparently off-hand calculation of the critical mass by Harteck which does lead to a sensible answer, unlike Heisenberg's shows some evidence that he had done this problem before. It is difficult to believe that he would have known, for example, that the critical radius involved the inverse square root of the multiplication factor if he had not thought about it. How Harteck got the number 2.8 for the multiplication factor is unclear. During the war the Los Alamos people, who certainly knew a lot more than he did, used 2.2. Only after the war was the number increase to 2.52 as the measurements became better. Perhaps it was Harteck who supplied the German Army Ordnance report of January 1942 with its numbers in the scientists' attempts to interest the Army in continuing support of bomb research.[37]

34. Ibid., p. 126.
35. Ibid., n. 85.
36. Ibid., p. 133.
37. Ibid., n. 121.


perhaps Harteck had "run the numbers" before. But there is another possibility.

Perhaps, on his visit to "I.G." that he alluded to earlier, someone had shown Harteck the numbers. In this regard it is perhaps significant that of all the Farm Hall scientists, his comments most consistently point to the acknowledgment of a feasible method that, with large enough scale, could lead to sufficient quantities of fissile weapons grade uranium. And it is significant too that the transcripts reveal a variety of methods known and available to the Germans that, used in sufficient numbers and with a sufficient labor pool, could have done exactly that. Harteck's comments point in the consistent and general direction of Manfred Von Ardenne, Fritz Houtermans, and the rubberless "Buna facility" of I.G. Farben at Auschwitz. Like the Farben directors themselves in the dock at Nuremberg, Harteck is perhaps, in his own subtle way, trying to set the record straight. These facts and associated speculations also perhaps explain why, after so many years, the Farm Hall transcripts were finally declassified, for they do not, in the final analysis, serve the Allied Legend well.



"So it is that proof of an arrangement between Martin Bormann and the United States, if there was one, does not appear to exist. What is apparent, however, is that the United States went to some trouble to ensure that such evident of a relationship does not exist!"

--Carter Hydrick, Critical Mass [1]

I believe a strong prima facie case has been outlined that Nazi Germany developed and successfully tested, and perhaps used, an uranium atom bomb before the end of World War Two, and possibly that it had made significant strides toward the acquisition if not outright testing, of a boosted fission plutonium bomb of small critical mass and high yield. This thesis, radical as it is, does seem to resolve at a stroke discrepancies and anomalies - some seemingly trifling and others much more blatant - about the political and operational history of the war. The idea of an actual German atom bomb and project, and not the small, miserably failed, laboratory effort proffered by the Allied Legend, seems to provide suitable explanations for a host of things that have long puzzled analysts and commentators.

For example, what of Hitler's declaration of war against the United States in December of 1941, after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor? Analysts have puzzled over this decision and his possible motivations in doing so for decades, and a variety of unsatisfactory explanations have been advanced, from his bourgeois sense of "duty" to his Japanese ally, to the secret naval war fought "off-the-books" for months between the Third Reich and the United States and the need to make it "official", to Hitler's impatience, delusions, and/or insanity, to the realization by the Nazi leadership that Roosevelt meant to enter the European war one way or

1. Carter Hydrick, Critical Mass, internet publisher manuscript (>www.3dshort.com/nazibomb2/CRITICALMASS.txt), p. 133.


another no later than 1943. But regardless of what Hitler's motivations or thought processes may have been, from the standpoint of conventional military analysis, the German declaration of war on America was sheer suicide, as her overwhelming production capacity and oceanic insulation virtually assured her of initial supremacy over the Nazi war-making juggernaut. Hitler's decision, as German armies were stalled and freezing to death at the gates of Moscow in 1941, seems more than suicidal. Hitler was shown for what he was: a madman. But from the perspective of the evidence presented here, that was not the real military picture in December 1941 at all, not was it in the secret counsels that the German dictator kept in his mind. His scientists, after all, had discovered nuclear fission, and his scientists had proposed a method of obtaining an atom bomb via large quantities of isotope separation and enrichment machines and huge concentrations of labor. His scientists would, in a month or so, assure him, via the Heereswaffenamt memorandum, that the amount of material needed for a bomb was not tons, but kilograms. And his favorite atomic scientist, Manfred Von Ardenne, and his associate Dr. Fritz Houtermans, had already published a manuscript on how it could all be done. And he knew, too, that Germany had the needed material - uranium - in an abundance that the United States could only scarcely imagine.

In retrospect, then, the secrecy surrounding the German project seems all too clear, for the best source of cheap labor lay in the death camps, camps that Hitler desired to keep secret from the German people, for obvious reasons. By early 1941 Farben had already begun construction of its "Buna plant" at Auschwitz. And there was more probably lurking in Hitler's twisted mind: before the war, some scientists in the Reich had spelled out the basic idea behind a weapon even more powerful than the atom bomb, for which the latter was but a fuse. Hitler, on this view, ever the gambler, too the risk, confident of being in the possession of a fearful arsenal within a short span of two to three years, and declared war on the United States.

So too the military deployments and operations of the European war's end that made little sense before now begin to take on an


operational logic that is almost irresistible. The madcap, and some would say, militarily and politically indefensible, Allied dash away from Berlin and to south central Germany and Prague are consistend with American knowledge, at some very high level, of Kammler's SS Sonderkommando black projects and secret weapons empire. Hitler's own obsession with the defense of Breslau in lower Silesia and of Prague itself, an obsession that made no sense to his generals, make military sense only in the context of an atom bomb and inter-continental rocket project that was successful in the attainment of the first and perilously close to the attainment of the second.

Similarly, Reichsfuhrer SS Heinrich Himmler's offer of a surrender to the Western Allies has usually been dismissed as the frantic attempts of a desperate mass murderer to avoid his inevitable fate, and nothing more. But Himmler, like Hitler, and possibly only Martin Bormann, was one of the "inmost circle" who knew the full extent of Kammler's empire and its actual activities Himmler may have therefore used this knowledge as a possible bargaining chip. His offer was rejected, not so much because it was not genuine (from Himmler's point of view), but because he had long lost genuine control of it. The deal had already probably been cut between Kammler's representatives and OSS station chief in Zurich, Allen Dulles, or via General Patton himself. Bormann, too as we have seen, was implicated in this plot, and, as we shall see in subsequent chapters, is directly linked to Kammler.

The thesis of an actual German atom bomb also explains the odd little events that began to surface in scattered Allied press reports toward and immediately after the end of the European War long-range heavy lift round trip "proof of concept" flights from Europe to within sight of New York City, Luftwaffe maps of Manhattan with blast damage estimates for an atom bomb of the same approximate yield as Hiroshima, a Norwegian airfield filled with over forty long range bombers capable of making the flight, "Buna plants" that incomprehensibly use more electricty than Berlin and paradoxically produce no rubber during the entire course of the war, U-boats loaded with infrared fuses - a device whose technical complexity betokens an immediate nuclear application -and


enriched uranium powder ready for metalicization. Likewise, this thesis provides a more plausible explanation, for those inclined to think it suspicious, for the mysterious death of America's most celebrated and famous, and for the equally impossible "triple death" of Germany's most sinister, generals. Patton, as was seen, was the commander of the very America army entrusted with seizing the motherload of secret weapons research treasures in Thuringia and at Pilsen in Czechoslovakia. He, at the top of the Third Army's command structure, would have been privy to all the first intelligence reports of his units entering those areas, and would easily have been the first man outside Kammler himself to see enough of the pieces to put together a reasonable picture of the whole. If indeed Patton was deliberately silenced, and I am by no means convinced that he was, then surely this is the most plausible motivation for the deed. And finally, as was seen, a successful German atom bomb project might very well me the inner moral logic at work in the German Resistance's bomb plot against Adolf Hitler in July of 1944. Similarly, the thesis puts on a firmer foundation another set of "oddities," such as the ludicrous notion that the Allied engineers were so confident that their design for the Little Boy uranium bomb dropped on Hiroshima was so good it did not need to be tested, or (in another explanation), that there was not enough weapons grade uranium to build two such bombs to test one before dropping the other. That the us military would have dropped an untested superweapon on an enemy city, an enemy known to be working on acquiring the very same weapon, is simply ridiculous in the extreme. The Allied Legend is made even more ridiculous when one considers the fact that the plutonium bomb had been successfully tested, and that a plutonium bomb was already ready for deployment against the Japanese. Why then was the "untested" Little Boy dropped first, instead of the plutonium "Fat Man"? A rational explanation is afforded by the thesis of this part of the book: Little Boy was not tested by the Americans because, as Oppenheimer hinted, the bomb was "of German provenance." The Americans did not need to test it, because its German designers already had.


Moreover the infusion of German bomb technology into not only the American, but the Japanese effort, explains Japan's rather slow response to Allied demands for unconditional surrender after Hiroshima and Nagasaki, for only a day after Nagasaki, the Japanese too, for a brief moment, joined the nuclear club. And five years later, MacArthur presided over one of America's worst military debacles at the Chosin reservoir in the midst of the largest industrial complex in Asia, built by Japanese industrialist Jui Noguchi, and nerve center of the Japanese atom bomb program Were the operational risks MacArthur took to secure and hold Chosin due in part to a hidden intelligence agenda, to secure more information about an enemy only recently defeated, and to deny the technology to potential enemies such as Red China?

And last, but surely not least, there is simply too much enriched uranium, and too many bombs, around by the end of World War Two, to have come entirely from the Manhattan Project. Marshal Rodion Malinovsky's translator told of a "dud" dropped on August 8 on Nagasaki and surrendered by the Japanese to the Russians2 - a Japanese bomb, two separate German tests, a bomb sunk on board the usS Indianapolis en route to Japan - and all these bombs from a Manhattan Project critically short of weapons grade uranium as late as December 1944, and only projected to achieve half the necessary critical mass by May of 1945? Where did all this extra uranium come from, not to mention the "extra bombs"? I have argued that most likely all of it came from Nazi Germany, courtesy of Nazi Party Reichsleiter Martin Bormann, and SS Obergruppenfuhrer Hans Kammler.

But these conclusions leave several problems to be resolved, and in their resolution, a further glimpse into Kammler's dark empire of secret weapons, think tanks, underground factories and slave labor is afforded.

How did the Russians know to request this bomb? Surely the United States would not have told them. The only other plausible explanation is that the Russians knew where the bomb was ultimately from, and had done the mathematics.


"And I saw one of his heads as it were wounded unto death; and his deadly wound was healed; and all the world wondered after the beast. And they worshipped the dragon which gave power unto the beast: and they worshipped the beast, saying, Who is like unto the beast? Who is able to make war with him?"

Apocalypse of St. John the Divine, 13:3-4


"There was, via the Kammler trail, a mounting body of evidence that the Nazis,

in their desperation to win the war, had been experimenting with a form of

science the rest of the world had never remotely considered And that

somewhere in this cauldron of ideas, a new technology had been born; one that

was so far ahead of its time it had been suppressed for more than half a century." Nick Cook, The Hunt for Zero Point[1] As was seen, the Nazis very possibly may well have succeeded in developing and testing atom bombs prior to the end of World War Two, and may even have used them or some other weapon of mass destruction on the Eastern Front. But in the argument of the previous chapters, indications of something even more sinister cast a pall over the developing argument. For example, in Professor Lachner's allegation, the Nazis were interested in the atom bomb as mere fuses for the far more destructive hydrogen bomb. " Beyond even the hydrogen bomb, there were hints and outlines of something shadowy, vague, and of monstrous destructive power. British agents surface to tell of a "fourth" team developing and working in an area of physics that seemed almost magical; a scientist at Farm Hall mentions in passing the construction of artificial rubies; newspaper clippings report Allied officers coming forward in the immediate aftermath of the war to make it clear that it was won - not as an inevitability against a collapsing Reich - but just in the nick of time, a viewpoint quickly swept away in the triumphalism of the emerging Allied Legend and standard histories of the war. A vast isotope enrichment program conducted by the SS in conjunction with the death camps casts a shadow on the ground, in spite of the best efforts of the postwar Allied Legend to

1. Nick Cook, The Hunt for Zero Point, p. 209.


touch up the photograph and render the object casting the shadow invisible, the ultimate in stealth technology.

The question is, why? Why cover up a successful German atom bomb well into the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries? Why indeed, unless that program leads to something else something whose possession would give extraordinary technology and military power to the nation that successfully continued its development? Why indeed, unless that program leads to a wholly different scientific paradigm, developed in secret and off the pages of the textbooks of mainstream "science" proffered for public consumption?

Much of the answer to these questions lies in occulted aspects of the Nazi Reich's ideology, and in the structures of power and bureaucracy it put into place to pursue that ideology. Much of the answer to these questions lies in the connection of Kammler's Sonderkommando to its parent organization, the SS itself. The nature of that organization, at its very heart, at the uppermost pinnacle of its power structure, was in every sense of the word occult.

There are two facts that directly connect Kammler's black, underground, and very secret weapons and death camps empire, to this occult aspect of the Third Reich and its SS "Black Order." These two odd connections require in turn an investigation - cursory though it will have to be - of the occult doctrines themselves in order that we may clearly discern the outlines of their influence on the more sensational German weapons research of the war. In connection with Kammler's empire and its postwar continuation, it is best to understand that this science is an "occulted science."

A. Some Necessary Definitions

For our purposes, this "occulted science" is to be understood as contained in various artifacts: ancient mysteries, various esoteric or other "occult traditions" per se, and actual physical structures or other types of physical artifacts. This broad definition requires


farther "unpacking" in order for its fullscope to be adequately comprehended:

Occulted Science: The "science" component of this term focuses specifically on three general areas: physics, chemistry, and biology. Our primary focus in the subsequent parts of this work will be on physics, with forays into the other two areas as needed. Thus, our thesis and method is that there is an "occulted physics" hidden - sometimes deliberately - within various mythological and ancient texts, including tests of the esoteric or occult traditions both of the Orient and of the Occident. This belief was one of the cornerstones of the Nazi secret weapons research, and it produced some astounding failures, as well as grist for the mill of its less well known, but equally astounding successes. This thesis has formed a major component in my two previous works,[2 and was a major component in the ideological belief structure of the upper echelons of the SS and its more important and secretive departments, including the Ahnenerbedienst. There is every indication that it also formed a major paradigm for the upper echelons of Kammler's secret weapons "think tank" and was possibly even its very raison d'etre.

The occulted aspect of the term "occulted science' therefore takes on an extension of meaning beyond what one normally comes to associate with the term "occult". For our purposes, this "occulted science" is occulted in the sense of:


"hidden" or "dark" and therefore hidden in the sense of black and covert secret classified projects;


"deliberately encoded science" found in texts or artifacts that are, as the deliberate products of such encoding, subject to the full range of standard typological and analogical interpretive methods conventionally employed to understand such texts, but in this case, they are not understood on a metaphysical basis but rather in a "proto-scientific" sense, a "proto-physics" sense;


"non-deliberate corrupt transmission" of that science and its textual and/or physical artifacts by groups or communities not fully cognizant of the extent of the science actually encoded in them;


"esoteric or occult traditions and secret societies" in the conventional sense;


By "esoteric or occult traditions" is meant not only standard occult texts and traditions and the various secret societies associated with them, but also traditions or legends that are not generally considered to be esoteric or occult in the stand sense; they remain esoteric or occult only because they are not well-known by the general public;


"buried or partially buried" in the mists of pre-history and the mythologies, legends, talismans and physical monuments typically associated with them.


By "ancient mythologies or legends" is meant as legends, texts, scriptures (whether considered to be canonical or apocryphal by any given community), of various cultures. The cultures chiefly in view are the classical Sumerian, Egyptian, Hindu, Maya, Olmec, Scandinavian-Teutonic, Chinese, and of course the later standard Graeco-Roman European culture.

2. Q.v. The Giza Death Star and The Giza Death Star Deployed, both published by Adventures Unlimited Press.

It will be evident from careful consideration of this outline, that the peculiar blend of logic, reason, and science with the metaphysical and speculative component is a paradigm that is readily adaptable to the peculiarly German turn of mind as it developed from the opening of the nineteenth century to the fall of the final bomb before the capitulation in 1945.

In my opinion, it is this type of thought that is the Allied Legend's real goal to conceal, for more than anything else Kammler's black SS Sonderkommando secret weapons, death camps, "think tank" empire was the first deliberately and consciously organized and orchestrated attempt by a modern nation state to commit massive financial, labor, technological, and most


importantly, intellectual capital to an off-the-books black projects recovery and development of lost and exotic technology, by the application of the most avante garde conceptions of the then contemporary science. Against this broad conceptual framework, we may now view two significant facts that place his think tank

very clearly within the orbit of "occulted science" in many of the above senses.

B. Into the Labyrinth of the Beast

In part one, evidence of a possible German atom bomb test at or the island of Rugen in the Baltic Sea was presented. This evidence stemmed primarily from the recently declassified affidavit of Hans Zinsser who saw and described the explosion and resulting mushroom cloud, and the testimony of Italian officer Luigi Romersa, who was there apparently as an observer for Mussolini's Italian Fascist government. Corroborating evidence of secret wartime British atom bomb alerts and German telephone outages in Berlin - events concurrent with the time frame of the test - were presented. But what of Rugen itself? Why test a weapon on a sparsely populated island that is so close to the population center of Kiel and its heavily trafficked sea lanes and canal? What is it about Riigen that is so significant that the SS would test an atom bomb there? The answer may come from its possible connection to the SS's special "occult research" department, the Ahnenerbedienst, the society personally established by Reichsfuhrer SS Heinrich Himmler to investigate all manner of occult and esoteric doctrines for its possible scientific value and weaponization. Among the strange and irrational doctrines entertained by Himmler and others at the pinnacle of the SS was a peculiar twist to the "Hollow Earth" theory.

In its even more irrational Himmler variation, this theory held that the earth was hollow, and that its surface - the surface that the fanatical SS leadership actually lived on - was the inside of that "hollow earth". And thus


According to an article in Popular Astronomy in June 1946, entitled "German Astronomy During the War":

"They considered it helpful to locate the British fleet, because the curvature of the earth would not obstruct observation. Visual rays were not suitable because of refraction; but infrared rays had less refraction. Accordingly a party of about ten men under the scientific leadership of Dr. Heinz Fischer, an infrared expert, was sent out from Berlin to the isle of Rugen to photograph the British fleet with infrared equipment at an upward angle of some forty-five degrees."

The experiment did not work.[3]

One is left with the impression that this "experiment" with irrationality was but another manifestation of the scientific quackery that was the Third Reich, and rightly so. But significantly, once again, this rather avante garde experiment, no matter how irrational, took place on Riigen. Apparently, the island was home to a number of advanced projects. One should also note carefully the hidden technological implication of the experiment, not withstanding the insane use to which it was put: the Nazis possessed the means of detection of infrared reflections from great distances though atmospheric refraction, the same technology as was developed for use in heat-seeking anti-aircraft missiles and subsequently used with dramatic destructive effectiveness in America's plutonium bomb.

And this afford a clue into the real nature of Kammler's "think tank": technology appears to have been developed that could be adapted to a variety of uses in the various highly classified weapons developments black projects, as well as used in experimentation and testing of the more bizarre aspects of Nazi and occult beliefs.

But again, why Rugen? The answer lies in the "esoteric history" of the island prior to the war, and indeed, prior to World War One! When the Second World War ended, Hitler's private library was discovered in a mine near his idyllic mountain aerie of Berchtesgaden. Several tomes and volumes of occult literature were contained in it, including a "collection of (Lanz) Von Liebenfels'

3. Dusty Sklar, The Nazis and the Occult, p. 79.


racist-occult magazine Ostara," published in Vienna before the First World War.[4 While Hitler's own membership in any occult lodge has not been conclusively demonstrated, it is very probable that the young dictator-to-be actually visited Von Liebenfels while both were in Vienna before World War One.[5] It is Von Liebenfels and his Order of the New Templars that forms the connection between the SS, irrational "Hollow Earth" experiments, and the far more successful atom bomb test at Rugen. with the assistance of wealthy patrons who soon flocked to his secret society - a society dedicated to the "purification" of the German race from its corrupting influences (Jews, Slavs, "Mongoloids" and basically anyone not "Germanic" or "Aryan") -Von Liebenfels was able to purchase and renovate several old castles throughout Austria and Germany and to transform them into centers for his Order. The Order, in addition to its racist ideology, also dabbled in "astrology, the Cabala, phrenology, homeopathy, and nutrition."[6]

In any case, Von Liebenfels, in the best traditions and tactics of classical "Christian Gnosticism," and with the aid of his monastic training as a Cistercian monk, "composed his own voluminous variations of liturgical texts: a two volume New Templars' Breviary, The Psalms in German, and a "secret Bible for the initiated" which ran to ten volumes, as well as prayer books and the like."[7] With money pouring into his order from its wealthy "initiates", one of the castles he bought and restored as a center for esoteric research and "New Templar" activism was on the island of [8] Rugen.

Hitler was, according to Von Liebenfels in a letter to one of his New Templars, "one of our pupils. You will one day experience that he, and through him we, will one day be victorious and develop

4. Peter Levenda, Unholy Alliance: A History of Nazi Involvement with the Occult, p. 56.

5. Levenda, op. cit., p. 56.

6. Sklar, op. cit., p. 20.

7. Ibid.

8. Ibid.

a movement that makes the world tremble."[9] When Hitler annexed Austria, Von Liebenfels was forbidden to publish. Indeed, the Nazis severely regulated - almost to the point of squeezing it into complete non-existence - any public display of "occultism" or "secret society" activity. Hence, Himmler's motivations for creating the SS Ahnenerbedienst within the bureaucracy of the SS becomes clearer, for the regime was in part fearful of its own connection to the highest level to such societies and activities. By placing such activities under SS jurisdiction, they could be monitored, studied, funded, organized, and exploited in complete secrecy.

What was the Ahnenerbe? In many respects it was the most secret of all the SS' myriad secret departments.

Imagine that the evening adult education program of the New School of Social Research had suddenly become an independent government agency with a budget as big as the Defense Department, with Lyndon Larouche as president and, perhaps, Elizabeth Clark Prophet as the physics chairperson (sic).

Or maybe the summer session at the University of California Berkely, had become militarized and all the students had immunity from prosecution for any crime they had committed, or would ever commit, and could conduct any form of independent study they liked as long as they wore their black uniforms with the silver death's head insignia at all times and swore an oath of personal loyalty to the dean.

The one might have some idea of what the Ahnenerbe was, and of the type of people it first attracted to its ranks. It was a humanities program. With guns.[10]

This bizarre and irrational element of the occult at the very heart of Himmler's Black Order of the SS is one of the hidden entities, for example, coordinating and conducting the gruesome "medical experiments" on concentration camp victims, and even on ordinary Germans, during the war.

During the height of the war, the insanity gripping the Ahnenerbe and its macabre and bizarre experiments became almost surreal. The bureau devoted so much manpower and money to "esoteric research projects that it began to seem as if (Himmler)

9. Ibid., p. 21.

10. Levenda, op. cit., pp. 151-152.


hoped to turn the tide in Germany's favor by fathoming the secrets of Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry, the occult meaning of Gothic spheres the top hats worn by the boys at Eton, and the symbolism involved in the suppression of the Ulster harp."[11] Among its most ambitious projects, enormous amounts of money were spent

For a flight to Tibet to look for traces of a pure Germanic race which might have been able to keep intact the ancient Nordic mysteries. The Ahnenerbe also had archeologists digging up all of Europe for remains of Germanic culture. More than fifty departments in this branch succeeded in spending over a million marks ($400,000) on such "vital" matters.

But the most incredible research of all was set up in 1939 in Merlin. An astrologer, Wilhelm Wulff, who was made prisoner of the SS and coerced into working for it, described the Berlin Institute's scientific research center as being used '"to harness, not only natural, but also supernatural, forces. All intellectual, natural, and supernatural sources of power -from modern technology to mediaeval black magic, and from the teachings of Pythagoras to the Faustian pentagram incantation -were to be exploited in the interests of final victory." [12]

One such experiment resembles nothing else so much as an early experiment in "remote viewing", and included a man who was an alleged "adept," who held out pendulums over pictures of U-boats, and then held it over maps of the ocean in attempts to detect it.

If all this seems insane and fruitless dabbling, consider that the modern phenomenon of "remote viewing" is a highly developed enterprise - undertaken initially in secret by the CIA13 - and employed at one time none other than renowned theoretical physicist Dr. Hal Puthoff in the elaboration of strictly controlled scientific protocols for its testing.[14] Moreover, note what is actually

11. Sklar, op. cit, p. 101.
12. Sklar, op. cit., p. 102, emphasis added.
13. A fact that in itself should give one pause, especially in view of the subsequent importation of many of these Nazi "esoteric scientists" into the usA under the aegis of Operation Paperclip.

14. Q.v. Joseph McMoneagle, Remote Viewing Secrets, pp. xv, 46-47. The research was conducted by SRI International, an organization that I have

being asserted: the Ahnenerbe's portfolio was to investigate any potential source of power for weaponization. And notably, all normal constraints or orthodox conceptual or moral paradigm were laid aside. In that context, there were bound to be more failures than successes. But equally, in that context, in that bureaucratic culture, the freedom to "brainstorm", to generate and then to pursue the unorthodox novel idea, would have been given more or less free rein. Indeed, it would have been expected.

Consequently, the Ahnenerbe's failures, or its barbarous cruelty, are often paraded as evidence of a pervasive breakdow not only of traditional morality, but of the scientific establishment and method in Nazi Germany. But what are overlooked are the indications of its possible - and groundbreaking - successes, for in the milieu of free experimentation without constraints (moral or otherwise), dramatic failure was to be expected. But the potential for dramatic success was equally as great. "There was, via the Kammler trail," notes Jane's Defense Weekly reporter and researcher Nick Cook, not without a tinge of anxiety, "a mounting body of evidence that the Nazis, in their desperation to win the war, had been experimenting with a form of science the rest of the world had never even remotely considered. And that somewhere in this cauldron of ideas, a new technology had been born; one that was so far ahead of its time it had been suppressed for more than half a century."[15] Was Kammler's secret weapons Sonderhommando think tank connected to the Ahnenerbe?

covered in my previous book The Giza Death Star Deployed (pp. 73075, 92) in connection with its other "occulted science" research concerning the Great Pyramid and the Second Pyramid at Giza. McMoneagle cites one of the original theoretical papers concerning remote viewing, co-authored by Dr. Puthoff and Russell Targ, entitled A Perceptual Channel for Information Transfer over Kilometer Distances: Historical perspectives and Recent Research. It is important to mention that most of Dr. Puthoff's theoretical physics research concerns quantum mechanics and the Zero Point Energy, or vacuum quantum flux potential. Puthoff has noted the connection between quantum mechanics and the consciousness of intelligent observers. More recently the connection between intelligent life and physics at the topological level has been a major focus of papers by Ukrainian theoretical physicist Dr. Volodymyr Krasnoholovets, and French topologist Michel Bounias.

15. Nick Cook, The Hunt for Zero Point, p. 209.


While no direct evidence has been forthcoming to date, there is a factor - beyond his involvement with the death camps - that does connect Kammler with the Ahnenerbe, and this brings us to that "second odd fact", a detail that seems to indicate that there was indeed a connection between the Ahnenerbe's occult interests and Kammler's black secret weapons projects "think tank." This is the fact that at its very pinnacle, the SS was deliberately conceived and organized by Heinrich Himmler to be an occult "order," a black and twisted version of King Arthur's Knights of the Holy Grail and Round Table. One observes here, once again, the connection to the ideal the Templars and Von Liebenfels' "New Templars," for whom the "holy Grail", or sang real, was the "royal bloodline" itself and its "container" or "chalice", the Germanic Aryan race. As a result of this view, the Ahnenerbe's "medical experiments" were done not only to advance German medicine in areas of treatment of extreme conditions - high pressure, low pressure, and so on - that were encountered in extreme climates or, eventually, outer space, but a considerable portion was devoted to finding the basis of genetic and ethnic "purity" of the Germanic race itself. The SS was therefore the vanguard, the prophetic forebear, of the new religion and new age and new man it hoped to usher in:

The headquarters for this cult was situated at the medieval castle of Wewelsburg, near the towns of Paderborn and Detmold in the German province of Westphalia, close by the site in the Teutoburg Forest where Arminius made his stand with its famous, Stonehenge-like monument known as Externsteine....

Secrecy was the key element in the SS and most especially at Wewelsburg.[16

There Himmler had constructed a central chamber with a large table designed to seat twelve men specially selected from the senior Gruppenfuhrers (generals) of the SS.[17 A 12,000 volume library of the occult was available in the castle.

16. Levenda, op. cit, pp. 155-156.

17. Ibid., citing Padfield, Himmler: Reichsfuhrer-SS (New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1990), p. 248. 171

C. The Black Sun, the Celestial Swastika, and Other SS Connections >

Central to the secret initiation that these senior SS generals received was the real significance of the anagram "SS" itself. For the "rank and file elite" of the SS, the initials stood for the German word Schutzstaffel, a term meaning loosely a special staff or military unit. But to the initiates, there was another meaning of "SS" altogether, a meaning with roots deep in the occult and in ancient Sumerian, Babylonian, and to a certain extent, Egyptian belief. For these initiates, the letters "SS" referred to die Schwatze Sonne, the Black Sun.

The doctrine of the Black Sun, reaching back to ancient Sumer and Akkadia, is that there are two suns, the "white" sun, the sun that we see at the center of our physical solar system, and the "black" sun, a "hidden" sun of (spiritual) illumination. In some versions of the myth, it is thought to reside at the center of our galaxy. Other embellishments place it as one of the causes of the immortality and reincarnation of the soul. In Babylonian mythology it was also associated with the coming of the "King of kings" and the establishment of a New Babylon. And finally, in some variations, not only is it associated with the center of the galaxy, but also with the uttermost "Hyperborea" and "Thule", the legendary stellar home and celestial origin of the Aryan race. The doctrine received further modification in ancient Egypt.

The connection between the SS and Egypt is further evidenced by the case of one of the most famous esotericists of all: R.A. Schwaller de Lubicz. Well known to contemporary students of "alternative" or "revisionist" Egyptology, de Lubicz' claim to fame was his life-long undertaking to reinterpret the monuments, and more importantly, the writings of ancient Egypt, particularly its hieroglyphic system of writing. While many contemporary researchers denigrate de Lubicz's work as being either faulty of slip-shod, and while others denigrate his scholarship simply for his open support of the Nazi regime, it is not so easy to dismiss him as all that.


For one thing, it was de Lubicz who first noticed the weathering on the Sphinx was inconsistent with a Fourth Dynasty origin for themonument, and that it pointed to a much older and far more ancient pedigree.[18] It is de Lubicz's method, however, that would have been quite at home within the Ahnenerbe and more importantly, within Kammler's black projects think tank. Briefly put, de Lubicz viewed Egyptian hieroglyphics and culture as the visible signs of a highly developed culture of analogical, rather than analytical, thought, science, and practice.[19] For him, analogical thought was synonymous with "action at a distance,"[20] and his thought here is quite in line with what was beginning to be bandied about in quantum mechanics, and has become a provable reality in our day, with the phenomenon of photon entanglement. This phenomenon, briefly put, is as follows. Imagine two photons have been simultaneously emitted from a particular atom, but traveling in different directions. Thus, both photons carry the harmonic systems signature, the information, of the original atom and the circumstances of their emission. Then, imagine changing the informational signature of one of the two photons. Because the other photon is an exact analog of the first photon, it will simultaneously introduce the change into the field of its own information, instantaneously, regardless of distance.[21 But it is important to note that for de Lubicz, this analogical action at a distance or sympathetic magic was expressed within the context of a broadly dualistic world view in which there were two sciences, one of genesis or creation, and one of destruction.[22] In

18. De Lubicz's observation, in fact, inspired John Anthony West and Robert Shock's investigations which have re-dated the Sphinx to approximately 8,000 B.C. based on geological evidence, a conclusion that sent shock waves -no pun intended - through the Egyptology community and continues to spark vigorous debate in academic circles.

19. Q.v. R.A. Schwaller de Lubicz, Symbol and the Symbolic, (New York: Inner Traditions International, 1978), pp. 7, 20.

20. Ibid., p. 46.

21. That this was a major blow to relativity goes without saying. Photon quantum entanglement, as the phenomenon is called, is one of the newest andmost exciting areas of contemporary physics experimentation and research.

22. De Lubicz, op. cit, p. 25.


this context, any given hieroglyphic symbol became a synthesis of polarities of particular oppositions of forces, held in balance by the glyph - the information - itself.

Without a doubt, this broadly Hegelian view brought de Lubicz to the attention of the Nazis, and vice versa. But more importantly, it was de Lubicz's knowledge of Egyptian "science-religion" that may lurk in the background of the statements of the Japanese attache to Stockholm's curious statements about Sirius in his secret cable to Tokyo regarding the German atom bomb program that we examined in part one, for de Lubicz would have been in a position to point out the significance of Sirius to the Egyptians. For then, it "played the role of a central sun to our entire solar system" and suggested to de Lubicz "the existence of a cosmic system of atomic structure whose nucleus is this 'Great Provider,' the Sothis... of the ancients."[23] De Lubicz would have known as well the ancient symbolism and association with the three colors of the German national flag - black, red, and white - with ancient Egypt and Atlantis,[24] a symbolism of which the Nazis themselves were likely aware. Thus in its Egyptian variation, the "Black Sun" myth is bound up with the star system of Sirius, and with all the associations with death resurrection, and the "life force" that this entailed within Pharaonic religion.

For the SS Ahnenerbe, all this was a potent mix when one recalls that Himmler's stated purpose for it, reveled in a letter he wrote to an Ahnenerbe scientist, was not only to study ancient religion, science, and the occult, but also that its principal establishment was as "an institute for military scientific research."[24 Consequently, the Ahnenerbe scientists working on its various secret projects had an ideological basis for the more mundane scientific view that the "Black Sun" was but the extremely strong gravitational force exhibited by the large mass rotating around the galactic center. Ancient texts might be able to afford a key to the recovery of a lost science, a science very different from the

23. De Lubicz, Sacred Science: The King of Pharaonic Theocracy (Rochester, Vermont" Inner Traditions International, 1981), p. 28.

24. Ibid., pp. 202-205.

25. Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Volume II, p. 189.


ideologically condemned "Jewish physics" of relativity, but quite in line with the "Aryan" physics of vorticular spin polarization, quantum mechanics, and its mathematical prediction of a vacuum energy flux, or "zero point energy." It goes without saying that the Black Sun symbolism formed a central doctrine to the pre-Nazi secret society, the Thule Society. The symbol of the Black sun was also adopted as an emblem for Von Liebenfels' New Templars. The swastika itself, in this context, becomes not only a well-known symbol from ancient esoteric traditions, but also a talisman of ceremonial magic on a celestial scale, deliberately chosen to mirror the apparent rotation of a well-known constellation around the north pole of the earth's axis of rotation. This whole concentration on quantum mechanics, black suns, action at a distance, and celestial rotation gave a strong ideological influence to Kammler's SS think tank, for as will be seen, vorticular and non-linear physics apparently became two of its primary theoretical and experimental focuses.

The "Celestial Swastika": The Rotation of Ursa Minor, or the Little Dipper, around the Pole Star ca. 4000 BC


Consider what all this means. By war's end and his control of all secret weapons projects in Nazi Germany, Hans Kammler had attained the rank of SS Obergruppenfuhrer, the equivalent rank of a four star general, and only one rank below that of Himmler himself. Given this high rank, it is thus not only possible but very probably that Kammler was one of the chosen "Knights" of Himmler's "round table", and thus it is probable that by the war's and Kammler had a deeply connected relationship to the Ahnenerbe and its occult activities. It may be in part for this reason that his dossier in the us government's archives remains classified to this day. In any case, there is yet another odd fact, one that again potentially connects Kammler with the Ahnenerbe. Heinrich Himmler, who viewed himself as having some sort of "psychic connection" with the famous mediaeval German Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich the Fowler, had the Emperor's remains dug up and reinterred in the cathedral of the little town of Quedlinburg. Quedlinburg is in the Harz Mountains, in the heart of the region that was the center of Kammler's empire of underground secret weapons plants and laboratories.

In any case, the Ahnenerbe in general and Himmler's Gruppenfuhrer initiates in particular did more than dabble in the patently absurd projects mentioned previously. It also mounted secret armed expeditions to South America to recover the well- known crystal skulls to investigate their optical properties. It ransacked ancient texts and the works of Sanskrit and other classical scholars for clues to "Vedic mathematics." The SS inducted the Muslim Grand Mufti of Jerusalem into its ranks with the honorary rank of major, an act with its own dark, and contemporary, significance. [26] The Ahnenerbe would mount an expedition to Tibet, and return with the only complete copy of the multi-volumed Buddhist Kang Shur to reach the West, a collection reputedly containing much lost information from the pre-classical, ancient "atlantean" world.

26. Sebottendorff, for example, one of the occult figures lurking in the background of the secret societies that had connections with the early Nazi movement, praised Islam's "vitality" and congruence with Nazi ideology.


D. The Will-to-Power as the Paradigm of "Occulted Science" and Nazi Secret Weapons Programs

The quest of the SS to investigate the scientific basis of occult notions, no matter how bizarre or flawed those notions were, is thus itself an integral component of Nazi ideology and is philosophical background in German romanticism and orientalism It is Adolf Hitler's personal "will to power that betrays the interest of a potential occultist" so much so that this factor - so prevalent within the occult itself - "has never been given its proper due."[27] especially in connection to secret weapons research and the Kammler Group's "think tank." Hitler himself described this ideological locomotive in no uncertain terms: "A new age of Magic interpretation of the world is coming, of interpretation in ten of the Will and not the Intelligence."[28] In this, he may be seen as reaching back to the lingering effects within German culture of the philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer's The World as Will and Representation. The title speaks for itself. It is significant that the mastermind behind Nazi geopolitics and himself a convinced occultist, General Karl Haushofer, was an avid scholar of Schopenhauer.

It is this connection to Will, rather than to intelligence, that points the way to the connection to physics in general, and to quantum mechanics in particular, for it is in this seemingly upside down world, where the inverted order of cause and effect seems totally at variance with common sense, that the will itself plays a key role. And it was Heisenberg himself who of course formulated one of the most basic precepts of quantum mechanics that, looked at in this way, is but a precept or doctrine of sovereign will: the Uncertainty Principle.

Briefly put, this scientific law states that on the scale of the very small sub-atomic particles that form the subject of its investigation it is impossible to determine at one and the same time the position of an electron and its velocity. If a measurement is taken of one property, the other will fade from view. It is this aspect that spelled

27. Sklar, op. cit., p. 49.

28. Ibid., p. 57.


the death knell for classical Newtonian mechanics, for it resulted in a physics that relied primarily on probability functions as a determinant of the reality in view. "The reality in view," there's the point of contention, for this meant that even the probability functions us were themselves predetermined by the attribute the experimenter decided to concentrate upon. To that significant extent, the scientist himself predetermined the results of the experiment a priori, in an act of "sovereign will." In short, on the level of the very small, the scientist could, so to speak, "predetermine reality" simply by the way an experiment was configured. If on pressed this doctrine to one of its logical implications, then this meant that at a very fundamental level, physical reality and consciousness - Schopenhauer's "Will" - were intimately related. One had only to study "paranormal" phenomena "scientifically" to grasp hitherto unknown "laws" of this physics. At the level of the very small, gravity, quantum mechanics and consciousness would have appeared to these physicists -free of the theoretical constraints of relativity - to pursue what must have been apparent to them: the profound link between the geometry of the fabric of space, the physics of the very small, rotation, and gravity, and perhaps of consciousness itself.

Thus by dint of its own cultural tillage, German philosophical romanticism, Orientophilia, and physics had, by the time of the Third Reich, but to await the arrival of someone willing to fund and organize the pursuit of the new paradigm.

Hitler was its prophet, its "theorist"; Himmler was its "facilitator" the Dark Eminence who moved the pieces into position;


And Kammler was its engineer, the Black Magus who coordinated it all on a day to day basis, and who built the "monuments", machines, and weapons for the New Atlantis. Are these elements combined and contrived by war's end to give the Nazi war machine the prototypes and futuristic blueprints of weaponry far excelling even the hydrogen bomb for the destructive power and/or technological sophistication.



"In 1939, with Professor Herbert Wagner of the Henschel aircraft company as a consultant, Fernseh undertook to develope a television installation that would enable pilots to control both planing bombs and rocket bombs after they were launched."

--Renato Vesco and David Hatcher Childress, Man-Made UFOs [1]

There have been a host of books about Nazi secret weapons, detailing what is an incredible inventory of prototypical and futuristic weapons, from heat-seeking, wire-guided, radio guided, and even television-guided missiles, to tanks so gigantic that they are tittle more than impractical mobile pillboxes, to claims of the genuinely fantastic: flying discoid aircraft, or flying saucers, to fuel-air bombs, "death rays", particle beams, electromagnetic pulse weapons, "wind" cannon, and so on. And beyond these, there were even more incredible long-range paper studies of nuclear powered aircraft and "space shuttles", gigantic solar mirrors in orbit to turn enemy cities and regions to toast, and a host of other paper projects almost too incredible to imagine. Usually dismissed derisively, these claims persisted in the literature, long after Adolf Hitler himself personally mentioned them, in what is usually seen as the demented ravings of a known madman:

"We have invisible aircraft, submarines, colossal tanks and cannon, unbelievably powerful rockets, and a bomb with a working that will astonish the whole world. The enemy knows this, and besieges and attempts to destroy us. But we will answer this destruction with a storm and that without unleashing a bacteriological war, for which we

1. Renato Vesco and David Hatcher Childress, Man-Made UFOntophilia, and physics had, by tsion, p. 147.


are also prepared.... All my words are the purest truth. That you will see! [2]

Hitler's alleged claims here could easily be dismissed, as well as those of the postwar neo-Nazi sympathizers who first broke the story of Nazi flying saucers, as the farthest thing from "the purrest truth." Dealing with a known sociopath and genocidal maniac such as Hitler and his followers, it became easy to dismiss such claims especially when there was no corroborating evidence forthcoming. Then Renato Vesco's Intercept UFO was published in the 1960 later republished, and then later republished again with additional material by David Hatcher Childress under the title Man Made UFOs 1944-1994: Fifty Years of Suppression.

Vesco, who unlike the neo-Nazi sympathizers who emerged after the war to first tell the story in the West German press provided a host of specifics, such as the names, types of weapons and laboratories and companies conducting the research on these advanced technologies. But again, as Nick Cook was to discover, the trail seemed to lead back to the same few sources, and it became a story impossible to corroborate.[3] Vesco had mentioned the British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee (BIOS) reports as substantiation for his claims, but those were, at that time, mostly inaccessible, and in addition, "researchers had been through all the available...BIOS files with a fine-tooth comb and had found nothing..."[4] Vesco couched his account of alleged Nazi "Fireballs" (the so-called "Foo Fighters" seen at the end of the war), within a tapestry of references to these other advanced missile projects undertaken by the Third Reich. But as researcher Kevin McClure put the case, Vesco's "technical" descriptions of the alleged Nazi devices behind the Foo Fighters sightings were based on "pseudo-technical descriptions" that originated "absolutely and only with

2. Mayer and Mehner, Das Geheimnis, p. 97, the quotation was overheard by Italian officer Luigi Romersa, q.v. chapter 5, p. 97 of this book.
3. Nick Cook, The Hunt for Zero Point, p. 53.
4. Ibid, p. 57.


Vesco."[5] Add to this Vesco's claims for " fuel-air bombs" and the story - Vesco's detailed references to scientists, companies andlaboratories notwithstanding - became all too easy to dismiss once again.

But then came the German reunification and the resulting declassification of documents by the American, British, and German governments. The truth is not merely incredible, but staggering, andit poses host of historical problematics, as we shall see.

A. The Missiles

A Combined Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee (CIOS) report, number XXXII-125, running to more than one hundred and fifty pages, details not only "an experimental model of an additional thrust unit which was to be fastened to either the A-4 (V-2) or the A-9 to give an additional range,"[6] but also various "America Raket" projects for a guided missile with a range of 3,500 miles.[7] These latter rockets, the report notes, with less than complete reassurance, "probably never progressed beyond the drawing board stage."[8] But additionally, there was a V-3 weapon, "a larger version of the V-1 with an incendiary warhead instead of the (high explosive) normally used. Very little information is available concerning V-3 control systems."[9] What, indeed, was this "incendiary warhead"? A thermite bomb? A fuel-air bomb? An actual atom bomb? The report is unclear. As if this were not enough, a lengthy section of the report concerns a whole range of guided missiles being developed under the direction of Dr. Wagner for the Henschel firm. These included the HS-293-B, a rocket power glider with a wire guidance

5. Keven McClure, The Nazi UFO Mythos, Core 2: "Renato Vesco, Feuerball and Kugelblitz, p. 5, internet published book, www.magonia.demon.co.uk/abwatch/naziufo/naziufo3.html.

6. "German Guided Missile Research, Combined Intelligence ObjectivesSub-Committee, G-2 Division, SHAEF (Rear), APO 413, XXXII-125, p. 5.
7. Ibid., p. 6.
8. Ibid.
9. Ibid., p. 7

system,[10] the HS-294-A rocket-powered glider "with torpedo" that included a "special device for blowing off fuselage rear section and wings as soon as body touches water surface, fuselage front section then cruising as torpedo under water," a small quantity of which were built for experimentation between 1941 and 1943! [11]

A lengthy section of the report, from page 139 to almost the end of the report, concerned the development of miniaturized television camera guidance systems for various missiles, including the well-known anti-aircraft rocket, the "Wasserfau" (Waterfall), [12] Many of these tests failed, but by the war's end, a successful test of the television-guided "Tonne" missile was conducted by German scientists for the Allies in Berlin, with the target being a photograph of a little girl's face. The test was successful, much to the impressed, and doubtless shocked, Allied observers.[13]

To this astounding inventory, one may add radio-controlled air-to-surface missiles - one of which sank the Italian battleship Roma on its way to surrender to the Allies - infrared heat seeking air-to-air and surface-to-air missiles, wire guided missiles and torpedoes, biological and chemical warheads for the V-1 and V-2, and possible fuel-air and atomic warheads as well.[14] In addition, the Heinkel and Messerschmitt companies were undertaking modifications of their He-177 and Me 264 heavy bombers to carry atom bombs. Where were these modifications being made?

In Prague.[15]

B. Prototypical Stealth (Radar Absorbent) Materials

But Hitler's boast overheard by Luigi Romersa included more than just a prototypes for the "smart" weapons that would become such staples of the American military for decades to come. It also

10.Ibid., p. 8.
11.Ibid., p. 9.
12.Ibid., pp. 139-150.
13. William Uricchio, "Envisioning the Audience: Perceptions of Early German Television's Audiences, 1935-1944, p. 1., http://comcom.kub.nl/e-view/99-1/uric.htm.

14 .Q.v. Friedrich Georg, Hitlers Siegeswaffen, Band 1, pp. 128-143
15. Ibid.


included a claim to possess invisible aircraft and submarines. Surely this, at least, was fantasy? Not so. There exists a British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee (BIOS) report entitled "Production and Further Investigation of Wesch Anti-Radar Material, CIOS Black List Item 1 RADAR, BIOS Target No. 1/549," whose significance is rather obvious from its title. The objective of this team was to acquire some 500 feet of this material for secret testing by the British Admiralty.[16] The report details the production of various RAM materials (Radar Absorbent Material) by the Germans,[17] via techniques that involved shredding and heating rubber, and combining zinc oxide, finely ground iron powder (the powder was ground into micro-spheres), which was all then pressed into sheets, and then transferred to press moulds, trimmed and heated under small pressure. This material was actually used on the hulls of some late Type XXI U-Boats, as well as on U-boat schnorkel devices, to scatter Allied radar to return distorted or indeed, no radar signals.[18]

German Schnorkel Coated with Early "Stealth" Material

16. "Production and farther Investigation of Wesch Anti-Radar Material," British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee 1/549, Report 132, p. 4.

17.Ibid., pp. 5-6.
18. Ibid., pp. 5-7.


Yet another type of RAM technology was being studied by the Germans for its effects on electromagnetic wave propagation. As this is an important point that we will return to later, the report on this material is cited in full here:

Zeulenroda: The following are the only war research activities engaged in: Measurements were made on materials for absorbing electromagnetic radiation. One of these materials consisted of spiral steel shavings imbedded in paraffin, which was named EISENSPANE. Another material tested was manufactured by I.G. Farben and was called MOLTOPREN. No papers were available on this work but the results were given from memory as shown in appendix B. The purpose of this work was for the concealment of submarines.[19]

I.G. Farben, and missing papers, once again. And submarine stealth was not the only thing the Nazis were after:

A large price was offered by the German Government for the development of "Schwarzflugzeug' /Black airplane/, a non-reflecting material for use on aircraft.[20

German Type XXI U-Boat: world's first actual submarine

Type XXI XXI U-boats, also known as "Elektroboote", were the first submarines designed to operate entirely submerged, rather than as surface ships that could submerge as a temporary means to escape detection or launch an attack.

Type XXI submarine diagram

The Type XXIs had much better facilities than previous classes, with a freezer for foodstuffs and minor conveniences for the 57-man crew such as a shower and wash basin. It was much quieter, and enjoyed a hydraulic torpedo reload system that allowed all of its six torpedo tubes, which were in the bow, to be reloaded faster than a Type VIIC could reload a single tube. The Type XXI could fire 18 torpedoes in under 20 minutes. The total warload was 23 torpedoes, or 17 torpedoes and 12 sea mines. Greatly increased battery capacity, roughly three times that of a Type VIIC, gave these boats enormous underwater range. They could travel submerged at about five knots (9 km/h) for two or three days before recharging the batteries, which took less than five hours on the radar-invisible snorkel.

Because of its streamlined hull design, the Type XXI could travel faster underwater than on the surface, albeit only for a limited amount of time. This, combined with longer dive times at reduced speeds, made them much harder to chase and destroy by ASW surface ships. It also gave the boat a 'sprint ability' when positioning the boat for a line-of-sight torpedo attack. Older boats had to surface in order to sprint into position. This often gave the boat away, especially after aircraft became available for convoy escort.

Between 1943 and 1945, 118 boats of this type were built by Blohm & Voss of Hamburg, AG Weser of Bremen, and F. Schichau of Danzig. The boats were built faster than earlier types as the hull was constructed from 8 pre-prepared sections which were assembled after being transported from the various factories they were made in. However, Allied mythology says only one, U-2511, had begun a combat patrol by the end of World War II. This was in part a result of the lengthened training process, as the crews had to be trained to operate the new, sophisticated technology. Most boats were scrapped or scuttled after the war, but eight were taken by the Allies for evaluation and trials. The United States received U-2513 and U-3008, which were commissioned into the United States Navy. U-3017 was commissioned into the Royal Navy as HMS-N41, and U-2518 became French submarine Roland Morillot. U-3515, U-2529, U-3035, and U-3041 were commissioned into the Soviet Navy as B-27, B-28, B-29, and B-30 respectively. Those boats influenced new Soviet submarine classes known by the NATO reporting names Zulu and Whiskey, although the Whiskey class was smaller and less sophisticated.

A ninth XXI also saw service after the war: U-2540, which had been scuttled at the end of the war, was raised in 1957 to become the research vessel Wilhelm Bauer of the Bundesmarine. It is the only XXI remaining.


Displacement: 1621 tons/1819 tons, 2100 tons fully loaded
Length: 76.7 meters overall, pressure hull 60.5 meters
Beam: 5.3 meters pressure hull, 8 meters overall
Draft: 6.3 meters
Height: 11.3 meters
Propulsion: 4000 hp (3 MW) surfaced = 15.6 knots (29 km/h), 4400 hp (3.3 MW)
submerged = 17.2 knots (32 km/h)
Range: 25,000 kilometers (15,500 miles) at 10 knots (19 km/h) surfaced, 550 km (340 miles) at 5 knots (9 km/h) submerged
Crew: 57

List of Type XXI Submarines

Romeo class submarine: The Soviet Project 633 submarine class derives from the Type XXI boats.

As we shall see, this research may have paid unexpected dividends to the German secret weapons research project. In any case, the existence of actual "protostealth" schnorkel devices on late war German U-boats attests to the success of some of these experiments.

This report also corroborates yet another allegation, often derisorily dismissed by mainstream researchers, that in May of 1945, a small flotilla of the new Type XXI U-boats, with their revolutionary hydrogen peroxide underwater "turbine" propulsion allowing extraordinary undersea cruising speeds, met, and annihilated, a flotilla of British destroyers.

21. The allegations included the German use of new types of wire-guided, and

19. Ibid., p. 57.
20. Ibid., p. 63.
21. Q.v. Henry Stevens, The Last Battalion (German Research Project).


magnetic proximity torpedoes. [22]

At least one corroboration of this strange encounter occurs in the BIOS report:

Vierling has heard of electrical homing devices for torpedoes and their firing by a proximity effect. Torpedoes used magnetic fields varying at about 500 cycles per sec. Torpedoes were built by AEG in Berlin. Some work was done also at Gdynia. These torpedoes were reported to have sunk 12 Destroyers in one engagement in Arctic waters. [23]

C. Computers

The Allies, as is known, perfected early digital computing machines during the war, which machines were instrumental in breaking the "unbreakable" German Enigma machine's ciphers, but also of incalculable value in assisting the Manhattan Project engineers with difficult calculations needed for the atom bomb. In some rarely encountered but sophisticated versions of the Allied Legend, this constitutes another reason for the German failure to develop truly long range rockets and, of course, the atom bomb. But here too, the declassified reality is quite at odds with the post-war spin.

A computing machine was used at Gottingen for researches in airplane stability and ballistics. Machine could solve equations mentioned in two or three minutes with errors less than 3%. Only one such machine has been made. It uses ordinary vacuum tubes, a multiplying principle and two cathode ray tubes, one of which has a spiral scan. One tube draws the curve which is the solution and the other indicates the complex roots of the solution.[24]

The Gottingen computer, however, appears not to have been the only computer designed and built in the Third Reich. Indeed, since the reunification, reports and actual photographs have surfaced of an enormous, "Eniac" sized computer built by none other than the

22. Q.v. Henry Stevens, The Last Battalion (German Research Project).
23. "Production and further Investigation of Wesch Anti-Radar Material," British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee 1/549, Report 132, p. 63, emphasis added.
24. Ibid.


Deutsche Reichspost.[25] The question is, why would the postal service need such an enormous, and expensive, computer? One reason has already been encountered in part one: such a computer would have been invaluable to the research that Baron Manfred von Ardenne and Dr. Fritz Houtermans were conducting for the Reichspost on the atom bomb, and for running the difficult calculations of neutron free path and cross sections that required.

The Reichspost's Computer

25. Edgar Mayer and Thomas Mehner, p. 188

D. The "Superbombs"

As we have seen, before the curtain of silence and spin came down after the war, a number of small articles appeared in the Allied press about the actual state of German atom bomb research. One of these was an article that appeared in the Evening Standard on August 7, 1945, one day after the "Little Boy" atom bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. It is worth citing this article in full:


The Germans had an atom bomb which would have been ready by October.

A colossal blast effect was claimed for the German bomb. It was said it would wipe out everything inside a radius of six miles, said

B.U.P. to-day.

The German atomic plans were uncovered four months ago, when an Allied search party walked into a small silk factory at Celle, north of Hanover.

A laboratory of two rooms was buried away in the heart of the factory. A famous research scientist was still at work. He was flown to Britain the same day.

This man, with others, had been working on the atom bomb for months. The Nazi Government poured out money on it. Apparently they did not expect immediate results.[26]

There are a number of disquieting things about this article. First, one gains the impression from the report that the "laboratory" was not even known to the Allies until the factory was occupied. Second, there is already evidence of a "spin" in the report, as the German program is understood to have been underway for only a few "months." But the final and most unusual thing is that its blast effects, some 6 miles radius, or 12 miles in diameter, is far beyond the blast damage radius of even a large atom bomb, much less a fuel air bomb. The only known weapon with this extraordinarily sized blast radius is a fully-fledged hydrogen bomb. We have seen in part

26. Mayer and Mehner, Hitler und die Bombe", p. 51, emphasis added.


one that Professor Lachner of Vienna maintained that the German atom bombs were deliberately intended by the Nazis to be used as the detonators for hydrogen bombs. But was there sufficient basic theory for the Germans to have thought of the hydrogen bomb at that early stage?[27]

1. The "Molecular" Bomb: The Hydrogen Bomb?

The idea of a "Superbomb" was first patented prior to World War Two in Austria, and a modification of the idea was patented in Germany in 1943.[28] Its inventor, Dr. Karl Nowak, explained the reason for his invention as being to create a superbomb without the radioactive fallout effects that were evident from atomic and thermonuclear explosions![29] In other words, the Nazis were already looking past the thermonuclear age toward the creation of second and third generation weapons systems that would give the same offensive and strategic "punch" but without the side effects! In theory, the bomb is workable, but was way beyond the technological capabilities of Germany, or any other power, in that time period. Basically, the idea was to create a state of matter in which, through ultra-low temperatures approaching absolute zero, matter would be super-compressed. The idea was then to detonate this material, subjecting it to sudden stress and heat, to create a sudden and massive expansion and explosion, and therewith, an enormous, H-bomb sized blast.[30] Thus, there may have been a basis in actual German secret research for the incredible claim of the Japanese military attaché in Stockholm's 1943 report to Tokyo that the Germans were investigating the properties of super-dense matter for weaponization.

27.It should be recalled that Dr. Edward Teller actually first thought of, and proposed to the Allies, the hydrogen bomb in 1944.

28. German patent 905.847, March 16, 1943, cited in Mayer and Mehner, Hitler und die, Bombe", p. 159.

29.Ibid., p. 159.

30.Ibid., p. 158.


2. The Fuel-Air Bomb

At the "small end" of the "bombs of mass destruction scale," however, there are equally baffling, and problematical, assertions regarding Nazi research into the fuel-air bomb, the only known conventional explosive device with enough power to produce the blast and heat effects of a small "tactical" nuclear weapon. It goes without saying that today's "tactical nuke" would have been World War Two's strategic weapon. Once again, the first allegations of this type of bomb did not come with Gulf War One in the early 1990s, but with Renato Vesco. And his claims there, as elsewhere, were quietly ignored. But once again, declassification has verified his assertions, and to an extraordinary degree:

(g) Liquid Air bomb

As the research on the atomic bomb under Graf von Ardenne and others was not proceeding as rapidly as had been hoped in 1944, it was decided to proceed with the development of a liquid air bomb. Experiments using ordinary powdered coal were not at all successful, but extremely good results were obtained from a mixture consisting of 60% finely powdered dry brown coal and 40% liquid air. The technical man responsible for this work was Dr. Zippelmeier. The first trial was made on the Doberitz grounds near Berlin using a charge of about 8 kg of powder in a thin tin plate container. The liquid air was poured on to the powder, and the two were mixed together with a long wooden stirrer. Kreutzfeld did this himself, and was present at the ensuing test. In an area of radius 500 to 600 meters trees, etc. were all completely destroyed. Thereafter the explosion started to rise and only the tops of the trees were affected, although the intensive explosion covered an area 2 km. in radius. Zippelmeier then had the idea that a better effect might be obtained it the powder was spread out in the form of a cloud before the explosion. Trials were made with a paper container impregnated with some waxy substance. A metal cylinder was attached to the lower end of this container and hit the ground first, dispersing the powder. After a short time interval of the order of 1/4 second a small charge in the metal cylinder exploded and ignited the dark funnel shaped dust - liquid air cloud. The bombs had to be filled immediately prior to the departure of the aircraft. Bombs with charges


of 25 and 50 kg. of powder were dropped on the Starbergersee, and photographs of the explosion were taken. Standartenfuhrer Klumm kept a photograph of the result and showed it to Brandt (Himmler's personal adviser(sic)). The intensive explosion covered an area 4 to

4.5 km radius, and the explosion was still felt on a radius 12.5 km. When the bomb was dropped on an airfield, much destruction was caused 12 km away, and all the trees on a hillside 5 to 6 km away were flat. On a radius of 12.5 km. only the tops of the trees were destroyed.[31]

Several important considerations are worth mentioning here. First, note the truly massive size and area of devastation caused by the relatively small fuel-air bomb, for the area covered by the second test is commensurate with the blast from a large atom bomb: 6 kilometers' radius. Second, note that Zippelmeier has had a similar insight to Dr. Nowak's "molecular bomb": compression of material and then rapid dispersion over an area prior to detonation. This is only one step short of a modern fuel air bomb with its chain molecules and electrical, instantaneous, rather than slower chemical, detonation. So in other words, regardless of whether or not the Nazis actually detonated atom bombs during World War Two, they did have a weapon of mass destruction as powerful as an atom bomb, and one that did not have radioactive side effects. Moreover, the weight of this bomb, while large, was within the capabilities of existing German bombers to carry. Finally, it is to be noted that this test took place under the direct auspices of the SS, Himmler's representative himself being present for it. And that would place the weapon firmly within the orbit of Kammler's "think tank." But possession of a fuel-air bomb by Nazi Germany now raises some important historical problematics.

31. British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee, "Information Obtained from Targets of Opportunity in the Sonthofen Area," BIOS Target numbers C 28/8.211, C 25/549, C 6/137, C 30/ 338, C 4/268, C 22/2182, C 21/601., pp. 4

E. The Historical Problematic

German possession of even a prototype fuel-air bomb during World War Two causes a number of historical problems, and it is worth considering them and their implications.

1. The Cold War

First, the test of such a device during the war would give lie to the contemporary "public" history of the fuel-air bomb, since they are only supposed to be the offshoot of American thermonuclear research and dating from the early 1980s. Doubtless, the modern fuel-air bomb is nothing like the early German prototype, with its chain molecules and simultaneous electrical detonation, it is a lighter, and much more powerful device.

Second, if the technology existed for such enormous conventional bombs capable of reaking strategic large scale destruction on the order of small atom bombs, why were untold billions spent on much more expensive atomic and thermonuclear bombs, whose side-effects included deadly radioactivity, and why was the charade continued for so long? The existence of such weapons indicates that at some very profound, and little appreciated, level, the Cold War was a partial sham.

Third, the basic idea for such a weapon had, in fact, been explored by Austria (prior to its annexation by Germany), and then subsequently both by Italy and Germany in the years immediately prior to the war. The idea is simple, and the effects obvious. So why did it take this long to obtain the weapon? Or is there a history that has not yet come to light? Given what we have already encountered in part one regarding allegations of the German use of some weapon of extraordinary strategic explosive power on the Eastern Front, it seems likely that some similar type of weapon was already in use. The Zippelmeier test may thus only have been a test, not of the concept itself, but of how large of a weapon could actually be made. The results, as have been seen, were probably beyond even the Nazis' wildest destructive dreams.


2. The Alchemy of Atlantis: the "Mission Brief" of the Kammler stab

But what do all these fantastic projects indicate about the nature of German secret weapons research? We may draw a number of conclusions from the evidence presented thus far, and in so doing, speculatively reconstruct the "mission briefing" of the secret weapons think tank being run by Kammler's SS Sonderkommando:

(1) Overlapping technologies were to be developed that could be employed in across a wide variety of various weapons systems (Stealth and RAM technology, etc);

(2) Every available method for the creation of prototypical "smart weapons" was to be pursed (wire, radio, and television-guidance systems), i.e., German technological and engineering competence were to be exploited to the maximum;

(3) This technological competence was to be pursued in (then) unconventional ways and combinations to create not only new weapons, but a new doctrine of warfare;

(4) The first generation of these weapons were then to be extrapolated upon, and second and third generation technology trees and long range goals mapped out;

(5) The ultimate quest was for the attainment of weapons of mass destruction beyond the acquisition of atomic and thermonuclear weapons;

(6) Post-nuclear systems were then to be developed ideally, and initial research on those systems undertaken; and finally, as we shall see,

(7) Every known theoretical principle of physics was to be pondered and extrapolations for weaponization theorized, and, to the extent possible, experimented upon and utilized.

In other words, the Kammlerstab's mission brief was to think "outside the box" entirely, even if that meant outside the box of Nazi party ideology, or, when it suited it, inside it. The basis was the will to power, by whatever means possible.


3. Whose Military-Industrial Complex?

All these considerations raise a final problematic, and one so obvious that I hesitate mentioning it, since others have before, only to be dismissed or not taken seriously. President Eisenhower, as he was leaving office, gave his celebrated warning to the American people about the spiritual and cultural dangers of "the military industrial complex." With the influx of Nazi "Paperclip" scientists, many if not most of whom - including Dornberger, Oberth, and Von Braun - were members of Kammler's "think tank", this warning by someone in the know must surely be interpreted differently than current standard explanations. Having fought the world's first "military-industrial complex" and doubtless seen at least some of its extraordinary inventory of weapons and theoretical papers, President Eisenhower is surely raising another ominous, though overlooked, specter: Just whose military-industrial complex is he really warning about? What possible spiritual and cultural dangers were there to the American people from good old American companies like Boeing, DuPont, Lockheed, Hughes, and so on, unless, in importing ex-Nazi scientists and their unusual methods and insights and experimental results (often achieved at the cost of enormous human suffering), we inadvertently imported an underlying ideology at variance with traditional morality.



"And look what happened next. No sooner had people started showing aninterest in Schauberger again than a man with clear ties to the us intelligencecommunity turns up on his doorstep, tempts him over to the United States andshuts his operation down - permanently."

--Nick Cook, The Hunt for Zero Point [1]

The bewilderment of Reichminister of Armaments Albert Speer when confronted by prosecutor Jackson's allegations of a German chemical weapons test of extraordinary power near Auschwitz is not an isolated instance.[2] Bewilderment seems to be the normal state of mind when confronted by the even more sensational allegations that have percolated through the press and UFOlogy journals since the war's end of Nazi development of prototype "flying saucers." How could anything so outlandish be true, much less be publicly reported?

A starting point for entry into this much-maligned aspect of UFOlogy is what German physics actually was doing prior to and during the War under the Nazis. Much has been written of the deleterious effects of Nazi ideology on banning "Jewish physics," i.e., relativity, from German science, so this will not be covered again here. This left quantum mechanics as the only genuine physics that could equally be claimed to be "Aryan" and pursued by Nazi physicists with a vengeance. Quantum mechanics, in the state in which it then existed, could be summarized as having the following emphases and implications for the German scientists involved:

1. Nick Cook, The Hunt for Zero Point, p. 227.

2. In the light of the previous chapter's information, another plausible explanation of Speer's ignorance of the weapon, as well as an explanation of what the weapon might have been, now present themselves, for a fuel-air bomb would fall well within the parameters of the test described by Jackson, and since, once again, the test occurred under SS auspices, it is not surprising that Speer did not know of it.


(1) The rejection of relativity meant to a certain extent that the pre-relativistic idea of an aether lumeniferous regained some currency, via its quantum mechanics version of zero point energy or vacuum flux. German scientists were therefore not free to pursue relativistic science, but were free to investigate the enigmatic properties of this new "quantum aether." Indeed, with various esoteric and occult doctrines percolating in the background, such as the notion of "vril" energy, and Reichenbach's early and well-known experiments in the 18th century on "life force" energy, the Germans would have been positively encouraged by the underlying ideology to undertake experimental examination of its properties as far as existing technology would allow;

(2) Reichenbach's experiments, plus the implications of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, may have influenced German scientists to posit a connection between consciousness, quantum physics, and this underlying "quantum aether". The strange Ahnenerbe experiments mentioned earlier would seem to indicate that some such experiments in consciousness were being undertaken;

(3) Pre-war standard physics papers by Gerlach had indicated connections between spin and resonance effects;

(4) The paradoxes of quantum mechanics had also become known, leading Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen to posit "quantum loopholes" in relativity's own "velocity of light speed limit" for faster-than-light transference of information;

(5) One German physicist of some repute, O.C. Hilgenberg, a student of gravitation expert Walter Gerlach, had taken Gerlach's work one step further, as we shall see;

(6) German physicists thus had strong internal impetus as well as external ideological pressures to investigate the properties of rotating media and fields, especially since the results of Georges Sagnac's rotational version of the Michelson-Morley experiment were known to them;

(7) The Germans knew of Tesla's extraordinary claims for beaming electric power, as well as of his high voltage direct current impulse experiments which revealed superluminal electro-acoustic longitudinal wave forms;

(8) The Germans would likely have known of E.T. Whittaker's pre-relativistic papers, which were a mathematical study of such wave forms.


Given this series of known physical papers and experiments, and given the Kammlerstab's "alchemy" of combining technologies and concepts to seek underlying unifying principles and methods, might they have put all these together to come up with the beginning theoretical outlines of a physics completely different than the public consumption physics proffered since the end of the war, up to, and including the 26 dimensional monster called "String theory"? If so, are there any indications that they did so, or were beginning to? While the indications in terms of actual papers are slight, those indications, coupled with the revelations that have come from Germany since its reunification, suggest that the answer to both questions is "yes."

A. Gravity, Vortices, and Quantum Numerology

Dr. Ing. Ott Christoph Hilgenberg was a student of the renowned Nobel laureate Walter Gerlach, whose work in magnetic spin polarization in 1921 had earned him the Nobel Prize. Hilgenberg, however, while within the "mainstream" of physics, was not one to allow his mind to be constrained by conventional concepts, as any glance at his two little known, but quite unconventional and thought-provoking papers will attest.

In 1931 Hilgenberg published what may best be called an arcane paper entitled "Gravitation, Tromben, und Wellen in bewegten Medien," or "Gravitation, Beats, and Waves in Moving Media." The title itself is quite suggestive, for it is the first indication that, even before the Nazis, and after relativity, at least one serious and respected German physicist is still thinking of the old idea of an aether, but thinking about it in a way quite different from the static


aether concepts of the 19th century that led to the famous Michelson-Morley experiment, and Sagnac's rotational version of it. For Hilgenberg is thinking of a dynamic aether, spurred in part no doubt by the implications of Sagnac's version of the famous experiment. Hilgenberg's paper was arcane and abstruse in the extreme, advocating the idea of gravitation as a vertical ether sink. Thus, as in relativity, gravity was the consequence of a complex geometry, only in Hilgenberg's case, this meant that "mass" was a geometric result manifest, for example, in a rotating body's interior. This led Hilgenberg to propose the very unconventional idea that the earth - or any other such rotating massive body -expanded and contracted, in a huge wave-like pattern over time.

In 1938 Hilgenberg followed this paper up with a mathematical and theoretical physics tour de force entitled "Quantenzahlen, Wirbelring-Atommodelle und Heliumsechserring-Aufbauprinzip des Periodensystems der chemischen Elemente," a mind-twister that is no less impressive in English: "A Quantum Number, Vortex Atom Model and Hexagonal-ring Construction Principle of the Periodic System of the Chemical Elements." Hilgenberg had developed the mathematics for a system of modelling complete atoms according to vorticular rotational principles of the now long-discarded aether! The combined effect of these two papers and their mathematical and theoretical development allowed Hilgenberg to predict a number of effects completely at variance with relativistic physics, and long before similar observations in the late 20th century began to signal significant problems with the relativistic-Big Bang cosmology, e.g., heterodyning effects on light coming from a body moving toward the observer, or, to put it simply, why red-shift effects sometimes accompany bodies moving toward an observer rather than away from one.

Under Hilgenberg's influence, Carl Friedrich Krafft took this "vorticular quantum mechanics" one step further, and posited atoms as essentially a geometric or topological construct of the aether that acted as "ether pumps", taking in or giving off energy based on the rotations of the various rings of dynamic aether around them. He developed this notion even further by positing various combinations of vorticular, rotating geometries as the basis


for the then known sub-atomic particles. Krafft, whose views were totally eclipsed by war's end with the victory of the Allies - which likewise might be seen as a victory of relativity - was left to self-publish his works in this strange world of "non-linear physics", which were duly and promptly ignored by the more conventionally minded linear physics of relativity and its proponents.[3] But is there any indication that all this theory about the vorticular and rotational aspect of a dynamic aether was ever pursued beyond the stage of theory?

Indeed there is, but it requires a detour by way of a bit of aerodynamics, courtesy of Renato Vesco once again.

B. Disks, Boundary Layer, And Turbines

Vesco maintained an unusual approach throughout the various reprintings of his book, namely, that German experimentation with disk shaped aircraft actually began as an experiment to transform the entire lift surface into the intake vent for a jet turbine. That is to say, on his view, the earliest German "saucers" were nothing more than standard suction aircraft, though admittedly of very unusual design. These experimental aircraft were further the offshoots of German experiments to suction the boundary layer from the lift surfaces of aircraft. The "boundary layer" is that small layer - only a few molecules of air thick - of air that "sticks" to a lift surface, such as a wing, and, as an aircraft moves faster, this layer increases the drag on the lift surface, and therefore weakens its efficiency and requires more energy to move the craft. As speed increases and depending on the configuration of the wing itself, great turbulence can build up behind the wing as the result of the thickening of the boundary layer, increasing the aerodynamic resistance. "It seems clear, therefore, even to a layman in aeronautics that the objective should be to move the point of transition as far to the rear of the

No amount of explaining, however, can seem to quell the anti-relativist side of things for the simple feet that in most respects the theory of General Relativity has enormous predictive power, and therefore, scientific value and credibility. It is only recently that some crucial observations have arisen to challenge its assumptions.


moving body as possible in order to minimize the expenditure of motive energy required to propel the body through the air. This is especially true in high speed flight, since the power required increases at about the cube of the speed."[4] Thus, prior to the war British, American, and particularly German researchers concentrated their efforts to develop various methods to deal with this problem.

Various methods were tried and pursued during the war, including the use of micro-porous sinterized metal called "Luftschwamm" (literally, "air sponge) as both a lift surface and an intake vent for a jet turbine. The goal was simply to suction the boundary layer itself from the lift surface, thereby dramatically decreasing drag, and increasing efficiency and performance at high speed. According to Vesco, the Germans gradually reached some intriguing conclusions in these experiments:

The first was that it was not advantageous to transform ordinary aircraft into planes with a controlled boundary layer because the suction principle was deprived of its best attributes and the difficulties of construction did not compensate for the limited advantages....

In addition, it was demonstrated that inasmuch as they were planning a special turbine-powered project, it would have been advantageous to combine the two mechanisms into a single whole by feeding the turbine with air taken from the wing orifices instead of by the means of the usual forward-ram air intakes.

....It seems, in fact, that by reworking the old experiments on "potential frictionless current," the German technical experts may in the final days have succeeded experimentally in reducing aerodynamic friction on appropriately shaped bodies to very low values.[5]

This idea had also occurred to the British as well, but apparently the Germans had had no little success in combining micro-porous "sinterized" air permeable lift surfaces and turbine intakes, for a British post-war report, "A.R.C. No. 9672: Notes on German Theoretical Work on Porous Suction - all the notes taken from the examination of German researches on porous materials (for which a

4. Vesco and Childress, Man-Made UFOs: 50 Years of Suppression, pp. 188-189. 5 Ibid., p. 193, emphasis in the original.


special team of investigators had been formed)," were compared with similar British work done during the war. The report, as Vecsco notes, "still bears the label 'top secret.'"[6] What the Germans were apparently trying to do was simply build a disk-shaped aircraft, the entire surface of which was both the turbine intake, as well as the lift surface. This was, so to speak, the "Mark I" flying saucer: a standard suction aircraft, albeit, with a very unconventional lift surface, which was one and the same as its fuselage and air intake.

However, Vesco maintained more in his book, namely, that the "Foo Fighters" - the strange balls of light that Allied and German pilots began to see accompanying their formations near the end of the war - were in fact an even more revolutionary radio-controlled anti-aircraft weapon, used to jam Allied radars via very small, ceramic-cased miniaturized klystron tubes, or to actually down Allied planes by firing ionized gases to short out, or even explode, an aircraft's ignitions or engines. In this respect, Vesco's assertions became more detailed, and simultaneously, more fanciful and easily dismissed. For one thing, Vesco claimed that these were secret German anti-aircraft weapons, a claim that seemed to fly in the face of absurdity, since the official history of their sighting never associated the loss of any Allied aircraft with them. In fact, they appeared quite harmless according to all standard versions of the history of their appearance.

Once again, only recently has the German perspective on "Foo Fighters" been verified by a February 1945 report called "An Evaluation of German Capabilities in 1945." This report, among other things, lists a German "phoo bomb" as well as atom bombs. Miniaturized klystron tubes, as well as German advances in silicon and germanium crystals, two elements essential in the making of semiconductors which in turn are the basis of the transistor, were actually under development as well.[7] Most of this research was burned by the Germans in the face of the Allied advance into the Reich, and the rest fell into American hands.

6. Vesco and Childress, op. cit., pp. 212-213.
7. Henry Stevens, Hitler's Flying Saucers: A Guide to German Flying Disks of the Second World War, p. 75.


And this raises a significant problem, for the miniaturization of the klystron tube to a scale in some cases only a tenth as large as similar tubes in the Allied inventory, raises the specter of how far the Germans actually progressed in their semiconductor research. In any case, as researcher Henry Stevens notes, this bit of information provides the "missing provenance" to the origins of the transistor, and "explodes an argument made by the late Col. Philip J. Corso" that "transistors were, at least in part, based upon alien technology."[8]

This will not be the first time we encounter a potential "German problem," as opposed to an "E.T. problem," with respect to Roswell and other celebrated crash recovery accounts.

One of the unusual aspects of Vesco's claims, and again, one that brought him under a certain amount of criticism, was his claim that an Italian engineer and turbine specialist named "Bellonzo" had been involved in the Nazi saucer projects. As no Bellonzo could be found, this assertion was apparently a fabrication, until one Dr. Giuseppi Belluzo, indeed a specialist in steam turbines, showed up to corroborate the story. Why is this significant? Because in 1980 the German magazine Neue Presse

featured an article about the German fluidics engineer Heinrich Fleissner. Fleissner was an engineer, designer and advisor to what he calls a "Flugscheibe" project based at Peenemuende during the war. It is interesting to note that Fleissner's area of expertise, fluidics, is exactly the specialty involved in investigating problems with boundary layer flow. Fleissner reports that the saucer with which he was involved would have been capable of speeds up to 3,000 kilometers per hour within the earth's atmosphere and up to 10,000 kilometers per hour outside the earth's atmosphere. He states that the brains of the developmental people were found in Peenemuende under the tightest secrecy. .... What is of most interest to us here are three facts. First, that Fleissner worked at Peenemuende on a flying saucer project. Second, that a hint of this design has survived to this day. Third, the surviving design can be linked to photographic evidence of German saucer, circa World War Two.[9]

8. Stevens, Hitler's Flying Saucers, p. 75. Stevens of course is referring to Corso's well-known and controverisal book, The Day After Roswell.
9. Ibid., p. 90.


Let us pause to note that according to Fleissner there was a saucer project at Peenemunde and that it apparently involved the "suctioned boundary layer" concept we have already discussed. As we shall see, there will be an odd, little noticed connection that might corroborate the existence of this program when we examine the Roswell crash in the next part of this book. Stevens continues with his summary of Fleissner:

Almost ten years after the war, on March 28, 1955, Heinrich Fliessncr filed a patent application with the United States Patent Office for a flying saucer (Patent number 2,939,648).... The engine employed by Fleissner rotated around the cabin on the outside of the saucer disk itself. It was set in motion by starter rockets...The difference is that this engine was really a form of ram-jet engine. It featured slots running around the periphery of the saucer into which air was scooped. The slots continued obliquely right through the saucer disk so that jet thrust was aimed slightly downward and backward from the direction of rotation. Within the slots, fuel injectors and a timed ignition insured a proper power curve which was in accordance with the speed and direction of the saucer much like an automobile's fuel injection is timed to match the firing of the spark plugs. Steering was accomplished by directing the airflow using internal channels contained an rudder and flaps which ran alongside the central cabin. The cabin itself was held stationary or turned in the desired direction of flight using a system of electromagnets and servo-motors coupled with a gyroscope.[10]

But Fleissner was not awarded his patent until five years later! The question is, why the delay? One reason for the delay is that the joint Canadian-American suction-saucer project, Project Silverbug, was also under development at the same time. Fleissner's patent was incomparably superior. At about the same time as his patent was granted the Canadian-American project was canceled.[11] But why was the Fleissner design superior? Perhaps because the patent detailed the way the earlier Peenemunde saucer was able to function both inside and outside the atmosphere. In short, the power plant for the unusual ram-jet was capable of utilizing both jet

10. Stevens, Hitler's Flying Saucers, p. 90.

11. Ibid., p. 92.


fuel for in-atmosphere flight, and once outside the atmosphere, the suction vents could be closed, and the fuel shifted to a mixture of liquid oxygen and hydrogen. "Is this performance enough to impress the U.S. Air Force and civilian population of the late 1940s and early 1950s? The answer is clearly in the affirmative."[12]

But what has this to do with an Italian steam turbine expert? Very simply, because when the craft was in its "rocket mode, when the saucer is burning only liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen, the products of this combustion are only heat and water. Another way to say heat and water is steam."[13] And steam, of course, hisses, a sound sometimes associated with close observation of UFOs.

From this simple, though unconventional, configuration of known technologies, the Germans would have progressed by elementary science and engineering principles to the next, "Mark II," stage. How could such a craft's range be extended? The answer -one which likewise occurred to American physicist Thomas Townsend Brown - was that the jet turbine itself could be coupled with a large electrical generator to become a source of electrical power. With sufficient super-cooling (remember Nowak's "molecular bomb"?) and sufficient electrical charge, even inert gases such as nitrogen, which forms the bulk of the earth's atmosphere, could be burned as fuel. Of course, while the theory is simple the engineering is monstrously difficult, but the advantages were plainly to be seen, "A saucer which could gather its fuel along the way has one obvious advantage. It could stay aloft for days if not weeks."[14] The next step, "Mark III," was imply to apply already existing German research in nuclear powered "conventional" craft to this unconventional airframe.[15] Was such a saucer ever actually built? An article by Jim Wilson in the November 2000 issue of Popular Mechanics discloses a project to design a chemical-nuclear powered saucer craft for long-duration orbital missions, a craft tipped with nuclear missiles and bombs. The

12 .Henry Stevens, Hitler's Flying Saucers, pp. 92, 95.
13. Ibid., p. 97.
14. Ibid, p. 99.
15. Ibid., p. 101.


project was allegedly based on wartime German designs, and its development was assisted by captured German personnel.[16

All this, extraordinary as it sounds, is however nothing more than the unconventional blending of very conventional technology and ideas, a methodology we have encountered before in the German secret weapons black projects. What happens therefore, when these conventional technologies are not only combined in unconventional ways, but with the very unconventional physics that the Germans may have been developing? With this question, we are at the entrance into the "Mark IV" saucer prototypes, saucers based on combinations of turbines, vorticular physics, and field propulsion. With it, we are similarly at the very deepest secret levels of Kammler's "think tank."

C. Viktor Schauberger: Rotational Physics and Extreme Temperature Gradients

The story of Viktor Schauberger, an Austrian forester and naturalist, is well-known to any who have investigated claims of Nazi development of flying saucers. Yet, there are aspects of this story that have escaped even Nick Cook or meticulous researchers such as Henry Stevens. These aspects concern three key areas:


His concern with "implosion", extremes of temperature gradients, and vorticular motion were coupled with his detailed study of ancient mathematical doctrines and "occulted physics" within ancient doctrines and philosophical texts. In short, Schauberger was the ideal candidate, from the SS's point of view, to lead a project involved with areas of physics and esoteric systems that were central to the SS ideology;


His project was directly connected to the SS and, much to Schauberger's own moral disgust and distaste, was forced to use slave labor from concentration camps. Thus, what many have missed, is that this fact places Schauberger's saucer project firmly within the orbit of the Kammlerstab;

16. Stevens, Hitler's Flying Saucers, p. 106.


(3) Schauberger realizedthe implications for his "implosion" physics were such that a "super-super bomb" of unbelievable power could be constructed. This means, in effect, that quirky though some of Schauberger's terminology and ideas might seem from a conventional physics standpoint - he was, after all, a "naturalist" and self- taught physicist and inventor - his ideas were well within the framework being developed in quantum mechanics and the unusual "aether vortex" theories of physicists and engineers like Hilgenberg, Krafft, or even the great Gerlach himself.

In a nutshell, Schauberger's theories bring us to the very edge of what appear to be a wartime effort - a well funded, and deeply black effort - on the part of the SS to understand the relationship of the zero point energy, rotating fields, and gravity.

1. His Basic Conceptions

Schauberger began his little known and quite unconventional career as an "unorthodox physicist" as a forester for the Austrian government. One observation -a breathtakingly simple one -launched him on his career. One day Schauberger observed a trout in a clear, fast moving stream. The trout was stationary in the swift current, using a minimum of effort to remain in place: a flick of a fin here, a small movement of the tail there. As he pondered this well-known, but little understood fact, he came to the realization that the trout was using far less energy to remain motionless than conventional physics would allow. After all, the fish should have been swimming like crazy just to stand still. But that was not all. Schauberger then wondered how the trout, again with so little apparent effort and expenditure of work, could suddenly leap from the water several feet, and land upstream against the current. Schauberger decided to study the phenomenon.

What he found was the fish seemed somehow to employ extremes of temperature to achieve their stationary place, or, conversely, to leap suddenly from the water against a swift current.


As molecules "condensed", they cooled, and gave off energy in the form of heat. But Schauberger added one factor that brought him into the realm of the unconventional vorticular physics that Hilgenberg, Gerlach, Krafft, and others in Germany were developing: whenever such "condensing" took place naturally in nature, it was accomplished by a spiraling motion toward the center of a vortex, a form of motion he called "implosion." Schauberger speculated that, by deliberately forcing matter into such a motion, by deliberately compressing it via a spiral vorticular motion, matter might reach such a state that particles in atoms becomes "unglued" and transform into a new form of energy. In short, what Schauberger was proposing was a form of cool plasma, brought about by vorticular motion.[17] Schauberger supplemented this idea with all manner of study of natural examples of these types of spirals, well known to mathematicians to incorporate the Golden Section, and the Fibonacci sequence. In his own quirky way and terminology, Schauberger was talking about "cold plasmas" and cold fusion, concepts well in advance of any physics of his day, conventional or otherwise.

These ideas led Schauberger - like his more orthodox quantum mechanics contemporaries - to the conclusion that energy was relatively free and limitless if one only knew how to tap into it. And with extreme temperature gradients, rotating media and compression of matter to an intense plasma state - Schauberger thought he knew how. These ideas quickly brought him to the attention of a fellow Austrian who was interested in energy independence for his own reasons: Adolf Hitler.

In what surely must be one of the most surreal meetings ever held between an "orthodox mainstream physicist", a political leader, and an "alternative science" proponent, Schauberger was invited - summoned would be a more appropriate word - to Berlin for a private audience with Reichskanzler Hitler. A measure of the importance that Hitler attached to this meeting may be gleaned from the fact that once Schauberger had accepted Hitler's

17. Stevens, Hitler's Flying Saucers, p. 121; Callum Coats, Living Energies: Viktor Schauberger's Brilliant Work with Natural Energy Explained, pp. 30-66.


invitation, his diplomatic papers were expedited in one day.[18 Callum Coats then describes the surreal meeting:

Hitler....greeted him warmly as a fellow countryman, telling him that he had studied all the reports about Viktor's work thoroughly and was very impressed with what he had learned.

Thirty minutes had been allocated for the discussions, which Prof. Max Planck had been requested to attend as scientific adviser shortly before he was rudely deposed from his position as Privy Councilor. This exchange of views eventually lasted 1 1/2 hours, during which Schauberger explained the destructive action of contemporary technology and its inevitable consequences. He contrasted this with all the processes of natural motion and temperature, of the vital relation between trees, water and soil productivity, indeed all the things he considered had to be thoroughly understood and practised in order to create a sustainable and viable society.

When Viktor had finished his explanations, Max Planck, who had remained silent, was asked his opinion about Viktor's natural theories. His response was the remarkable and revealing statement that 'Science has nothing to do with Nature.' [19]

Nothing further came of the meeting, but the lecture had undoubtedly made an impression on Hitler, if not on Max Planck. It was in 1943 that Schauberger's formal contact and work on a saucer project for the SS began.

(Schauberger) was declared fit for active duty and was inducted into the Waffen-SS, very much under duress. He came under the control of Heinrich Himmler, who forced him into research to develop a new secret weapon. Provided with suitable accommodation at Schloss Schonbrunn, the nearby Mauthausen Concentration Camp to supply the workforce of prisoner engineers, Viktor was threatened with his life if he did not comply with orders and carry out this research.

In spite of these threats, however, Viktor put his foot down and demanded from the SS Command the absolute right to select the various engineers he needed. He further demanded that any technicians he chose were to be removed entirely from the camp, fed properly, dressed in normal civilian clothes and billeted in civilian

18. Callum Coats, Living Energies, p. 8.
19. Ibid., pp. 8-9.


accommodation, otherwise they would be unproductive. As he explained, people who live in fear of their lives and under great emotional stress could work neither consistently nor creatively. Surprisingly the SS agreed and so Viktor selected somewhere between twenty and thirty engineers, craftsmen and tradesmen front Mauthausen, to be accommodated in various houses near the plant.[20

It is to be noted that the induction of Schauberger into the SS, the use of concentration camp labor, and the SS's behavior in allowing Schauberger fall latitude to pursue his project in the manner he wished, even as regards the housing of the concentration camp workers, are all classic signatures of Kammler's "think tank" group. In short, this is very strong evidence that Schauberger's team was one component of the Kammlerstab.

Few of the scientists and engineers Schauberger collected for his project understood what he was trying to construct. And it is difficult to get a measure of just exactly what Schauberger did accomplish, since all of his wartime German patents have simply disappeared, no one knows where.

2. His Disks and Turbines

It seems certain, however, that Schauberger's disks approached the boundary between the German "suction" saucers and field propulsion craft proper, as a glance at Schauberger's own postwar reconstructions of what these craft looked like will demonstrate. A postwar design exists for a home electricity generator based upon a simple, though quite unusual, jet turbine. This "Tornado Generator" employed a turbine that in turn was made up, not of blades, but of hollow, antelope-horn-like spiraling tubes. Once air was forced into this turbine and its tubes, it was then compressed, via the spiraling motion of the air through the horns, until it escaped, expanded, and pushed the whole tube-turbine assembly along. This expanding air was then recirculated to the turbine, where it was again compressed, and so on.

20. Coats, Living Energies, p. 11.

Needless to say, the construction of such a complicated turbine would have required the most exacting machining and engineering skills. There is every indication that a similar device or turbine became the basis of Schauberger's wartime research. Coats


reproduced the following series of photographs and schematics of Schauberger's wartime "Repulsine" saucer in his book Living Energies:

Photos of the "Repulsine"


The "Compression" Turbine of the Repulsine 213

German Schematic of the "Repulsine"


Nick Cook, who followed the Schauberger trail via Coats and his research on the Austrian naturalist's strange ideas back to Germany, commented at length in his book as follows:

Something about this whole strand of development had conspired to make it the most classified form of technology in existence. Even more so than the bomb.

Unlike the bomb, however, this was a secret that had held for more than 50 years.

Days after the end of the war, us intelligence agents found Schauberger in Leonstein and apprehended him. Exactly as the (Nazi UFO) Legend had it, the agents, who were almost certainly Counter- intelligence Corps -the same outfit that had detained and interrogated Skoda's director Wilhelm Voss - were remarkably well informed about his entire operation. It was as if, Schauberger noted later, someone had guided them directly to him.[21

Very few people would have been in position to familiarize us intelligence with the parameters of Schauberger's research or its exact location, but one of them would most certainly have been SS Obergruppenfuhrer Hans Kammler. Cook continues:

That night, back at my hotel, I applied myself to a study of the Schauberger effect that had been written up by a researcher called Callum Coats. I had picked up a copy of one of his books at the Schauberger institute. In it, there was a description of what happened when a Repulsine was rotated at 20,000 rpm. The high rotation speeds appeared to cause the air molecules passing through the turbine to pace so tightly together that their molecular and nuclear binding energies were affected in a way that triggered the anti-gravity effect. 'A point is reached where a large number of electrons and protons with opposite charges and directions of spin are forced into collision and annihilate with one another,' Coats wrote. 'As lower rather than higher forms of energy and the basic building blocks of atoms, they are upwardly extruded as it were out of the physical and into virtual states.'

Virtual states? What the hell did that mean?

....'I stand face to face with the apparent "void", the compression of dematerialization that we are wont to call a "vacuum",' Schauberger had written in his diary on 14 August 1936. 'I can now

21. Nick Cook, The Hunt for Zero Point, p. 220.


see that we are able to create anything we wish for ourselves out of this "nothing".'[22]

That is, the vacuum for Schauberger and his rotational, vorticular concepts, was but another "supercompressed" and "supercooled" state of matter.

In any case, one test of such a Schauberger saucer allegedly took place in Prague in 1945, breaking loose from its test anchor, it quickly flew upward hitting the roof of the building. Given the extraordinary latitude accorded to Schauberger by his SS controllers - doubtless up to and including Kammler himself - it is evident that "the German scientific leadership was interested in implosion and in what Schauberger had to teach them but they did not necessarily want to be limited by the use of air to achieve these results. Instead, they may have wanted to use Schauberger ideas but actuating these principles with electronic components.,"[23 This will lead, as we shall shortly see, to the most fantastic projects of all in the Kammler Group's esoteric think tank. Whatever can be said, Schauberger's unorthodox approach to jet turbine design certainly, and by all accounts, was wildly successful, so much so that he became the object of a curious attempt by some Americans to develop the idea.

3. Implosion and the USA

As was seen, Viktor Schauberger and his unorthodox ideas came to the attention of us intelligence at the end of the war. And thus was launched the strangest episode in Schauberger's already strange career, the "American Episode".[24 The difficulties

22. Nick Cook, The Hunt for Zero Point, p. 221.
23. Stevens, Hitler's Flying Saucers, p. 128, emphasis added.
24. The best and most complete history of this episode is in Callum Coats' Living Energies, pp. 15- 28. My treatment of it here relies upon Coats, with the exception of my interpretation of its significance. Coats himself notes that the data for this period is precariously slim: "Before embarking on this last and lamentable chapter in Viktor Schauberger's life, I would like to state at the outset that significant and verifiable detail about it is extremely difficult to ascertain, mainly because all those involved, with the exception of Karl


Schauberger cxperienced during his stay in America were similar to those he encountered first in Austria, and then later during his famous visit with Hitler and Planck. First, being self-taught, he did not possess the physicist's technical language with which to express his ideas. Thus, he invented his own technical language, and often the translation between the two was difficult. Second, Schauberger having already witnessed the theft and disappearance of his patents by the Nazis, was understandably reluctant to be completely forthcoming to his American "friends." Finally, Schauberger no longer had working prototypes of any of the devices he had built.[25]

Schauberger was first brought to the attention of a group of private American "investors" by one Karl Gerchsheimer, who emigrated from Germany in 1922, eventually settling in Texas and marrying an American wife in 1937. According to Coats, it appears that Gerchsheimer became involved with the us military during World War Two in its Counter-intelligence Corps, eventually becoming the man in charge of all transport, logistics, and accommodation for the American army of occupation in Germany after the war. He returned to the usA in 1950 and established a metal fabrication company, manufacturing a number of items for NASA under contract.[26 In this capacity Gerchsheimer befriended wealthy American Philadelphia steal magnate Robert Donner. Gerchsheimer's familiarity with Schauberger's work, doubtless acquired during his Counter-intelligence years in Germany, and his disenchantment with Dr. Von Braun's rocket program, led him to propose to Donner that they visit Schauberger in Germany personally, to offer him the opportunity of private development of his "implosion" ideas. Gerchsheimer sold the project to Dormer - an intense patriot -by maintaining it would ensure American technological dominance for decades to come. A meeting in

Gerchsheimer with whom I spent two days, have passed away in the interim. In whatever information is available concerning this tragedy, there is a profusion of conflicting statements, interpretations and timetables which, 37 years after the event, makes the unraveling of what precisely took place in this, for all concerned, abortive endeavour rather problematic."(p. 15)

25. Ibid., p. 15.
26. Ibid., p. 16.


Bavaria was linally arranged between Gerchsheimer, Walter Schaubcrger (Viktor's son), and Viktor. Eventually squeezing out the European competition for his ideas with promises of large funding, Gerchsheimer was able to persuade Viktor to come to America. As part of the contract, negotiated for an American stay of three months, it was agreed that "Walter Schauberger, a physicist and mathematician, was to accompany his father and would be expected to stay for a year in order to assist in the scientific interpretation of Viktor's ideas for which there was often no recognized scientific terminology."[27] Schauberger also stipulated that his trusted machinist, Alois Renner, who had collaborated with him in the construction of several of his devices, be brought to the usA as well. Gerchsheimer was of the opinion, however, that Walter Schauberger "neither knew nor understood much about his father's theories."[28 Eventually, the two Schaubergers flew to Dallas, and then were driven to Sherman, Texas, where they were virtually interred as the "house guests" of Donner associate Harald W. Totten on his ranch.

Gerchsheimer quickly became disenchanted with Schauberger's ideas, which appeared to him to be increasingly so much gobbledygook. Having communicated these concerns to Robert Donner, who became concerned for the success of his project, Donner flew to Brookhaven's National atomic Research laboratories to seek expert scientific opinion. He secured the services of a technician who also spoke German, Eric A. Boerner, who was sufficiently familiar with the terminology of nuclear physics "to be able to translate and transmit any information to the scientific evaluators that the Schaubergers might provide."[29

Viktor Schauberger spent about 10 days from August 20th to August 31st writing reports to Boerner. He had been instructed to write them in his own words, without regard to attempt to use "proper" scientific terminology. Because of the actual physical distance between the Schaubergers and Eric Boerner, and the intermediatorship of Gerchsheimer, the Schaubergers gained the

27. Coats, Living Energies, p. 18.
28. Ibid, p. 19.
29. Ibid., p. 22.


impression that it was Boerner himself who headed an important particle accelerator project then underway at Brookhaven. And this in turn magnified their fears about the possible motivations behind the sudden American interest in their "implosion" concepts.

Walter Schauberger admitted that in the process of producing their reports, it dawned on them that a bomb could possible be produced through implosion that was magnitudes more powerful than the hydrogen bomb. Assuming Boerner to be more influential than he was, Viktor and Walter became convinced that all the information they were supplying to him was being passed directly to the us government and the military.[30]

While Coats himself downplays this potentiality, it is worth recalling that a similar "compression-decompression" principle lay behind the "molecular" bomb of Dr. Nowak, and hence, their concerns may have come less from a misunderstanding of Boerner's role, and more from an acquaintance with the work being done by the SS in Nazi Germany. In any case, I do not believe it is entirely fair to the Schaubergers to discount the possibility that the whole "private funding" venture via Robert Donner and Karl Gerchsheimer was not an operation designed to place into the hands of the us military and its research facilities the fundamental outlines of Schauberger's concepts.

In any case, a meeting was held on the Totten Ranch in early September 1958. Present were the two Schaubergers, Robert Donner, Boerner, and possibly Viktor Schauberger's machinist, Alois Renner. Based principally on the reports he had received, Boerner reported to the group that Project implosion was "a viable proposition." Boerner believed that "the solution of the problem of energy lay in the proper interpretation of Max Planck's equation E=hv, formulated in 1900, and the Freidrich Hasenohrl-Albert Einstein equation E=Mc[2." [31 Doubtless Boerner had in mind a

30. Coats, Living Energies, p. 23.
31. Ibid., p. 23. Coats rightly notes that is was first Hasenohrl who had postulated the equation in 1903 in the form of m=E/c2(p. 29, n. 27). Hasenohrl's equation is slightly different than Einstein's which is properly E=Mc2, where the capital M stands for a mass difference between two observed


rather remarkable paper that Walter had included in his reports, a paper that related these two fundamental equations, plus Kepler's Third Law of Planetary Motion.[32] In any case, with Viktor's health failing and his insistence to be returned to his beloved Austria as quickly as possible, the situation quickly deteriorated between the Schaubergers and Donner. Donner essentially held the two Austrians hostage until Viktor signed a contract handing over all of his ideas, inventions, and conceptions to the Donner-Gerchsheimer consortium. Only with considerable pressure was Donner even persuaded to provide Viktor with a German translation! Coats himself states

I have studied this document myself and it does state in quite unequivocal terms that not only were all Viktor's models, sketches, prototypes, reports and other data to become the sole property of the Donner-Gerchsheimer consortium, but that Viktor was to commit himself to total silence on anything connected with implosion thereafter.... The deplorable upshot of all this, however, is that all Viktor's models, prototypes, drawings, detailed data, including Professor Popel's original report implying what might be termed "negative Friction" was an actuality, have remained the possession of the Donner-Gerchsheimer consortium. That this report was actually part and parcel of this project is confirmed by Viktor's reference to it in one of his reports to Boerner dated 23/24 August 1958.[33]

What does all this mean? For one thing, it means that during the precise period that Nick Cook notes that all references to anti-gravity research began to disappear in the British and American Press, an American industrialist, with obvious ties to the defense and nuclear research agencies of the usA, had successfully obtained all of the papers of one of Nazi Germany's most deeply classified research projects scientists. For another, it seems to

masses, rather than simply a lower case "m", which stands simply for mass. The point is picky, but important, as the mass difference as Einstein formulated it is crucial to the point he is developing in Special Relativity

32. Coats, Living Energies, pp. 24-25 contains a synopsis of this rather remarkable idea. Needless to say, the paper is not the twenty-six dimensional monster of modern string theory.

33. Ibid., p. 27.


indicate that there may have been more to the science Schauberger had propounded than orthodox mainstream science will admit to, or that the contemporary military will allow to be discussed. In any case, it is clear that Schauberger's ideas fit in quite well with the vorticular and dynamic aether ideas of the vacuum energy flux potential, or Zero Point Energy, apparently under theoretical development in Nazi Germany both by "orthodox" and by less mainstream scientists. As we shall see, there is every indication that these ideas themselves were put to the test. Before we turn to that however, it is necessary to examine yet another fantastic aspect of Nazi Science: the "Death Ray."

D. "Death Rays ": An Unusual Installation at the University of Heidelberg

During World War One, as is well known, Nicola Tesla approached first the us, and then European military establishments with the idea for a "death ray", a high energy beam capable of melting "airplane motors" at some distance. Between the World Wars, in almost every western country, science fiction movies played on the concept, with one very popular movie with Boris Karloff, ever the quintessential "mad scientist", playing a crazed inventor tinkering with death rays and world domination. Similar "Buck Rogers" type gadgetry delighted movie goers in Britain, Germany, France, and Italy before the Second World War.

Then, as the Nazi UFO Mythos emerged, astonishing and specific claims began to be advanced, again by the same circle of a few disenchanted postwar Nazi sympathizers, of astounding beam weapons, of Motorstoppmittel (Means to Stop Motors), a device that resembles modern electromagnetic pulse weapons designed to knock out electronic circuitry, of electromagnetic rail guns, and of a mysterious weapon the Germans were working on called a Kraftstrahlkanone, a "Strong Ray Canon". The device was first reported by Henry Stevens.[34]

34. Henry Stevens, German Research Project, The German Death Rays.


The Kraftstrahlkanone Schematic Reproduced by Henry Stevens

This odd looking L-shaped weapon comprised some sort of crystal, then a series of hollow tubes, each focusing whatever beam was generated to a narrower and narrower point, until it emerged from a small hole, with allegedly deadly effectiveness, though limited range. What the crystal was, we do not know. What sort of beam was generated, we do not know, though the hollow tubes in declining ratios would seem to indicate that it was some sort of acoustic wave, though why a crystal would have been used is


unclear. For these reasons, the weapon was usually dismissed as a flight of fancy, and Stevens critiqued for reproducing it.

However, with very recall experiments and advances in physics, we are in a position to conjecture what the weapon may have been, and what principle the Germans may have discovered - decades early, to be sure - that may have been behind its operation. An experimental, and highly theoretical and mathematical paper entitled "On the Existence of Undistorted Progressive Waves (UPWs) of Arbitrary Speeds 0<v<oo in Nature," by Waldyr A Rodrigues Jr. and Jian-Yu Lu was published in October of 1997. Investigating a class of Undistorted Waves, i.e., a class of wave forms that do not diminish in form or force over distance, they show that various solutions for these waves can be found within the standard equations for such waves.[35] If this paper were merely another mathematical swipe at relativity - demonstrating solutions to certain equations that the "relativity police" would issue a speeding ticket for - then it would be easily dismissible.

Unfortunately, the authors' main points are not the abstruse mathematical demonstrations and proofs, but rather, a method for generating such waves. First noticing that solutions for Maxwell's equations in a waveguide had both subluminal and superluminal solutions,[36] they went on to propose a simple method for generating and for measuring the velocities of such wave structures. The method was called "Finite Aperture Approximation," basically, a method of squeezing acoustic or longitudinal waves through a very small hole, and observing the waveform interference pattern that emerged on the other side, and calculating the velocity, not of the wave, but of the interference pattern itself. If one knows the radius of the aperture and the strength and frequency of the pulse being squeezed through it, one knows the approximate depth of the Finite Aperture Approximation's resulting wave interference pattern.[37]

I.E., the scalar homogeneous wave equation, the Klein-Gordon equation, the Maxwell equations, and the Dirac and Weyl equations have such solutions, even in the vacuum. (Rodriguez and Jian-yu, "On the Existence of Undistorted Progressive Waves (UPWs) of Arbitrary Speeds 0<v<oo in Nature," p. 1.

36. Ibid., p. 4.

37. Ibid., pp. 4-6, particularly Eq. 2.7 on p. 6.


The results of experiments with at acoustic longitudinal pulses led the authors to conclude "these results... give us confidence that electromagnetic subluminal and superluminal waves may be physically launched with appropriate devices."[38 Additionally, the authors of this unusual paper are "quite sure" that such a wave interference pattern "can be launched over a large distance."[39] Then come the bombshells:

If we take into account this feet together with the results of the acoustic experiments described in section 2, we arrive at tin- conclusion that subluminal electromagnetic pulses...and also superluminal X-waves can be launched with appropriate antennas using present technology ... Nevertheless, the electromagnetic X-wave that is an interference pattern is such that its peak travels with speed c/cos (ni) > 1.the question arises: Is the existence of superluminal electromagnetic waves in conflict with Einstein's Special Relativity?[40]

While this is not the place to summarize their lengthy mathematical critique of Special Relativity, based on their experiments, it is worth noting that the existence of this little known and recently discovered class of waves, or more specifically, wave-interference systems, "implies a breakdown of the Principle of relativity in both its active...and passive...versions."[41]

What emerges from a comparison of this paper and the alleged Kraftstrahlkanone is that apparently the Germans may have discovered and been conducting research into a similar, if not identical, phenomenon, a phenomenon that others would call a crucial component of scalar physics: electromagnetic wave-interference to produce a wave-system of superluminal and deadly force. They were, it seems, experimenting with some weaponized form of a Finite Aperture Approximation device. But why a crystal? In part, perhaps, because as is well known, crystals under stress,

38. Ibid., p. 7.
39. Ibid., p. 18.
40. Ibid., p. 21.
41. Ibid., p. 36. The authors' critique of these two versions of Relativity and their dominance in theoretical and experimental physics is highly mathematical and, in a word, thought-provoking.


and acoustic bombardment would be one form of stress, give off minute packets of electrical energy via the piezo-electric effect. But they also give off minute packets of sound, or "phonons", as well. But beyond this allegation, is there any other indication that the Germans were after exotic "post-nuclear" generation weaponry? There is indeed some indication that the Germans were involved with extensive research into "Tesla" technology and weaponry and other exotic particle beam technology at the University of Heidelberg. As Mayer and Mehner report, there is in available documentation that some type of atomic research was being conducted at Ludwigshafen by none other than I.G. Farben. But this research "had in reality more to do with the development of the so-called 'death rays'."[42] In a file dated December 1, 1944 on this research, it was noted that the work force was moved from Ludwigshafen to Heidelberg in July of 1943.[43]

This facility in Heidelberg was completely underground, being some 50 meters long and 25 meters wide, with a roof from 8 to 10 meters high, of .75 and 1 meter thickness. The entire bunker complex, as detailed in the diagram on the next page, consisted of a large parabolic reflector made of quartz, a "polytron," a power circuit running the circumference of the bunker, a storage area for various electrical equipment behind the quartz reflector, a generator and a transformer, a "stand" on which various targets for disintegration were placed, and a control-observation booth to the side of the stand. The quartz parabolic reflector was approximately one centimeter thick.[44] An American intelligence report declassified only in 1998 described the experiments conducted with this and similar apparatus as follows:

Experiments: The experiments involved a large, elaborate atom- smashing apparatus, the main features of which were four "Spruehpole" (positive) and one "Fangpol" (negative), each about 6 m high. Liberated protons were conveyed through a quartz tube to the Spruehpole, from which they were "fired" at an object placed on a

42. Mayer and Mehner, Die Atombombe und das Dritte Reich, p. 73, my
43. Ibid.
44. Ibid., p. 75.


quartz plate up to 800 m distant. This resulted...in the complete disintegration of the object.

The first two experiments of this kind ... took place in Dec 43 and Jan 44. In one a 10 cm cube of steel (grade ST0012) was disintegrated within four-tenths of a second, The object in the second experiment was water, contained in a large quartz tube, tiled so that the "rays" would strike the largest possible surface. The water disappeared in two tenths of a second.

The most spectacular experiment was conducted early April 1944, when some 75 rats were made to disappear in the same way. The experiment was photographed from the quartz-enclosed observation tower, and PW claims there was no trace of smoke or flame, nor did any ashes remain on the iron plate. His explanation of this apparent violation of the laws of physics is that the rats were somehow reduced to a gas, which was absorbed by the iron plate.

PW's Evaluation: PW doubts that the principle involved in the experiments described above could be adapted to military use in less than two years. The apparatus is extremely complicated and far too large to be moved readily.[45]

This experimentation sounds like a much more sophisticated high voltage direct current form of Tesla's direct current impulse experiments, as well as of the unusual accidental disappearances of tools and equipment in a us Navy arc-welding facility that prompted an investigation led by none other than T. Townsend Brown during World War Two.[46]

E. Indications of Zero Point Energy and Scalar Physics Experimentation

There are a number of strong indications that the Germans were also experimenting with a variety of "Tesla" like devices that could, conceivably, also be called Zero Point Energy devices. In 1978, the British government finally declassified a British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee (BIOS) report on two curious circuits

45. Harald FSth, Geheime Kommandosache- S III Jonastal und die Siegeswaffenprodiktion: Weitere Spurensuche nach Thuringens Manhattan Project, p. 107.

46 q.v. my Giza Death Star Deployed, pp. 212-214.


devised by German naval engineer and inventor, Hans Coler (or Kohler). Entitled The Invention of Hans Coler, Relating to an Alleged New Source ol Power," B.I.O.S. Final Report no 1043, Item No. 31, Summer 1946, this report consisted of tests and findings on two strange circuits conducted at the University of Berlin between the World Wars under the auspices of none other than Dr. Schumann, discoverer of the Schumann resonance of the earth.[47] A mere glance will explain why the device attracted the immediate attention of the German Navy, which classified it as a possible source of quiet and limitless energy for submarine propulsion.

It will be noted that this hexagonal construction of coils and magnets and two "rotating" sub-circuits has absolutely no source of power. Yet, to the mystified Coler and Dr. Schumann, it

47. The report is reprinted by the Integrity research Institute, 1422 K Street NW, Suite 204, Washington, D.C. 2005.

nevertheless managed to produce, or better, transduce, power seemingly from nowhere.

Little is known how much farther the Germans took this device, or for that matter, how far the British took it for the two decades and a half after the war that they had to work on it until its declassification. What is unusual is that Dr. Schumann was involved with secret German research on "batteries" as late as 1943, and was subsequently brought to the United State as part of Operation Paperclip. It was this same Dr. Schumann who had noted in 1926 that Hans Coler's device exhibited "no fault, hoax, or fraud on the part of its inventor."[48 Such "free energy" devices seemed to have come very early to the attention of the leadership of the Third Reich - witness the meeting between Hitler, Planck, and Schauberger - and more especially to the attentions of the SS. Devices involving pulsed Tesla coils, suspiciously similar to Tesla's own "Impulse Magnifying Transformer" were constructed.[49]

One such device, the so-called Karl Schappeller Device, bears close scrutiny, since it bears resemblances to another device found by Nick Cook and described in his Hunt for Zero Point. This odd device is described by Henry Stevens as follows:

The Schappeller device is really composed of two separate units, the rotor and the stator. The stator is constructed as follows: its surface is round or ball-shaped, being composed of two half-shells of steel. These half-shells contain the internal structure and are air tight. Attached at each "pole" of each half-shell is an iron bar magnet, most of whose structure is internal. This means that the bulk of the magnet is inside the steel ball, one opposite the other. There is a space between the two bar magnets at the very center of the sphere.

Insulation, a ceramic material, is placed on the inside of the steel ball leaving a hollow central area. Within this hollow area and around the space between the magnets are wound two internal coils. These originate at the bar magnet poles and each terminate at the center of the sphere with a connection leading out of the sphere to the rotor. These coils are composed of a hollow copper tube filled with a special and secret substance called the "electret". Upon leaving the sphere the electret filled copper tubes are replaced by conventional copper wire.

48. Henry Stevens, Hitler's Flying Saucers, pp. 168-169.

49. Ibid., p. 168.


An electrical connection is made from the outside surface of one pole to one pole of a special type of battery which is grounded at the other pole... This electret is a permanent magnet within the sphere... The actual composition of Schappeller's electret remains a secret but another electret has been made by Professor Mototaro Eguchi. It consists of carnauba wax and resin, perhaps also containing some beeswax. It was kept in a strong electrical field while baking slowly until it solidified.[50

Before proceeding to how this device allegedly operated, it is important to note that this device bears strong resemblance in some respccts to a device called "the Bell" uncovered by Nick Cook and his researches, covered below. Moreover, we shall see how the sum total of all these strange coils, spheres, and Bells will sound only familiar with devices alleged in two famous UFO crashes after the war.

50. Stevens, Hitler's Flying Saucers, p. 177.


Returning now to the Schappeller device and its operation, for Schappeller the "neutral area", called the Bloch wall in a bar magnet, where the polarity is neither "north" nor "south", was of great interest and significance to Schapeller. In the Schappeller device it is noted that the empty area between the two magnets corresponds with this Bloch wall of neutrality.[51 It is this "neutral area" that is the area electrically charged by grounding when the device is put into operation. The result is a "new kind" of magnetism, a glowing magnetism in which, according to Schappeller's interpreters, electricity is stationary and magnetism is radiated.[52 At the Bloch Wall, "the point of zero magnetism, no spin and magnetic reversal, is the point, so Schappeller theorized, energy enters and is radiated, in the form of gravity. Thus, according to one interpreter, gravity is a quadropole (four poles, rather than two poles), 360 degree radiated push.[53]

But most astonishing about the little known Schappeller were his extraordinarily revolutionary, and prescient, views on thermodynamics, views that, in his day, would have had him roundly dismissed as a crackpot, but some 35 years later, became an exciting new area of physics and chemistry research. That area is non-equilibrium thermodynamics and systems kinetics.

Schappeller had something to say about the Second Law of Thermodynamics. He said there was another and unknown thermodynamic cycle which runs opposite the Second Law. To name this idea we will call it "Reverse Thermodynamics". It is the reverse of the Second Law of Thermodynamics in that it leads to an increase in entropy. Not only is there an increase in order by there is an increase in cold! Schappeller....built his spherical device primarily to demonstrate the principles behind this Reverse thermodynamics. It was not designed as a practical machine.[54]

Both Schappeller and Schauberger were implying a physics based, not on inanimate lifeless processes, the physics we have come to

51. Stevens, Hitler's Flying Saucers, pp. 178-179.
52. Ibid., p. 179.
53. Ibid., p. 181.
54. Ibid., p. 182.


know, but on animate, creative processes hut Schappeller's views

on ihcrmodynamics were truly revolutionary, and some decades ahead of their time, until Ilya Prigogine won the Nobel prize in chemistry precisely for his pioneering work on self-organizing principles evident in systems driven to a high state of non-equilibrium in 1977.[55 The new paradigm, a breathtakingly simple, and yet far-reaching one, was simply that equilibrium had been replaced with non-equilibrium in physics, especially for systems analysis. [56]

1. RAM Four-Wave Mixing

The German experiments with prototype Radar Absorbent Materials (RAM) was mentioned previously. In these experiments,

according to Lt. Col. Tom Bearden (usAF, Ret.), that the Germans in late 1945 discovered that radar waves on such non-linear material resulted in the phenomenon of a superluminal, longitudinal "pressure" wave. In doing so, the Germans had brought the paradigms of physics far beyond the conventions of the "linear" physics that was being perfected in Allied laboratories, largely under the aegis of the Manhattan Project. Consider the information that has been assembled thus far:

(1) They did not reject a concept of aether, but rather, replaced the static nineteenth century idea with a dynamic aether;

(2) This aether then gave rise to the forces and particles of conventional physics via various morphological combinations of vorticular, rotating structures, thus, its principle manner of thinking was non-linear and, in a word, purely topological;

55. q.v. Ilya Prigogine, and G. Nicolis, Self-Organization in Non-Equilibrium Systems: From Dissipative Structures to Order Through Fluctuations, (J. Wiley & Sons, New York) 1977.
56. I shall explore the significance of this paradigm in my next work on the Great Pyramid and the recent topological papers by Krasnoholovets and Bounias.


(3) These views were simultaneously allied both with occult doctrines of "primal matter" or life force or "Vril" or whatever one wishes to call it on the one hand, and with the construct called the Zero Point Energy that resulted from the equations of quantum mechanics, a very "German". "Aryan" science;

(4) They were pursuing exotic ideas and technologies in unconventional combinations, the most salient features of which can be summarized as a concentration on:

(a) Pulsed high voltage and "focusing" effects;

(b) High rpm turbines and other such rotating devices;

(c) Non-equilibrium;

(d) Finite Aperture apparati;

(e) Radioactivity and nuclear particle research;

(f) The effects of extremes of temperature on the density state of matter as a means of generating enormous explosive destructive power; and finally,

(g) The use of quartz and other crystals in generating some of these effects.[57]

With these thoughts in mind, we now approach what may be the most sensational experiment the Germans undertook during the War. The device was called simply, "The Bell", and its shocked and dumbfounded discoverer was Nick Cook.

2. The Brotherhood of the "Bell"

In the 1960s, a movie with Glenn Ford and a young Dabney Coleman, playing a small part as a government agent, was made. The movie was about a secret society allegedly at work behind the scenes in American society and politics, to manipulate research grants and control the direction of society. In the movie, Ford plays a member of this society who is served his "due bill" for all the favors the society has granted him, and forced to betray a

57. Korsching's odd comment about artificial rubies at Farm Hall should be recalled in this regard.


Hungarian friend in order to deny that friend a crucial academic post and grant. His friend is named Dr. Hlavaty.

I have always thought that perhaps the movie's Dr. Hlavaty was not so fictional, being perhaps based on the brilliant Hungarian physicist, Vaclav Hlavaty, who attempted a six-dimensional solution to the Unified Field Theory that had eluded Dr. Einstein. Whatever the truth of that hypothesis, it is perhaps interesting to note that the "Brotherhood of the Bell" seemed to exist for no other purpose than to suppress certain types of research, or at least, to keep it out of the public eye.

It should come as no surprise, then, that there was a "brotherhood of the Bell" during World War Two, for one of the most strange objects the Germans were experimenting on was a device that was known simply as "The Bell." So sensitive and secret was this device, that when it was evacuated from its underground secret laboratory in Lower Silesia prior to the Russian occupation of the area, the SS shot the approximately 60 scientists - doubtless on Kammler's orders - that were involved with this strange object.[58]

The Bell consisted apparently of two counter-rotating cylinders, and resembled a Bell in its general shape. It stood approximately 12 to 15 feet high, and was approximately 9 to 12 feet in diameter.[59 Into this device, an unknown purplish metallic-liquid looking substance known only as "Xerum 525" or "Serum 525" was poured, apparently to be mechanically rotated at high speed, and possibly electrically rotated as well, by the device. The result was that organic objects placed within the field of the Bell swiftly decayed without putrefaction, decomposing into a black goo, and then finally, into dust, within a matter of hours, and not several weeks. So strong was the field that resulted from the Bell, that on its first test the technicians and scientists involved were all killed.

Subsequently, the Bell was operated only for one or two minutes at a time, and housing below ground in a room bricked and

58. Nick Cook, The Hunt for Zero Point, p. 187 For a fuller discussion of the Bell and its mysterious properties, consult my Giza Death Star Deployed, pp. 121-128.

59. Cook, op. cit, pp. 191-193


tiled with ceramic tiles, which were then covered in thick rubber mats. After each test, the mats were burned, and the room washed down by concentration camp inmates with brine.[60] When Cook was shown the installation in which the Bell was housed, he was also informed of its high electrical consumption.[61]

What was the mysterious "Xerum 525?" When I first read of this substance which had to be stored in lead lined cylinders, I first thought it sounded like a radioactive isotope of mercury, or perhaps some other radioactive material suspended in solution of some sort. More recently, allegations have surfaced concerning the neutron emitting properties of so-called "red mercury" or mercury antimonate oxide, supposedly a source for detonating thermonuclear warheads without the necessity for detonating an atom bomb, and a powerful conventional explosive in its own right. Whatever the mysterious substance was, it seems clear that it was highly radioactive, and that the Germans were subjecting it to extremely high mechanical and electrical rotations to study t h e resulting field effects, effects that Cook's advisors could only qualify as "torsion" fields.[62] These fields are thought by some contemporary physicists to have direct relevance to the study of gravity, and of time.[63 Close to the Bell's underground testing bunker the Germans had built a large concrete henge-like structure, in the pillars of which were high grade steel hooks, an obvious testing frame for what must have been an extremely powerful propulsion device.

What happened to the Bell? No one knows. Like Kammler, it goes completely missing at the end of the war, and its scientists, as already stated, were murdered to a man by the SS to keep whatever precious secrets it, and they, had uncovered. But as we shall

60. Cook, op. cit., p. 192
61. Ibid., p.p. 182-183, 197.
62. Ibid., p.p. 192, 194

63. In this regard it is perhaps interesting to note that, years prior to the publication of Nick Cook's book, well-known science-fiction-horror-thriller author (whose genre and style is so compellingly unique), Dean Koontz, published a novel called Lightning, the theme of which was a wartime German experiment with a time machine that, coincidentally (?) consisted of rotating cylinders!


discover in the next and final part of this book, the Bell may have surfaced again under very public, if not bizarre, circumstances.



"I believe there is a very real UFO problem. I have also come to believe that it is being manipulated for political ends."

--Jacques Vallee

"This is a story of how key Nazis, even as the Wehrmacht was still on the offensive, anticipated military disaster and laid plans to transplant Nazism, intact but disguised, in havens in the West.... It is story that climaxes in Dallas on November 22, 1963 when John Kennedy was struck down. And it is a story with an aftermath -America's slide to the brink of fascism."

--Mae Brussel, "The Nazi Connection to the John F. Kennedy Assassination," The Rebel (November 22, 1983)


"The Hitlers sat together on a couch in their suite....At about 3:30 P.M. Hitler picked up his 7.65 caliber Walther pistol...On a console was a picture of his mother as a young woman. He put this pistol barrel to his right temple and pulled the trigger."

--John Toland, Adolf Hitler.[1]

Adolf Hitler was as mythical in death as he was brutal and large in life. Because of the curious circumstances of his suicide, and the inability of the wartime Allied powers to cooperate on an extensive and through proof that he did die, a whole mythos of his survival grew up after the war, and continued for some many years afterward. Betrayed even by Himmler himself, who had secretly begun peace negotiations with the western Allies through the Swedish government, and with one time designated "Deputy Fuhrer" and former party chief Rudolf Hess in a British prison cell, and his designated replacement Reichsmarschall Goring claiming leadership in the chaos of the collapsing Reich to the quick denunciation by Hitler for treason, the Fuhrer relinquished power before his suicide to an unlikely candidate, Grand Admiral Karl Donitz, who for a brief period of little more than a week, was Nazi Germany's second dictator before he ordered its armed forces to surrender. The selection of Donitz by Hitler is, for our purposes here, significant, for Donitz was in an usual position to coordinate the escape of fleeing Nazis to South America and other places via the new type XXI U-boats just entering service.

But before proceeding to that story, it is worth looking at the Hitler and various other Nazi survival myths in a broad overview, in order to have a basis on which to distinguish possible fact from deliberate myth and misinformation. For these various Nazi survival myths and legends, Hitler's survival is not so much a fact, as a grotesque parody of an icon, a disturbing possibility that hovers

1. John Toland, Adolf Hitler, Volume II, p. 1002.

over every version. For example, the standard view of Hitler committing suicide on April 10, 1945, is itself not without its own occult significance, for this is the date of the eve of a "witches' sabbath," the Walpurgisnacht. Moreover, in mediaeval Cathar doctrine - a doctrine well-studied by the SS Ahnenerbe - suicide was a permissible act, if done in concert with another, with a soul mate. Hitler and his newly married mistress of many years, Eva (Braun) Hitler, both committed suicide together.

These non-standard Hitler and Nazi survival myths run the whole spectrum, from fanciful and implausible stories of underground bases in the Canadian Arctic, or on Antarctica itself armed with some of the exotic weaponry described in the previous chapter, to more "mundane" and plausible stories of Nazi colonies in South America or secret weather stations and commando teams operating in Greenland during the war, to the well-known and best documented case, that of Operation Paperclip, America's wholesale importation of Nazi scientists and doctors after World War Two to assist the United States in continued covert development and research on a whole host of black projects. In one rather interesting version of the Hitler survival myth, he and other Nazi bigwigs underwent plastic surgery before the end of the war, and were spirited off to Antarctica or South America. One version of this myth even has an elderly Hitler ministering to the poor as a Catholic priest! is the thesis of the next two chapters that there is some truth to some of these Nazi survival myths, excluding the Hitler survival myth, and that all need to be viewed against the backdrop of the Nazis' own plans for postwar survival and continuance under a variety of fronts, organizations, or in concert with new "host" governments such as the United States or the various governments of Latin America, Africa, and the Middle East. In this and the succeeding chapter, we will proceed by examining the more audacious survival myths, through some accounts of South American colonies, to Paperclip, and finally, to Bormann's top secret plan for postwar survival and economic resurgence. What will emerge from this examination is a disturbing picture that suggests deliberate Nazi misinformation in the immediate post-war


period, and a deliberate attempt to disguise ongoing projects inside the black projects of the new "host" governments and corporations A slight, though discernible connection emerges that substantiates the thesis of part one of this book, namely, that the secret weapons think tank, the Kammlerstab, survived the war more or less intact, and continued its work in a variety of host countries, most particularly in the United Kingdom and even more so in the United States, either in concert with them, and sometimes independently of them.

Then in the remaining chapters of this book, we shall examine two well-known UFO "crash and recovery" cases for the indications that they may have been the recoveries of something truly extraordinary, but not extra-terrestrial. In this examination, it is crucial to bear in mind all the information of the preceding part of this book, for they have all led up to it.

A. The Antarctic Survival Myth

Of all the high-ranking German military leaders, Grand Admiral Karl Donitz is the most often overlooked, and yet he may have been the most crucial for the story of Nazi survival and continued secret weapons research. After all, the secret preparations and voyage of the U-234 to Japan, with its precious cargo of enriched uranium and infrared fuses, could not likely have taken place without his express knowledge, participation, and authorization. Thus, outside Kammler's "think tank", he was perhaps the one military leader of a conventional service arm to know the full extent of Nazi Germany's actual advances in atom bomb and other nuclear research.

Best known for his orchestration of the Nazi U-boat campaign against British, Canadian, and American shipping, his alleged role in the various survival myths is little known outside a small circle of UFOlogy and World War Two researchers. And of all the Nazi military leaders, his selection by Adolf Hitler as the second Fuhrer of the Third Reich is, at best, problematical, unless viewed in the light of these late war technology transfers and escaping Nazis. Why would Hitler have chosen Donitz, a World War One veteran of the High Seas Fleet of Kaiser Wilhelm, with the Kriegsmarine's


well-known imperialist culture and leanings that he represented, to be his successor?

A conventional answer is afforded by the circumstances outlined above: betrayed on all sides - by Himmler and Goring themselves - a desperate Hitler reached out to what he thought was the most loyal conventional military service arm of the Wehrmacht, the Navy. But the survival mythos contributes a very different perspective from which to view Hitler's possible motivations.

Donitz himself does nothing to allay those suspicions, either during or immediately after the war. According to Henry Stevens, who has almost single-handedly investigated every lead - no matter how implausible the detail - of the Nazi UFO and survival legends, Donitz on more than one occasion alluded to the Navy's role in exotic secret weapons research and in the construction of very secret bases far from the Reich homeland. In 1943, the Grand Admiral is reported to have stated that "the German submarine fleet is proud of having built for the Fuhrer, in another part of the world, a Shangri-La on land, an impregnable fortress."[2] Strange language for an admiral well-known for cold calculation in military strategy and tactics, and not well-known to be inclined to mystical statements. Then again, in 1944, the Grand Admiral doled out a little more information: "The German Navy will have to accomplish a great task in the future. The German Navy knows all hiding places in the oceans and therefore it will be very easy to bring the Fuhrer to a safe place should the necessity arise and in which he will have the opportunity to work out his final plans."[3] But it was Donitz's almost insane remarks at Nuremberg that seemed to point clearly to one of the two polar regions as the "site" for these "plans". At Nuremberg he boasted of "an invulnerable fortress, a paradise-like oasis in the middle of eternal ice."[4 Whatever the trustworthiness of

2. Henry Stevens, The Last Battalion and German Arctic, Antarctic, and Andean Bases (Gorman, California: The German Research Project, 1997), p. 2, citing Col. Howard A. Buechner and Capt. Wilhelm Bernhardt, Hitler's Ashes (Metarie, Louisiana: Thunderbird Press Inc.), p. 1.

3. Ibid., p. 2, citing Buechner and Bernhardt, pp. 2-3.

4. Ibid., citing Willibald Mattern, UFOs Unbekannte Flugobjekt? Letzte Geheimwaffe des Dritten Reiches? (Toronto: Samisdat Publisher, No date), p. 38.


Steven's sources, these statements, plus the unusual behavior of some U-boats at the end of the war, and the Germans' well-publicized pre-war Antarctic scientific expedition, certainly seemed to spur the United States into a sudden and intense post-war military interest in Antarctica. Again, since the basic facts are well-known to but a small circle of World War Two and UFOlogy researchers, it is worth recalling them in some detail.

U-530 surrendered at Mar del Plata, Argentina, on July 10, 1945, U- 977 surrendered at Mar del Plata, Argentina, on August 17, 1945. U-465 was scuttled off the coast of Patagonia in August 1945. Another U-boat of unknown number surrendered to the Argentine Navy on June 10, 1945.[5]

When the U-530 and U-977 surrendered so late after the European War's end, Allied intelligence was more than a little concerned, and dispatched agents to interrogate the German officers. They certainly did not believe that the German captains had taken their ships on a South Atlantic excursion of three to four months just to surrender to the Argentines, as Captain Schaeffer of the U-977 and Captain Wermoutt of the U-530 actually, and apparently in all seriousness, stated. Stevens summarizes the Allies' real concern - Nazi survival in no uncertain terms:

The Allies first believed that these U-Boats had taken persons of special importance, perhaps even Adolf Hitler, from Germany to South America. In light of this possibility both captains were held for questioning. Captain Schaeffer, who surrendered last, was taken to America for a month or so then to England for another period of questioning. Both captains maintained that there had been no persons of political importance deposited in South America. Eventually the captains were released although Schaeffer found living in Occupied Germany intolerable and relocated to South America. Captain Schaeffer even went on to write a book explaining his voyage and actions.

Unfortunately, nobody really believed Schaeffer. Bernhardt, who himself was aboard U-530, claims that American and British Intelligence had learned that U-530 and U-977 did visit Antarctica

5. Ibid., p. 48, citing Buechner, pp. 175-176.


before landing in South America but the exact nature of their mission eluded them.[6] A glimpse into this extraordinary mission and the high importance afforded by the German Navy High Command (the Oberkommando der KriegsMarine or OKM) to it can perhaps be afforded by a glance of the alleged performance characteristics of the U-530. In the spring of 1945, an old-fashioned type U-boat with the number 530 was dry-docked after being damaged by a freighter which had rammed it. As was typical for the Kriegsmarine, a new submarine, probably a type XXI or further development of it, was launched at approximately the same time, and was given the same service number, an obvious ploy to confuse Allied military intelligence. But why was the U-boat that actually sailed to the South Atlantic and that later surrendered to Argentina probably a type XXI or some derivative? Because Captain Wilhelm Bernhardt, a pen name of an actual crew member of Captain Wermoutt's U-530, let out a significant piece of information; he stated that her submerged speed was approximately 30 knots, an unheard of speed for a submerged submarine in that day. The only submarines in service in any navy in the world capable of that performance at that time were the German type XXI U-boats.

The type XXI U-boat, like most U-boats in the German Navy by that time, was fitted with the special schnorkel device that

6. Ibid., p. 51, citing Buechner, p. 232.


allowed its main diesel engines to operate while submerged underwater. It is quite possible that these newer Type XXI U-boats also had the newer Schnorkels fitted with the special anti-radar coatings examined in the previous part of this book. But the Type XXI was also outfitted with the special "Walther" turbine, an underwater jet" device that utilized hydrogen peroxide that allowed great underwater cruising speeds. In effect, these turbines were "silent" engines allowing great underwater speeds for limited durations of time. Thus, the Type XXI had brought submarine technology and warfare to a new and sophisticated level by the war's end. But would even the Type XXI have been able to brave the North and then South Atlantic Oceans, by that point in the war all but Allied lakes?

There is some indication that not only were they successful in doing so, but wildly so.

In the previous part of this book mention was made of special new guidance systems the Germans had adapted to missiles, and torpedoes. These systems included wire-guidance, as well as magnetic proximity fuses. Stevens reports that on May 2, 1945, a flotilla of U-boats, many of them Type XXIs, carefully husbanded by Donitz at Kristiansand fjord in Norway, departed in a wolf pack for Iceland, making the traditional run through the straits between Iceland and Greenland.

What happened next has been deleted from what passes as history, at least in the countries of the former Allied Powers. What happened was the last great sea battle of the Atlantic. The German U-boat convoy ran straight into an Allied naval battle formation.[7] The result was stunning. using the new torpedoes... the Allied ships were totally annihilated. Apparently the Allies never quite realized what they had run into. Our only third-party report of the event was an article in a South American newspaper which learned of the event. A quote (sic) from the only survivor of the attack is often quoted by the underground German writers although this writer has not seen a copy of the newspaper: "May God help me, may I never again encounter such a force" - British destroyer captain.

The British consistently maintained a flotilla of destroyers, accompanied occasionally by heavier units of light and heavy cruisers, on station in these straits throughout the war.


This was reportedly carried in "El Mercurio", Santiago, Chile, and "Der Weg" a paper published by exiled Germans living in Buenos Aires, Argentina.[8]

The use of new torpedoes -whether wire-guided, acoustic-seeking, or magnetic proximity-fused [9] - leads once again back to Kammler's "think tank" secret weapons empire. These torpedoes, plus the high-submersible speeds and "proto-stealth" capabilities of the Type XXI U-boats would have been more than a match for the British destroyers on station between Iceland and Greenland.

But as we have previously noted, the Coler coil came to the quick attention of the Kriegsmarine in the early days of the Third Reich, which immediately classified it at the highest level, and funded further research.

It is not hard to understand the Kriegsmarine's interest in the Coler device. It is the perfect generator for submarine use. It produces no exhaust and burns no fuel. It could be linked directly to existing electric-drive vessels and run under water indefinitely. Did the Germans actually accomplish this? The underground German writers say that this indeed happened. This theme runs throughout the writing of Bergmann whose specialty is the link between German submarines and German flying saucers. [10]

This is an incredible, if not outlandish, claim. Yet it is worth pondering for a moment. The Coler devices, developed in 1933, [11] and their unusual ability to transduce electrical power out of something were known to the Germans fully six years before the war had even started, and were developed in secret for twelve years after that (and then presumably by the British for another twenty three years after that!). We do not know, of course, nor is the British Government saying (if indeed it knows), to what state the Germans brought this device, but whatever the state, they bad fully twelve years in which to do it. But whether perfected or not, notice

8. Stevens, op. cit., p. 28, citing Mattern, p, 82.
9. Ibid.
10. Ibid., p. 27.
11. British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee, 1946: The Invention of Hans Coler Relating to an Alleged New Source of Power, p. 2.


what else is being implied by the assertion that it was brought to some state of pre-trial use on submarines: the Germans were deliberately after a method of submarine propulsion that would have allowed indefinite submerged cruising, much as a modern nuclear submarine, but by a device much simpler in design and construction, and presumably, much less risky in operation. Whether or not the Germans were able to bring it to a state of practical use is thus, in one sense, immaterial, since the classification of the device alone indicates the nature of their interest.

In any case, the odd circumstances of the late-surrendering U-boats, not to mention the alleged naval debacle suffered by the British so late in the war when everything seemed - from a naval and military standpoint -so secure and safe, focused Allied and particularly American eyes quite quickly and forcefully on Antarctica.[12]

Whatever the Allies learned, there was a sudden, intense interest in Antarctica. This interest was so strong that in 1946, as Allied troop were returning home from the War and all thoughts were turned to peacetime pursuits, the United States Government, under President Harry Truman, found it absolutely imperative that a full military expedition be mounted against Antarctica. This campaign was called Operation HIGH JUMP.[13]


From U.S. Naval Aviation News, January 1947

While the operation was billed in American newspapers, magazines and even the occasional newsreel as a mapping expedition, its actual military character is easily seen from a glance at its composition. Commanded by America's premier polar explorer, Admiral Byrd, the flotilla included an aircraft escort carrier (the Philippine Sea), two seaplane carriers (the Pine Island and Curritich), two destroyers (the Brownsen and Henderson), two escort ships (Yankee and Merrick), two fueling ships (Canister and

12. It goes without saying that the high priority that the British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee placed on recovering a Coler device and its inventor after the war tends to corroborate the notion that the British had learned the hard way that it had been brought to some state of practical use for submarine propulsion.

13. Stevens, op. cit., p. 51.


Capacan), and a submarine (the Sennet). Additionally, four thousand troops equipped with helicopters, reliable, fixed-wing DC-3s, and a specially designed armored tracked vehicle were also at the Admiral's command.[14]

Outfitted for a stay of eight months, the expedition encircled the German claimed territory of Neuschwabenland (New Schwabialand), Admiral Byrd stationing the naval vessels off the coast, and then advanced the ground troops and aerial reconnaissance from the pole toward the German territory. Allegedly the German "base" was quickly found, overflown, and either an American flag, or a bomb, depending on the version of the story, was dropped on the position.

In any case, the four escort craft accompanying the scout aircraft were lost without a trace. This single event "throws the whole Highjump exercise into a curious light, for "it somehow changed the whole character of the Byrd expedition. Within 48 hours Admiral Byrd had given orders which canceled the expedition and made preparations to leave Antarctica. The mission had lasted closer to eight weeks than to eight months. No official reason was given for the sudden withdrawal."[15] Byrd was returned to Washington D.C., debriefed, and his personal and operational logs from the mission were seized and remain classified to this day, fueling an endless stream of rumors and conspiracy theories.

But the expedition, in keeping with its cover as a mapping expedition perhaps, was composed also of small contingents of news media and reporters from other countries, one of which was Chile. A reporter working for the Chilean El Mercurio in Santiago, one Lee van Atta, accompanied Admiral Byrd, who "made some astounding statements, all dutifully recorded" and reported by van Atta, and dutifully ignored in the American press.[16] In its March 5, 1947 edition,

"Byrd announced to me today that it is necessary for the United States to put into effect defensive measures against enemy airmen which come from the polar regions. The Admiral further explained that he

14. Ibid.., p. 52.
15. Ibid.
16. Ibid., p. 53.


did not have the intention to scare anyone but the utter reality is that in case of a new war the United States would be in a position to be attacked by flyers which could fly with fantastic speed from one pole to the other."[17]

17. Ibid.


At that time in history, of course, there was only one nation that had undertaken anything like an extensive exploration of the southern polar continent: Nazi Germany.

B. The Neuschwabenland Expedition

In late 1938 the Germans undertook an expedition to Antarctica, specially outfitting a seaplane carrier, the Schwabenland for the purpose, and placing it under the command of one of Germany's most experienced polar navigators. At a cost of some millions of Reichsmarks, the expedition was under the personal direction and mentorship of none other than Luftwaffe chief, Reichsmarschall Hermann Goring,[18] which leaves one to wonder what possible purpose Goring would have in sponsoring such an expedition. That it was military in nature seems beyond doubt, for the Nazis spared no effort to outfit the expedition as thoroughly as possible. New canning techniques were invented for the food needed on the voyage from and back to Germany, and new clothing was designed, including allegedly a "grey almost bullet-proof seamless and metallic appearing suit...made of whale skin." [19]

The inspiration for the expedition may have had hidden occult motivations as well, for the occult Thulegesellschaft or Thule Society subscribed to a Nordic Atlantis hidden beneath the polar ice, whence sprang, so the legend goes, the Germanic race.[20] In any case, small teams of specially selected biologists and other scientists accompanied the expedition to run laboratory experiments on board the refurbished Schwabenland.[21]

18. It is also to be noted that apparently the then Deputy Fuhrer and Party chief, Rudolf Hess, was also privy to whatever secret purpose and findings this expedition had. Some people allege that this was in part a hidden motivation for Hess's inexplicable flight to Great Britain in 1941 to conduct secret "peace" negotiations with representatives of the British Fascist movement.

19. Ibid., p. 3, citing Christoph Friedrich, Secret Nazi Polar Expeditions (Toronto: Samisdat Publishers, No date), p. 21.

20. This fact would also place the expedition within the brief of the SS Ahnenerbedienst.

21. The expedition is the subject of a fascinating novel by William Dietrich called Ice Reich (Time Warner, 1998). Dietrich's thesis is that the Germans


The Germans chose the region of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land, an area of the continent claimed by Denmark. In blatant disregard for international law, the Nazis overflew the entire area, dropping thousands of little swastika flags on the region with little spikes to embed them in the ice, and claimed it for Germany, renaming the region Neuschwabenland. but they did more than just fly and drop flags.

The German pilots extensively photographed the region, and reported mountain ranges in excess of 12,000 feet altitude, rocky crags projecting above the fields of ice. But most amazingly, they allegedly found ice-free ponds, heated geothermally, in which grew various unknown species of algae. They also discovered the southern tip of the fault line that runs from New Zealand, through Neuschwabenland, and up the Atlantic Ocean, the famous Atlantic "trench". The Germans concluded that such features might indicate the presence of rocky caverns on the continent, heated geothermally, the perfect place for a hidden base in the world's most isolated, desolate, and inaccessible wilderness.[22]

Most intriguingly, the scientists aboard the Schwabenland were not idle in analyzing the potential foodstuffs of the continent:

Emperor penguins were captured for return to Germany for study. Walruses were shot and their bodies dissected. Their bodies were tested for fat, protein, vitamin and other nutrient content. The biological findings made during this expedition would occupy German university scientists for months to come but the aim of this focus was secret. It is known that German dieticians (sic) were commissioned to prepare tasty and nutritious meals using only what was available in Antarctica.[23]

Clearly, if these allegations are true, then the Germans were preparing for a relatively large and permanent presence on their continent were after unknown microbial and bacteriological life forms that were frozen in the ice and that could be transformed into biological weapons.

22. Stevens, op. cit., p. 4.
23. Ibid., citing Friedrich, p. 87.


Then, via an unusual zigzagging route between Africa and South America - itself one of the intriguing mysteries of the expedition - the Schwabenland returned to Germany, reaching port on April 10, 1939.[24] Goring presented the expedition members with written medals and commemorations. Then, all further mention of the expedition in the German - or any other press - ceased.

24. Stevens, op. cit., p. 4.


Goring's Commemorative Medal for the Antarctic Expedition

So what do we have at this juncture?

Allegations from German writers of known or suspected Nazi sympathies of a continued German presence on the Antarctic continent during and after the war;

Actual suspicious U-boat activity in the South Atlantic at the end of the war;

Allegations of German research that could have been for no other purpose than establishment of a permanent German presence on the continent;

Allegations of discoveries of small thermally heated ponds with unknown types of algae on the continent's interior;

Allegations of Grand Admiral Donitz that the U-boat fleet was involved in the construction of a secret base or bases far from the Reich, one base of which was surrounded by "eternal ice";

Allegations of a last sea battle in the Atlantic prior to the German surrender, with things going surprisingly disastrously for the Allies;

An actual large post-war American military adventure to the continent within two years of the end of the war, with small accompanying international press contingents, an expedition outfitted for eight months that stayed only eight weeks; and finally,

An actual newspaper report of Admiral Byrd trying to warn America of a military threat from "enemy aircraft" flying from Pole-to-pole at tremendous speed.


All of this would seem to imply at a minimum that something was going on in Antarctica, and that someone in the United States Federal government was quite worried about it.

Indeed, when the United States returned to Antarctica some twelve years later, it did so once again with force, this time, nuclear force, and once again, under the cover of an "international cooperative effort," the International Geophysical Year of 1957- 1958. This means that if there were indeed Germans on a secret base somewhere on that frozen continent, they had some twelve years to do whatever they were doing. In terms of the Nazi legend, supposedly they were busily perfecting their strange wartime research.

In any case, as Henry Stevens points out, this period, from 1947 to 1957-58, is in fact the "golden age" of the flying saucer, encompassing the Kenneth Arnold sightings, the alleged Roswell UFO crash and recovery, to the famous "buzzing" of the Capital and White House by UFOs that supposedly made even the unflappable Harry Truman anxious.

The famous 1952 Washington D.C. sightings prompted a nervous and unconvincing Pentagon press conference - the only one ever given by a general officer from the Pentagon - on the subject of UFOs.[25]

25. Ibid., p. 53. Stevens further speculates on the possible motivation for the UFO over flights of sensitive areas of Washington DC: "Was this overflight in retaliation for the Byrd over-flight of the German base in Antarctica and designed to show the Americans they had no control over their own airspace?"(p. 55) Stevens offers no evidence for this speculation. I will offer my


Under the cover of the geophysical year, the United States again sent a naval task force to the Antarctic. The use of military force-including atomic weapons! -was "covered" by the ridiculous story that the USA and USSR, in a rare moment of nuclear cooperation during the height of the Cold War, were interested in seeing how much of the continent could be "recovered" for use by warming it with nuclear explosions! Accordingly, it would be necessary to explode a few small nuclear "devices" for above the continent to warm and melt the ice as a proof of concept![26] A Stevens aptly quips, "You already know exactly where in Antarctica they planned to explode these atomic bombs."[27] Three bombs were thus detonated at an altitude of approximately 300 miles above the target, one on August 27, 1958, one on August 30, 1958, and a third on September 6, 1958.[28] If these bursts were indeed intended secretly against an actual target, then why so high? Stevens hypothesizes that they were to knock out any German equipment in the region by the strong electromagnetic pulse that results from a nuclear detonation.

While this is a plausible explanation if the intention were to occupy the alleged base via a ground assault or assaults within the time frame of the bursts, no such contingent is known to have accompanied the small armada of two destroyers, two destroyer escorts, and a small aircraft carrier. However, as we shall see in a own speculations concerning a similar scenario in connection with my examination of the Majic-12 documents and the Roswell incident in Chapter 16. But supposing Stevens is correct for the sake of argument, then suffice it to say that over-flights of the American capital by Nazi flying saucers so long after the war's end would certainly have shaken the national security apparatus of the United States much more than over-flights by apparently benign extraterrestrial ones, and the response would have been to clamp the lid down on government research of the phenomenon, exactly as happened, since the supposedly defeated enemy was not, if this is true, really defeated after all.

26. Ibid., p. 55.

27. Ibid., p. 57.

28. Ibid. Stevens also notes that these bursts may have something to do with the "ozone hole" over the South Pole and the us government's reluctance to discuss the idea or the events that may have caused it. Additionally, perhaps it is possible that one atom bomb from each of the world's then nuclear powers, the us, the usSR, and the UK, were used.


moment, this explanation does bear some weight in connection with the allegations of the capabilities of German bases at the other pole. With the Geophysical Year expedition of 1958's atomic detonations, the alleged German base on the Antarctic continent fades, the Germans themselves supposedly gradually evacuating it during the interim period from Byrd's expedition to the final coup de grace for more favorable climes in South America.[29] There the case for Nazi survival and continued research becomes much stronger. But before we can turn to that, we must investigate the alleged German goings on at the other pole.

C. Spitzbergen, Greenland, and Arctic Canada: The Other German Polar Survival Myth

The Western Allies, the Russians, and the Germans all relied heavily on weather reports to plan and execute their campaigns, and for this purpose, accurate up-to-the-minute reporting on Arctic conditions was crucial. To this end it is not surprising to find the Germans in particular outfitting special commando units - usually Waffen SS - to operate independently in Spitzbergen Island north of Norway, in Greenland, and in Arctic Canada. Such teams were delivered to their operational areas via U-boat. Spitzbergen in particular seemed to trade hands between the British and the Germans, as each side mounted commando operations to destroy the other's weather stations and listening posts. On one such occasion, the most famous perhaps, the German battleship Tirpitz,

sister ship to the Bismarck, sailed to the island where one such British station was operating, leveled her 15 inch heavy guns at it, and promptly dispatched it, no doubt to the complete shock and surprise of the British manning it. Other allegations have a secret German weather base and listening post operating in Franz Josef Land, the islands to the north of Finland and the Soviet Union.[30]

However, with the allegations of German bases in Greenland, one again enters the realm of the surreal. These bases were allegedly comparatively large, as were the contingents of Germans

29. Ibid., p. 58.
30. Ibid, p. 5.


operating them. While they were supposedly known by the Greenlanders and occupying American forces, most efforts to find them ended in failure.[31] One post-war German source places as many as three independent SS battle groups (Kamfgruppen) operating in Greenland, under the code name of Thulekampfgruppen (Thule battle groups). The connection to the occult interests of the Third Reich are once again in evidence.

Predictably, these "Thule battle groups" become the subject of another series of survival legends, as former SS officers supposedly reported seeing U-boats loaded with rates designated "Thule 1 K" and so on departing Germany in the final days of the war.[32] Sworn to secrecy by the SS, the "clear implication is that the 'Thule 1 K' is the Thule Kampfgruppe 1" and that it had "no intentions of surrender; and that there was still a mission to accomplish."[3] The Americans, so the story goes, were unsuccessful in locating them bases for two reasons: the area was too large, and the bases were "like the German fortifications built in Neuschwabenland...tunneled deep underneath the glaciers of ice (into presumably solid rock) and that they were bored to a length of 2000 meters."[34] This allegation is surely implausible, since the transport of sophisticated mining and boring equipment, let alone enough explosive, for such a task by U- boat would have been an enormous undertaking, one quite beyond the labor capabilities of small SS battle groups.[35] But this is not the end of the surreal aspects of the story. Should the bases have been detected, they were supposedly defended with exotic electromagnetic weapons, one of which had a short range, but that could cause the ignition of aircraft engines to fail completely.

After the war, the Vienna Wiener Montag reported in its December 29, 1947 edition that Eskimos reported to American

31. Ibid., p. 6.
32. Ibid., p. 8.
33. Ibid.
34. Ibid., citing O. Bergmann, Deutsche Flugsheiben und U-Boote Uberwachen die Weltmeere, Hugin Gesellschaft fur politisch-philosophische Studien (Horstl, Germany: 1989), pp. 134, 137.

35. Consider the fact that the huge underground factories in Germany were built over several months by thousands of slave laborers working around-the-clock with the best available existing mining and tunneling technology.


authorities that an SS battle group of fully 150 men had been encountered.[36] Besides these allegations of large bases and battle groups and exotic weaponry, there is a similar account circulated by the distinctly pro-Nazi novelist Wilhelm Landig in his 1971 novel Gotzen gegen Thule, a novel he billed as "full of realities" (voller Wirklichkeiten), of a large German base in the Canadian Arctic, near the magnetic North pole. This base, he alleges, was serviced by the German military using special long-range aircraft and, of course, flying saucers! As if that were not enough, Landig maintains that these aircraft were not equipped with normal machine guns or cannon for their defensive weaponry, but utilized a Metallstrahl, essentially an electromagnetic "rail gun" used to propel tiny pellets with extreme velocity, a kind of hyper-velocity shotgun that would more than rip apart any Allied aircraft, and do so at great distances.[37]

All of these allegations would remain merely fanciful if it were not for the discovery by American UFOlogist William Lyne -himself definitely outside the "mainstream" of the UFOlogy community - of a piece of German equipment that, quite literally, he bought at a second-hand store in White Sands, New Mexico![38] The unusual thing about this piece of equipment was not only its circular central swastika - a clear reference to the occult Thulegesellschaft since that version of the swastika appeared on its emblem - but also its designation as a Peiltochterkompass, a "daughter compass." Investigating this strange piece of equipment further, Lyne concluded that it was no ordinary compass, since it appeared not to operate by any magnetic means, which might explain how it ended

36. Ibid. Again, the number 150 is realistic for a battle group, but quite below the labor requirements for the construction of such large bases.
37. Ibid., pp. 11-12.
38. Lyne is the author of a rather extraordinary book of UFOlogy - a field in which the extraordinary seems to be the norm - called Space Aliens from the Pentagon, the main theme of which is his adamant insistence that UFOs are entirely terrestrial and man-made, and being used to advance a fictitious "alien agenda" and psychological operations campaign. Lyne, notwithstanding the more often than not unbelievable aspects of his book, was, in addition to Stevens, one of the few UFOlogists to take the Nazi origins myth of UFOs seriously prior to the publication of Nick Cook's the Hunt for Zero Point.


up in White Sands, New Mexico! Lyne and his mysterious compass even became the subject of an article in a local American newspaper.

Why is Lyne's find so important to the allegations of Nazi bases in the Canadian Arctic that were being supplied by long range aircraft?

Very simple.

If there were ever any truth to the allegations of German bases in these heavily forested regions, then normal magnetic compasses would be of virtually no use for navigation purposes in the region, since standard compasses are notoriously inaccurate at the polar regions with solar energy cascading down and causing local disruptions of the magnetic field. Some other method, therefore, had to be found to orient aircraft for safe navigation. Landig alleges that this was done by means of a compass that oriented itself to the sun by reading polarized light, rather than magnetic field lines.[39] Lyne therefore seems to have found some version of this compass in an area of America known for its secret research laboratories some twenty years or so after Landig's surreal allegations first appeared!

But according to Landig there is even more to consider, for according to him the German base in the Canadian Arctic was actively researching and developing so-called "free energy" devices, devices that would tap the so-called "zero point energy" of quantum mechanics. In this connection, the research was allegedly carried out under the auspices of the SS Entwicklungstelle IV, or SS "Developmental Installation IV," an entity, if it existed at all, that would have fallen under the mission brief and jurisdiction of Kammler's SS Sonderkommando, for it was responsible for "research into making Germany independent of foreign energy sources."[40]

39. Stevens, op. cit., p. 12.
40. Ibid., p. 19.


January 6, 1994 Albuquerque Journal North Article Featuring William Lyne and His Mysterious Nazi Compass


So with Landig's fantastic allegations, we come full circle back to the exotic energy sources, the technologies, the occult, and the SS research being conducted by Nazi Germany. Therefore, before proceeding to examine more seriously substantiated instances of Nazi survival in the next chapter, it would be worthwhile to summarize the accumulated allegations and evidences of this and previous chapters:

(1) Fact: The Germans undertook an expedition to Antarctica whose hidden purpose was clearly military in nature, since one cannot imagine the likes of Reichsmarschall Goring sponsoring an expedition for any other purpose;

(2) Fact: The United States on two separate occasions over the wide time-frame of eleven to twelve years undertook two large military expeditions to that continent, both under appropriate cover stories for mapping (the 1947 Byrd expedition, Operation High Jump), and for the 1957-58 Geophysical Years (to study the effects of atomic blasts on Antarctic weather!);

(3) Fact: Admiral Byrd, the leader of the first American expedition, was recorded in a South American newspaper as warning of "enemy" aircraft capable of violating American airspace with ease, and of flying form pole-to-pole with tremendous speed;

(4) Fact: The German Navy showed great interest in the "free-energy" ideas and coils of Hans Coler, for the ostensible purpose of creating a means of submarine propulsion that would allow German U-boats to stay submerged more or less indefinitely;

(5) Fact: Admiral Byrd's diaries and logs from his expedition are still classified;

(6) Fact: Coler's inventions were highly classified by the German Navy, and later by the British, who only declassified them over thirty years after the war's end;

(7) Fact: The Germans had also apparently contrived a sophisticated compass for possible use in polar regions by aircraft, and possibly by other less conventional aircraft;


(8) Fact: the alleged time span of the German Antarctic base's survival is coincident with "golden age" of the UFO, from the Arnold sightings, the Roswell crash, up to and beyond the great 1950s Washington D.C. UFO flap;

(9) Fact: SS General Dr. Ing. Hans Kammler had assumed total control of all the Third Reich's secret weapons research by the end of the war, a position which would have made him privy to the German Navy's research;

(10) Fact: It is evident from the movements of General Patton's divisions in the closing days of the European war that Kammler's SS secret weapons empire was the deliberate, and principal, target of these military operations;

(11) Allegation: Grand Admiral Donitz on more than one occasion alluded to the role of the German U-boat fleet in the construction of secret bases in polar regions;

(12) Allegation: These bases were staffed by SS troops, and presumably technicians conducting ongoing secret research into "zero point energy" or "free energy";

(13) Allegation: Said research fell under an SS entity called S-IV, recalling Kammler's S-III mentioned briefly in part one;

(14) Allegation: These bases were said to be defended by exotic types of weaponry, including electromagnetic "rail guns" to devices that could interfere with and halt standard electrical engine ignitions systems;

(15) Allegation (from part one): There were secret SS teams working on "areas of physics" even more exotic than atomic and thermonuclear energy;

(16) Allegation: There is a connection to Nazi occult interests in the polar regions via the myth of "Thule", the pre-war occult Thule Society (Thulegesellschaft);

(17) Fact: The highest levels of the SS were initiates into Himmler's occult inner circle at Wewelsburg, making it likely that Kammler himself was such an initiate;

(18) Fact: The 1944 German atom bomb test at Rugen island took place at a location with its own occult pedigree and significance for the pre-war Germanic, and very occult, Order of the New Templars.


What emerges from this list is disturbing indeed. Clearly, a prima facie case can be made that the Nazi leadership had invested significant resources in the investigation of any and all avenues to power, occult and otherwise, and to new sources of energy. And equally clearly, the Nazi leadership was willing to think "outside the box" and to go to any lengths - often quite literally - to research those matters. What also emerges from this list is a preoccupation with areas of physics, and areas of the globe, almost completely neglected - at least publicly - by the wartime Allies. Moreover, what also emerges is a disturbing sense, that maybe, just maybe, there was something to the survival myths after all, for one thing seems clear from the pattern of events after the war, particularly in respect to Antarctica: such myths were inevitably connected to the exotic research pursuits the Germans were conducting, and such myths seem clearly to have been the hidden motivation for American counter-strikes.



"The documents I had before me... contained firsthand evidence that the Reichsleiter had survived the war and succeeded in escaping to Argentina. It was attested by the Argentine authorities themselves, in highly classified intelligence reports and positions papers drawn up for their own secret and official use."

--Ladislas Farago, Aftermath [1]

As the war turned irrevocably against the Third Reich, top Nazi leaders began to plan for the future, among them the Nazi Party's Reichsleiter Martin Bormann, Adolf Hitler's secretary and virtual shadow, and financial administrator of the Party's, as well as of Hitler's own personal and considerable, fortune. While much of this story is known to the general public in broad outline, few appreciate the degree of organization, planning, and success it had, and, unfortunately, may be continuing to have. Even fewer appreciate its significance, for what began in the secret societies of post-World War One Germany as the most explosive political movement in modern history would end by once again going underground, and operating behind a variety of false fronts that included corporations, black projects, secret societies, and criminal and paramilitary syndicates. It would thus exercise a considerable, though hidden, moral and cultural influence on the world that emerged after World War Two.

With the failure of the final large German offensive in Soviet Russia at Kursk in 1943, the Nazi leadership had but two courses of action: (1) continue the war and hope for the realization of their secret weapons projects in time to provide a military resuscitation, or (2) begin the process of moving capital, technology, and personnel to ensure the survival of the Party by other means. The Nazi leadership chose both courses of action.

1. Ladislas Farago, Aftermath; Martin Bormann and the Fourth Reich (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1974), p. 60.


At first the movement of resources abroad -monetary, technological, and human - proceeded haphazardly. Money and loot from a plundered Europe made its way into secret Swiss bank accounts, or in the case of hard assets - precious minerals, bullion, art, diamonds and other gemstones and so on - made its way overland through France into "neutral" but decidedly pro-Axis Nationalist Spain.

But it soon became apparent that haphazard efforts would not ensure the survival of the Party, nor the furtherance of its ideals, nor the spread of its power in the postwar world, nor the continuance of its research projects, which would have to be continued if it ever hoped to regain power and influence. Organization and long-range planning in depth and breadth had to occur if Nazism were to survive covertly. To this end, Reichsleiter Martin Bormann orchestrated a top secret meeting on August 10, 1944, at the Hotel Rotes Haus in Strassburg, in occupied France. Representatives of all the major German industrial and armaments firms were present, including the huge firms of Krupp, Thyssen, and of course, I.G. Farben. Also present were Bormann himself, Hjalmar Schacht, president of the Reichsbank, and his son-in-law, the famous SS commando, Colonel Otto Skorzeny, leader of the daring air mission to rescue Benito Mussolini in 1943. At this meeting, "provisions were made not only to move great sums of money outside Germany but also to camouflage foreign assets on paper for the resurrection of a financial-industrial empire, of sorts, once the Reich collapsed. This empire was to be controlled by the SS."[2]

As a result of this plan, the well-known SS-run ratlines were formed to assist fleeing SS and other Nazis, to provide for their financial security, relocation, and false identities. The most famous of these was of course the ODESSA group, or the Organization Der Ehemahlige SS Angehorige, or "Organization of Former SS Members." Another famous organization was "Die Spinne" or The Spider. In any case, under the Riechsleiter's powerful protection, the SS, in concert with the Kriegsmarine, began to smuggle

2. Henry Stevens, The Last Battalion and German Arctic, Antarctic, and Andean Bases, p. 58.

enormous quantities of gold, precious gems, art and both genuine and counterfeit cash out of Germany. To a lesser extent, machine tools, steel, technicians and other personnel began to be quietly siphoned off Germany industry and smuggled out of Europe.[3]

The financial treasure trove was then laundered by the SS via a variety of methods, for example, through Evita Peron's Swiss bank accounts, through dummy corporations, through the South American drug trade, and so on.[4] During this immediate post-war period, most of this fortune was controlled by Otto Skorzeny.

The German industrialists who had been set up abroad with SS money dating back to the deal at the Rotes Haus in Strassbourg in 1944 were asked by Skorzeny to pay back their loans. Both Thyssen and Krupp did so, as presumably did others. To give the reader an idea of the sums collected by Skorzeny, Eva Peron alone had an estimated $800 million dollars in bank deposits, in 1945, and 4,600 carats of diamonds and other precious stones, 90 kilograms of platinum and 2,500 kilograms of gold.[5]

With these monies, the SS purchased huge tracts of land in South America and elsewhere, and large corporations were established in which "research which (sic) had begun in Germany could be carried through."[6] These "secure areas" or Sperrgebiete often saw the establishment of whole towns, airfields, highways and all the amenities of civilized German life.[7] Local security was, of course, provided by the SS or "contract labor" from the host country. The most famous of these colonies, perhaps, is the Colona Dignidad in (Me, a "colony" notorious for the disappearances of the too- inquisitive reporter, and implicated in the us overthrow of the Chilean Marxist government of Salvadore Allende in the early 1970s and the training of Chilean dictator Pinochet's DINA "interrogators."[8] And of course, these secure areas in the Andes

3. Stevens, op. cit., p. 59.
4. Ibid., p. 62.
5. Ibid.
6. Ibid., p. 63.
7. bid., pp. 63-64.
8. Q.v. Peter Levenda, Unholy Alliance: A History of Nazi Involvement with the Occult (New York: Avon Books, 1995), pp. 300-301, 343-356.


and other remote South American locations are also reputed to be the sites of secret Nazi laboratories continuing the research on "flying saucers" and other wartime Nazi black projects.[9]

Whatever one may think of the truthfulness of the last allegation, it is true - and generally well known - that such colonies of Nazis did and still do exist in South America, with connections to the South American underworld and governments that one can only imagine. But there is good reason not to dismiss even the "continued research" allegation too quickly, for it conforms to a well-known pattern of secret post-war West German corporate and military research on the continent on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean, Africa.

In the final months of his administration, President Jimmy Carter accused South Africa's apartheid government of having tested an atom bomb in the Indian Ocean. German and American newspaper reporters quickly uncovered - in spite of Praetoria's denials - a tapestry of corporations and dummy corporations that clearly led back to West Germany's Bundeswehr, and to a multitude of personnel and military officers with ties to the Third Reich. The goal was clear: The Federal Republic was supplying massive technological assistance to South Africa (and to Israel as it turned out) in the areas of uranium enrichment and plutonium transmutation via centrifuges and other processes, in return for which uranium-rich South Africa bartered the raw atomic fuel itself. Germany could thus fulfill its post-war treaty obligations by not developing or deploying atomic, biological, or chemical weapons on German soil, while at the same time using South Africa to construct and test a bomb of essentially German design. If this sounds familiar, it is, for after World War One, Germany side- stepped the Versailles treaty-which forbade the Germans possession of tanks, aircraft, and heavy artillery beyond a certain caliber - by concluding a secret protocol in the Rapallo treaty with the other pariah of the day, the Soviet Union. Thus, as early as 1922, German officers were training in tank warfare in the Soviet Union with their Russian counterparts, among them the future

9. Stevens, The Last Battalion, p. 64.


Colonel-General Guderian who would lead the Second Panzer Army during Operation Barbarossa to the very gates of Moscow.[10] In yet another important study challenging the standard assumptions of the origin and transmission vector of the human AIDS virus and the history of the discovery of HIV, Dr. Leonard G. Horowitz makes a solid case for its genesis within secret American biological warfare research at Fort Detrick, Maryland. But there is more to Horowitz's investigations than this, for there is a German connection lurking deep in the background, and once again, it goes back to Bormann and presages the 1944 Rotes Haus meeting in Strasbourg:

In the Spring of 1944, Merck and Company, Inc. received a large cash infusion from Martin Bormann.... This at the time Merck's president, George W. Merck, was advising President Roosevelt, and initiating strategies, as America's biological weapons industry director. According to CBS News correspondent Paul Manning, the lion's share of the Nazi gold went to 750 corporations, largely including Merck, to secure a virtual monopoly over the world's chemical and pharmaceutical industries. This was done not only for Germany's economic recovery, but to assure the rise of "The Fourth Reich.'

Merck, then, along with Rockefeller partner I.G. Farben, received huge sums of money from the Nazi war chest to actualize Hitler's proclaimed 'vision of a thousand-year Third Reich (and) world empire. This was outlined with clarity in a document called 'Neuordnung,' or 'New Order,' that was accompanied by a letter of transmittal to the (Bormann led) Ministry of Economics. 'Bury your treasure,' Hitler advised Bormann, 'for you will need it to begin a Fourth Reich.'[11]

Bormann apparently ignored his Fuhrer, and in a momentary burst of Christianity, heeded Christ by not burying his treasure, but investing and increasing it.

10. The often overlooked story of the West German bomb and its very secret development was covered in the New York Times book by Zdenek Cervenka and Barbara Rogers, The Nuclear Axis: the Secret Collaboration Between West Germany and South Africa, (New York Times, 1978), ISBN 0-8129-0760-4

11. Leonard Horowitz, D.M.D., M.A., M.P.H., Emerging Viruses: AIDS and Ebola: Nature, Accident, or Intentional? (Sandpoint, Idaho: tetrahedron, Inc., 1999), p. 335.


In any case, as late as 1988, as the Soviet Union was nearing its collapse, Russian premier Mikhail Gorbachev appeared to be trying to point a finger of blame for the AIDS epidemic in Africa in Germany's direction. Via Russian diplomatic channels and contacts in the former Belgian Congo, now Zaire, the Russian government had learned of a Zairean physician who had formerly worked for the West German OTRAG corporation, or Orbital Transport and Missiles, AG. This doctor's OTRAG laboratory had been tasked with isolating viruses from the African green monkey that were capable of such rapid reproduction that it could destabilize the human immune system. The laboratory's assignment was to develop a mutant strain "that would be a human killer," since the green monkey variety was harmless to humans.[12]

But it is really the OTRAG establishment in Zaire that is itself of the greatest interest, for it fits the pattern of post-war SS relationships with South American governments and false from corporations. OTRAG was granted a lease by the Mobutu government to 29,000 square miles of Zaire, a lease that gave OTRAG "complete sovereignty and control over the area."[13] What was the purpose of this land? Ostensibly, it was to develop and test their cheap satellite launch capability for private industry, an application with obvious military overtones.[14] In other words, what one has with the OTRAG-Zaire enclave is something like an Area 51, but owned by a private corporation. The enclave is nothing less than a testing facility for missiles and laboratories for biological, and presumably other types of weapons development. According to the German Information Service of South Africa, OTRAG executives included former Nazis, some from the wartime V-2 rocket project.[15] This in itself should give one pause, for it indicates that German rocket research was continued, not just by former Nazis working for Von Braun's NASA in the USA, or building massive boosters for Korolev in the Soviet Union, but also for West

12. Horowitz, Emerging Viruses, p. 364.
13. Ibid., p. 365.
14. Ibid., pp. 365-366.
15. Ibid., p. 366.


Germany itself! Moreover, OTRAG's shares were subsidized by the West German government, Chancellor Helmut Schmidt's denials notwithstanding.[16] Finally, in what is a clear indication that OTRAG's purpose and goals were not simply to contrive cheap satellite launch capability, Penthouse magazine ran an expose of the German company, disclosing its ties to the Dornier and Messerschmitt-Belkow-Blohm aerospace and armaments firms which were quietly developing and testing German cruise missiles on OTRAG's Zaire range, with the aid of cruise missile technology provided to them by the American Boeing Corporation.[17] Dornier and Messerschmitt were, of course, clearly tied to the Third Reich's war machine and had deep ties to its black projects.

A. Bormann 's Special Evacuation Command and the Link to the Kammlerstab

In part one we noted that Carter Hydrick theorized that it was none other than Martin Bormann who arranged the surrender of the U-234 and its precious cargo of enriched uranium, infrared proximity fuses, heavy water, and possibly even atom bomb designs or an actual functioning atom bomb to the United States.[18] Recent research by Nick Cook would tend to corroborate Bormann's role in, and therefore probable accurate knowledge of, the full scope and extent of Kammler's secret black projects empire. Bormann's

16. Ibid.
17. Ibid, p. 367.
18. It should be noted that Hydrick does not maintain that the Nazis were successful in building and successfully testing an atom bomb during the war, much less of trying to transport blueprints or a functioning model to the Japanese in the U-234. I maintain this possibility on the basis of the research presented in part one, and on the corroborative evidence presented by Robert Wilcox in his Japan's Secret War, that the Japanese successfully tested a bomb shortly after the bombing of Nagasaki. An infusion of actual bomb designs to the Japanese by the Germans late in the war might account for their relatively quick ability to develop and test a weapon under such difficult circumstances as the Japanese economy and military were in at the end of the war. However, it should also be noted that the Japanese had independently designed their own workable bomb along similar lines as existing German designs, as well as along the lines employed in the Little Boy Hiroshima bomb.

1. Box tail fins
2. Steel gun breech assembly
3. Detonator
4. Cordite (conventional) explosives
5. Uranium-235 "projectile", six rings (26 kg) in a thin can of steel
6. Baro sensing ports and manifold
7. Bomb casing wall
8. Arming and fusing equipment
9. Gun barrel, steel, around 10 cm diameter, 200 cm length
10. Arming wires
11. Tamper assembly, steel
12. Uranium-235 "target", two rings (38 kg)
13. Tamper/reflector assembly, tungsten carbide
14. Neutron initiator
15. Archie fuzing radar antennas
16. Recess for the boron safety plug (not shown) to be ejected into


position as controller of Nazi Party finances as well as of Hitler 's estate would have given him control over yet another source of funding for these projects, a source completely independent of the state.

It is in this total context both of Carter Hydride's meticulous research, as well as of Bormann's own Rotes Haus plan for Nazi survival, that we may place Bormann's 1945 establishment of a special SS evacuation Kommando, an act that placed jurisdiction over the Ju-290 four engine and Ju-390 six-engine heavy-lift ultra long range air transport of Luftwaffe Kampfgeschwader 200 under the direct control of none other than SS General Hans Kammler. The intention is clear: as much of the actual research files and equipment of the Kammlerstab as could be evacuated from Germany for destinations unknown was to be handled by Kammler personally. This special evacuation command held these aircraft in readiness near Lower Silesia in late 1945. By this point, Kammler's power, backed by the Reichsleiter himself, was so great that he could refuse a request by Reichsfuhrer SS Himmler for the use of one of these aircraft.[19]

Kammler, "with such aircraft at his disposal" would have been able to fly a large cargo of "documents, personnel and technology pretty much anywhere" that he wanted to. "Spain, South America - Argentina even -would have represented no problem to such a long-range platform." [20] Cook himself quips, "What was the point of chasing Kammler, if he'd already shipped everything out?"[21]

This revelation, coming late in the story of research into Nazi secret weapons and the Nazi UFO legend, gives a clear indication that more than just money, bullion, gems, art treasures or personnel were involved in Bormann's survival plan. Clearly, Bormann meant to preserve and continue the research already under way in the Reich by transplanting the technology and continuing its development elsewhere, either under independent Nazi control - as the various "survival" myths maintain - or under

19. Nick Cook, The Hunt for Zero Point, pp. 186-187, 199.
20. Ibid., p. 199.
21. Ibid.


the nominal control of a host government, or via some combination of both modalities.

If Carter Hydrick is correct that it was Bormann's intention to surrender the bulk of this technology to the United States - and I believe he is - then this puts Himmler's last ditch and clumsy efforts to negotiate a separate peace with the Western Allies via Sweden into a new light. As has already been suggested in this work, Himmler was perhaps offering them the vast cache of secrets he thought he controlled through Kammler's "think tank." And, as has been seen, it is very possible that the American intelligence community already knew of this treasure trove via their SS contacts through Allen Dulles and SS General Wolff, and had made "other arrangements" that included neither Himmler nor the British. Thus, by the time of Kammler's refusal to his SS boss to allow him the use of a Ju-290 or Ju-390, effective control and disposition of the SS black projects had slipped from Himmler's hands and into Bormann's. Himmler could neither surrender nor even barter for his life, because he had nothing left with which to bargain. Kammler, and Bormann, however, had a great deal to offer the Americans in exchange for their lives.

B. Paperclip, Compartmentalization, and Capitalization

According to Nick Cook, Operation Paperclip, the covert project to bring former Nazi scientists and engineers to the United States to work on America's own aerospace and military black projects after the war, was the primary beneficiary of the Kammlerstab's think tank secrets, blueprints, and patents. "The state-within-a-state had been transported four thousand miles to the west and somehow, I just knew, Kammler had come with it. The intuitive feeling I'd experienced in all these years in obscure corners of the us aerospace and defense industry had suddenly acquired a face."[22]

But an important question remains to be answered here. Could these Nazis have continued their lines of research quasi- independently, even while ostensibly working for the us military? Could they have again reconstituted themselves as a similar "state

22. Nick Cook, The Hunt for Zero Point, p. 252.


within a state," a black projects coordination office within the structures otherwise nominally under the control, of the American government and military?

Clearly, it would be difficult, especially if there were no means of independent financing of these projects, altogether apart from the us government's own "black budget." But we have already seen that a crucial component of Bormann's postwar survival and resuscitation plan was capitalization. Three conduits in particular were often utilized by O.D.E.S.S.A and other post-war Nazi secret organizations: (1) drugs and thereby organized crime, (2) the Church, i.e., various "ministries" within Protestantism and diverse religious orders and congregations within the Roman Catholic Church, and (3) false corporate fronts and dummy corporations, holding companies, and banking institutions. The United State, particularly in the last few decades, seems to have been a fertile ground for all three types of activity, at least in general terms.

As for maintaining the secrecy of such an independent and "occulted" entity, this is a solved problem, for the Manhattan Project was just such an entity, with only a very few at the highest echelons of its myriad compartmentalized "need-to-know" departments possessing the whole picture. In the postwar atmosphere, particularly with the Cold War ensuing, it may actually have been quite easy to accomplish. With us government defense contracts and black projects run increasingly on a cost-plus basis, all expenses for such research was funded, with an addition margin tacked on for corporate profit. This, added to the other genuinely off-the-books funding that Bormann and the SS envisioned, would have supplied twin sources of funding of almost limitless wealth.

But the most important consideration with respect to this question is the fact that the very classification and compartmentalization of black projects would itself operate as a favorable environment to run an "unofficial" black project within an "official" one. With projects split over several locations, its needed technologies farmed out to various companies, various departments of government, and coordinated from some secret center, it would seem a relatively easy, rather than difficult, thing to do.


The Nazi Party had been constituted, from its early secret society beginnings, and up until the very day of the German capitulation, as a state within a state. Within that structure, Himmler had constituted the SS as a state within the state within the state. And within that Kammler had assembled and coordinated a vast machinery of horror and weapons research that lived, parasitically, on the body of its host, the SS and the Party, themselves murderous parasites living off the misery of Germany and Europe. Kammler had done it once, and may very well have done it again, "with a little help from his friends." As was mentioned previously, perhaps President Dwight Eisenhower, when he warned of the morally and spiritually corrupting dangers of the military-industrial complex, had in mind a phenomenon that was not so much home-grown, as much as one that had been transplanted.



"Worse, the fact that this craft and other flying saucers had been surveilling our defensive installations and even seemed to to evidence a technology we'd seen evidenced by the Nazis caused the military to assume these flying saucers had hostile intentions and might have even interfered in human events during the war."

At the very least, Twining had suggested, the crescent-shaped craft looked so uncomfortably like the German Horten wings our flyers had seen at the end of the war that he had to suspect the Germans had bumped into something we didn't know about. And his conversations with Wernher von Braun and Willy Ley at Alamogordo in the days after the crash confirmed this. They didn't want to be thought of as verrukt but intimated that there was a deeper story about what the Germans had engineered. "

--Colonel Philip J. Corso, (Retired), The Day After Roswell [1]

A. Introductory Remarks

In these final chapters I propose to offer a different interpretation of two famous UFO "crash and recovery" cases than is the standard in the UFOlogy community, as a speculative corroboration of the thesis that somewhere, someone was continuing the line of very secret black projects the Nazis had initiated. The two famous cases are the 1947 Roswell crash, and the 1965 Kecksburg, Pennsylvania crash. These speculative reinterpretations of these two events are impelled, in part, by the momentum of the evidence thus far presented, and in part by the two remarkable statements made by Colonel Philip J. Corso in his well-known book, The Day After Roswell. Indeed, these statements

1. Colonel Philip J. Corso, (Retired) with William J. Birnes, The Day After Roswell (New York: Pocket Books, 1997), pp. 4, 73.


of Corso, coming as they do in a book whose main thesis is the seeding of recovered "alien" (i.e., extraterrestrial, and not "foreign") technology into American industry, are for that very reason all the more remarkable, and they seem to invite such a reinterpretation. But what exactly is the ET myth of the UFO? To examine it, one must place it within the multitude of hypotheses that attempt to explain the genuine UFO phenomenon:

(1) The phenomenon represents a spiritual deception by demons of the human race;

(2) The phenomenon represents a life form from higher dimensions, or perhaps a life form composed directly of electromagnetic energy or even plasmas;[2]

(3) The phenomenon represents intelligently controlled real physical spacecraft from other planets, usually with the tacit understanding that these are the craft form planets of other solar systems, and that the craft have thus traveled a minimum of four light years to visit earth, since the closest neighboring star is four light years away;

(4) The phenomenon is terrestrial and human in origin (usually with the added condition that they are government black projects back-engineered from captured or crashed extraterrestrial craft, and sometimes in conjunction with the hypothesis that the "visitors" are humans from our own future).

It is a generally established fact that the bulk of UFO sightings that are considered genuine are usually interpreted in UFOlogy by the fourth hypothesis, with numbers two and three following not far behind. This is particularly the case with the Roswell and Kecksburg crashes.

The well-known quantum and plasma physicist David Bohm, for example, came to the conclusion that some of the plasmas with which he experimented in his early career exhibitted the sort of self-organizing properties that one normally ascribes to life. Bohm ended his plasma experiments at that point.


It is consequently fair to say that an "ET Myth" or perhaps better, an "ET paradigm" has grown around the phenomenon to such an extent that any serious study or contemplation of the possibility of a terrestrial human origin and explanation for these events is seldom considered seriously. And the U.S. Air Force's own ridiculous explanations of Roswell - from weather balloons, crashed Japanese bamboo balloon-bombs, and Project Mogul balloons designed to monitor Soviet nuclear tests (which in any case were not to begin until two years later) - have only added fuel to the ET Myth as the regnant paradigm by which to interpret these two signal events.

By designating this interpretative framework by the term "ET Myth" I do not, however, wish to imply that there is no basis in solid research or rational conjecture for it. I use the term "myth" here not in the contemporary sense of implying something "unreal" but in its classic sense as an all-encompassing paradigm by which an unusual phenomenon, in this case flying saucers, tends to be interpreted even by the best, most objective, and scrupulous researchers.[3]

Yet there is another "myth" of the flying saucer phenomenon, the one that we have been examining in the past few chapters of this book. And once one admits into the discussion a possible terrestrial origin and explanation for the phenomenon, one will inevitably have to deal with this other myth and its historical origins in World War Two.

B. The Similarity of Evidence for Roswell and the "Nazi Legend"

As noted at various points throughout this book, the "Legend" of a Nazi origin of many wartime and postwar UFO reports received a big "credibility boost" when a researcher and reporter for the prestigious Jane's Defense Weekly, British reporter Nick Cook, wrote a book on anti-gravity and quantum zero point energy research called The Hunt for Zero Point. The "credibility boost" that Cook's book gave to this Nazi Legend might even be seen as

3. I would certainly include UFOlogists such as Don Berliner, Stanton Friedman, Timothy Good, and Nick Pope in this category.


analogous to the "credibility boost" that Colonel Corso's book gave to the Roswell crash and the ET interpretation of it.

Cook's book, like Corso's in some respects, is a personal chronicle, summarizing in anecdotal fashion his own personal research into American anti-gravity projects - a "hunt" as he calls it-that quickly led him to a very unsuspected source: Nazi Germany. Recounting how many of the best reports of "foo fighters" or UFOs during the war were submitted by the 415th Night Fighter Squadron, and occurred in a triangle over southern Germany from Frankfurt-am-Main, Metz, and Strasbourg in the year 1944, Cook then recounts his discovery of the book that gave birth to the Legend, German Major Rudolf Lusar's German Secret Weapons of World War Two:

Seeking clues to the foo-fighter mystery, I discovered a copy in the reading room of the Imperial War Museum. In it, Lusar described in meticulous detail, in language that often made the depths of his bitterness clear, the technical achievements of 'a small, industrious and honest nation which lost the war.'

Secret Weapons made somber reading. Although German technical achievements were visible in developments such as the V-1 flying bomb, a direct forerunner of the modern-day cruise missile, and the V-2 ballistic missile, it was the vast extent of Germany's underpinning technology base, as revealed by Lusar, which showed just how far ahead of the Allies the Nazis had been in certain key areas.

Jet engines, rocket engines, infrared and thermal-imaging systems, proximity fuses, missiles guidance seekers....technologies that are integral to most modern aircraft and airborne weapon systems were all listed and described. In the late 1950s, when Lusar's book first appeared, these technologies were still in their infancy in Britain and America.

Yet the Germans had been working on them a decade and a half earlier.

But there was another side to the book, one which was so sensational that immediately on its appearance it had set alarm bells ringing in Washington.

This side of the book related to so-called German "wonder-weapons" beyond the V-1 and V-2.... Other esoteric developments detailed by Lusar showed that the Germans had been working on bringing down Allied aircraft with


sound waves, air vortices, intensely focused beams of light and jets of compressed air.

In 1958, the U.S. Air Force commissioned a "special studies group" within Air Force Intelligence headed by an Austrian-born technical consultant called Dr. Stefan Possony to carry out a detailed appraisal of Lusar's book. The research effort was branded "secret" and has only recently come to light....

A section in Lusar's book was devoted to "flying saucers" which he asserted, in no uncertain terms, were the product of German wartime inventors. "Experts and collaborators in this work confirm that the first projects, called 'flying disks', were undertaken in 1941," Lusar wrote. He even went on to name the key individuals involved. These were "the German experts Schriever, Habermohl, and Miethe, and the Italian Bellonzo." [4]

Cook's thesis is one that will guide our examination of some of the Majic-12 or Majestic-12 documents in this chapter, with a view to explicating a possible underlying "German" connection to the Roswell crash and cover-up:

Make the link between Germany and the flying sacuer and here was an opportunity to solve not only the anti-gravity propulsion riddle, but, in the process, perhaps, one of the most baffling mysteries of the 20th century: the origins of the UFO.... The flying disc must have exhibited performance so in advance of its time that it had been super-classified, then hidden in plain sight - behind the UFO myth - for the best part of 60 years.[5]

However, as Cook quickly discovered, the Nazi Legend has a significant problem: Lusar mentioned four names, but other than these four names, the testimony for the Legend, until very recently, was based almost completely on hearsay.[6] There were no declassified documents in the 1950s and 1960s to back up Lusar's incredible story. Indeed, it was only with German reunification and the subsequent "declassification spree" that it prompted that corroborating documentation finally became available, and in sufficient quantity and quality to constitute a solid prima facie case.

4. Nick Cook, op. cit., p.
5. Ibid., pp. 46-47, emphasis added.
6. Ibid., p. 47.


It is this fact, that the trail into the Legend seems to lead nowhere and yet everywhere at one and the same time, that is the main reason it is so seldom pursued by serious UFO researchers, most of whom simply laugh it off when confronted with it, especially in the North American UFOlogy community.

But the problem with the Nazi Legend is really not with its early uncorroborated hearsay testimony, nor even with its then quite unsubstantiated claims in the postwar West German media.[7] The problem was not really with the second-hand or hearsay testimony of a few dead men and a few odd documents claiming a secret provenance deep within the black projects of the Waffen SS.

The problem is that the same basic type of evidence exists for the Roswell incident of the alleged crash of a flying saucer. Beyond the fact that there were a few primary source witnesses -Mac Brazzel, Jesse Marcel, Walter Haut and so on - that researchers such as William Moore, Charles Berlitz and Stanton Friedman were able to interview personally, there are a whole host of secondary testimonies to the event that have surfaced since then. In this very general respect, the dynamics of the Roswell ET Myth and the Nazi UFO Legend are remarkably similar. And like the Nazi Legend, classified documents showed up to corroborate the story, only this time, the documents were not declassified, but rather, apparently leaked to the UFOlogy community. These are, of course, the now famous (or depending on one's lights, infamous) MJ-12, or Majestic-12, or Majic-12 documents, the primary focus of this chapter.

In the pro-UFO community, much fanfare has been made over the years about the "dozens" or even "hundreds" of eyewitnesses to the alleged UFO crash near Roswell....In the pro-UFO book, The Truth About the UFO Crash at Roswell, Kevin Randle and Donald Schmitt note the fact that Bill Moore [8] interviewed "more than seventy witnesses who had some knowledge of

7. Ibid., p. 47. Rudolf Schriever was the first to recount for the West German media, in the 1950s, the work he had done for the Heinkel company in 1940-1941 on flying disk aerodynes.

8. Co-author, with Charles Berlitz, of the first thorough account of the Roswell crash, The Roswell Incident.


the (Roswell UFO crash) event (sic)." Indeed, both Friedman and Moore, around the time of the in initial publication of the Roswell Incident in 1980, boasted that they had interviewed more then "ninety witnesses."

While these double digit figures are certainly accurate, the presentation of such a seemingly impressive number of witnesses by themselves, without qualifications, is misleading. The relevant issue is not how many witnesses were interviwed, but rather what type of wtinesses (i.e., first-hand, secondhand, etc.) these people are and how truthful and accurate their statements are.

Unfortunately, a careful reading of Moore and Berlitz's Roswell Incident reveals that despite the impressive claim of having "interviewed more than seventy witnesses," the testimonies of just twenty-five people are presented. Out of these twenty-five, only seven of them are first-hand sources who claim to have seen the alleged saucer debris, and one of these accounts is suspect. Of these seven people, however, only five of them claim to have actually handled the material personally, and one of them is adamant that it was not from an extraterrestrial spacecraft.[9]

Researcher interviews of a few primary source "eyewitnesses": this much the Roswell ET Myth and the Nazi UFO Legend have in common. The problem thus posed by the mere existence of the Nazi Legend in this context is therefore very significant: Why does one event form such a stable and consistent foundation in the historiography of the ET-UFO Mythos, and why is the other hypothesis so consistently avoided by the same community, when in general, both the ET explanation of the Roswell incident, and the Nazi UFO Legend are based upon not only the same types of evidence, but initially, the same approximate quantity of evidence? Put differently, why is the ET Myth so predominant in all "unofficial" explanations of the Roswell crash, and the hypothesis of a terrestrially-originated though exotic technology as an explanation consistently avoided?

The answer I believe, lies in some peculiarities of the Majic-12 documents themselves.

9. Kal K. Korff, The Roswell UFO Crash, pp. 28-29. 280

C. The Majic-12 Documents: The ET Myth vs the Nazi Legend

The Majic-12 documents are well-known in UFOlogy circles, and a controversy has ensued over their genuineness and authenticy, or lack thereof. The documents themselves purport to be highly classified top secret memoranda, studies, and so on, concerning the Roswell crash and its aftermath: the establishment of a deep cover, highly classified UFO retrieval, back-engineering, and study group composed of top civilian and military leaders with a large black projects budget. The documents, complete with many blacked out areas - represented by strings of question marks "?????" in the quotations which follow - were leaked to the public in two different sets.

As well known and respected UFOlogist Stanton Friedman put it, the first set of documents arrived in December of 1984, quite literally "on Jaimie Shandera's doorstep."[10] Shandera, a film director, had contacted Friedman about the possibility of doing a fictional movie concerning UFOs, wanting Friedman to be a consultant for the movie.

Then, in December 1984, the Majestic-12 documents showed up on Jaimie Shandera'a doorstep.

To be more exact, a roll of undeveloped black-and-white 35mm film came in the mail to Shandera's home in Burbank in a double- wrapped plain brown envelope with no return address and an Albuquerque, New Mexico postmark. Why was it sent to Jaimie? One possibility is that it was well-known that Shandera had been working closely with Bill Moore and myself on the Roswell crash story, and that together with Bill, had had many contacts with insiders, some of whom were connected with OSI in Albuquerque.

Bill and Jaime's meetings with Agent Doty and others had left them with the impression that these insiders were interested in having the facts about flying saucers released to the public, in a manner that would protect their identity and their status. But we may never know.

After Bill and Jaime developed the film, they called me. What they found on the film were duplicate sets of eight pages of documents that were classified TOP SECRET/MAJ1C, with a title page declaring

10. Stanton Friedman, Top Secret/Majic (New York: Marlowe and Company, 1996), p. 20.

"Briefing Document: Operation Majestic 12 prepared for President Elect Dwight D. Eisenhower: (Eyes Only) 18 November, 1952." The second page listed the members of the Majestic-12 group, all of whom were dead....

Incredible as it sounded, the documents on this film dealt with the New Mexico crashes as well as with the government's efforts to keep them secret. According to the briefing, the wreckage of a crashed saucer was recovered by the U.S. government 75 miles northwest of Roswell in early July 1947. Four small alien bodies, apparently ejected from the vehicle, were found two miles east of the main wreckage site. The government took into its possession the wreckage and the bodies for careful study and evaluation, and in September 1947, officially established Operation Majestic-12 as a "top secret Research and Development/Intelligence operation responsible directly and only to the President of the United States."[11]

Friedman, as any serious investigator would, approached the question of the authenticity of the document cautiously.

There were, as he saw it, three possible explanations of the document, if indeed it was legitimate, and if indeed it was genuinely leaked. The documents could be:

(1) legitimate in the sense of genuinely originating from the military-intelligence community, but they could have been composed or intended to be disinformation or a hoax in some elaborate psychological warfare operation;[12]

(2) legitimate in the sense that they might "contain some truth mixed with some phony material;"[13]

(3) could be "Plain straight legitimate."[14]

Most of the controversy within the UFOlogical community has centered on options (1) and (3), between those who maintain that they are a simple hoax or part of some disinformation operaton, and

11. Friedman, op. cit., pp. 20-21.
12. Ibid., p. 22. Friedman actually states it differently: "First, the entire roll of film could be disinformation or a hoax."
13. Ibid., p. 23.
14. Ibid.


those who believe that they are "plain straight legitimate."[15] Friedman's own case for the authenticity of the "Eisenhower Briefing Document" is thorough and persuasive.

Then, as Friedman, Moore, and Shandera were investigating the Eisenhower Briefing Document, a second set of purported Majic-12 top secret documents were leaked, this time to UFOlogist Don Berliner, and a mystified man in California named Timothy Cooper. In March of 1994, Don Berliner, like Jaime Shandera ten years earlier, received a roll of undeveloped Tri-X film in his mail box. The film contained what was allegedly the actual operations manual for UFO recovery teams called the "Special Operations Manual."

But the most sensational Majic-12 documents are doubtless those leaked to Timothy Cooper, the so-called "Cooper-Cantwheel Majic-12" documents. Cooper, who had grown up near the White Sands Missile range, had become interested in the subject of UFOs and secret missile research as a youth when someone shared information about UFOs with him. His curiosity piqued, he began research on the top secret facility by filing FOIA requests, assembling a large and thorough collection of government documents. Then in 1992, Cooper began receiving photocopied Majic-12 documents in his mail box from a man calling himself "Thomas Cantwheel."[16]

Friedman falls into the group arguing for option three: "Based on my detailed study and investigation of the overall UFO phenomenon beginning in 1958, I am equally certain that (1) some UFOs are intelligently controlled extraterrestrial spacecraft; (2) the subject of flying saucers represents a kind of cosmic Watergate, wherein a relatively small group of people in government have known about the visitors for many years; (3) none of the anti-UFO arguments made by a small but vocal group of debunkers stand up under scrutiny; and (4) visits by extraterrestrial space vehicles and the successful 50-year coverup of the best evidence (alien bodies and wreckage) is the biggest story of the millenium."

16. Dr. Robert M. and Ryan S. Wood, The Secret: Evidence that We Are Not Alone (DVD disk, 1988); Dr. Robert M. and Ryan S. Wood: The Majestic Documents (Redwoord City, California: Wood and Wood Enterprises, 1998), p.1. The latter book is simply a reproduction of the document copies received by Cooper, along with a parallel typescript text of the documents for ease of reading, since in many cases the quality of the copies is degraded, making reading of the original document difficult.


Cooper contacted Friedman, who was not only well-known in UFOlogy, but by that time well established as an expert on the authenticity issues of the first Majic-12 document, the so-called "Eisenhower Briefing" document. Friedman, living now in Nova Scotia, put Cooper in contact with Robert and Ryan Wood, two associates with some expertise in document authentication. Again Wood and Wood argued quite persuasively for the authenticity of the documents, but again, following option (3), they argued that the documents are "plain straight legitimate."

Two of the Cantwheel Majic-12 documents have become focal points of UFOlogy interest, and for good reason: The "White Hot Intelligence Estimate" of Air Force General Nathan Twining, and the "Majestic Twelve Project First Annual Report." These are the documents that contain actual technical descriptions of the alleged crashed alien craft recovered at Roswell, along with recommendations on what to do about it.

Accordingly, we shall accept the arguments of Robert and Ryan Wood and their exhaustive process of document authentication, and assume that the documents are legitimate, and using internal indications and inconsistencies, we shall argue that these two documents are best interpreted as containing part truth, and part deliberate deception, and that both of these elements point possibly, though nowhere near conclusively, to a terrestrial, and German, origin for the exotic craft that crashed in New Mexico in 1947, and that this is the element that is the ultimate objective of the cover-up, as alluded to by Colonel Corso's statements that form the epigrams to this chapter. The methodology will be that already hinted at by Corso's statements, and more completely outlined by Nick Cook:

Make the link between Germany and the flying saucer and here was an opportunity to solve not only the anti-gravity propulsion riddle, but, in the process, perhaps, one of the most baffling mysteries of the 20th century: the origins of the UFO.... The flying disc must have exhibited performance so in advance of its time that it had been super-classified, then hidden in plain sight-behind the UFO myth -for the best part of 60 years.[17]

17. Cook, op. cit., pp. 46-47.


In brief, I shall argue that there are two levels at work in the Majic- 12, "White Hot Intelligence Estimate" and the "First Annual Report" documents:

(1) A genuine level, in which the technical aspects of the recovered technology are summarized. As will be indicated, there are glaring discrepancies between these descriptions, and a presumption of an extraterrestrial origin, for the recovered technology. Conversely, as will be shown, there are detailed parallels between the descriptions of the recovered technology of the Roswell crash, and the already examined secret weapons black projects of Nazi Germany covered in the previous part of this book;

(2) A level of disinformation, where the emerging "ET explanation" forms a final deep cover layer of disinformation behind the public explanations of crashed weather or Project Mogul balloons.

The resulting clash of these two emphases constitutes one basis for those who would wish to challenge the authenticity of the documents, which they most certainly are.

1. The "White Hot Intelligence Estimate " of General Nathan Twining

The "White Hot Intelligence Estimate" is actually the first part of a Majic-12 document called "Mission Assessment of Recovered Lenticular Aerodyne Objects and Implications in ??????AR??".[18]

This document is the second examination of the crashed vehicles - note the plural - describing some aspects of the technology retrieved and analyzed by the military after the Roswell incident.

Besides the standard authenticating features thoroughly investigated by Wood and Wood - typeface comparisons, document style manual and orthography and so on - all of which is strongly in favor of authenticity, there are a number of internal descriptions

18. Wood and Wood, The Majestic Documents, p. 63. The strings of question marks correspond to the blacked-out areas of the original photocopies.


that do not make sense if the recovered object were of extraterrestrial origin and interplanetary travel capability. That is, the best explanation of this particular document seems to lie not with Friedman's options (1) or (3), but with option (2), that they contain some truth mixed with phony or deliberately distorted material. As will be seen as we proceed, a disturbing hypothetical scenario begins to emerge if one examines this document not from the interpretive paradigm of the ET Myth (option (3)), but from the perspective of the Nazi Legend (and option (2)). In arguing for this latter interpretation of the document, we shall focus on three key areas:

(a) Odd language of a general nature describing the UFO phenomenon and areas and types of activity as they were then known;

(b) incongruous technical language that describes something simultaneously both very advanced, and yet very commonplace;

(c) ambiguous language reflecting perhaps an amount of indecision or hesitation concerning the nature of what was recovered, and what to do about it.

With these thoughts in mind, we begin by noting the first and most obvious point: both the Roswell crash and Admiral Byrd's Operation Highjump, with the admiral's astounding statement in the South American Chilean El Mercurio, occur in the same year, within a few months of each other.

(a) Odd Language of a General Nature Describing the UFO
Phenomenon and Its Area and Types of Activity

After a brief history of the postwar UFO phenomenon, beginning with Kenneth Arnold's June 1947 sighting, the document then points out the apparent interest of "ET" in our military installations: "Numerous sightings over military installations in the state of New Mexico were investigated by Army and Navy


intelligence officers."[19] The report also mentions sightings in

"Sweden and Germany, Holland, Paraguay, Scandinavia, Greece, by ships at sea."[20]

A typical explanation from the ET paradigm is that UFOs began to exhibit an interest in our military installations and increased their monitoring activities of the human race afer it had mastered nuclear energy and weaponized it in the atom bomb, possibly fearing that we might venture into outer space and bringing our warlike habits and weapons of mass destruction with us. As an explanation of "their" then evident "observe but do not contact" behavior, this is plausible. We were being surveilled, if not reconnoitered. But such behavior in itself means nothing, for such patterns could equally describe monitoring and surveilling operations of wholly terrestrial but unknown origins.

Note also the curious wording of paragraph 6: "Sweden and Germany....Scandinavia." Why the redundancy? A possible explanation, though one not indicated by the document itself, is that two different types of phenomena might be being referred to. However, "Sweden and Germany, Holland, Paraguay, Scandinavia, Greece" and "ships at sea" would not seem to be of the same interest to "ET" if the purpose of the monitoring activity was, as some like Friedman have suggested, to measure human progress in atomic energy applications and weapons. This vague inconsistency then becomes more acute once attention is focused on the technical descriptions of the document.

(b) Technical Language that Describes Something Simultaneously both Very Advanced, yet Very Commonplace

Perhaps the best evidence that the document should be interpreted as being both genuine and yet containing "phony" or "faked" elements concerns the technical descriptions and references. For example, immediately after the odd refernce to sightings in Sweden and Germany and then "Scandinavia", the

19. Ibid., p. 65, par. 5.
20. Ibid.,, p. 65, par. 6.


document then goes on to record the "extraordinary capabilities" of the recovered craft:

Of the 1,200 sighting reports collect (sic) since 1942 approximately 200 incidents have proven to be unknown craft operation (sic) at speeds in excess of 1200 MPH and at times attaining altitudes up to ?? miles or more above the earth. A comparison was made with Swedish Defense officials of the reported operating ????????????????????????????a sec? intelligence liaison official????? Continuing views of restricted air space over sensitive Swedish military base has not indicated any direct ??????????? tangible evidence thus far that would suggest ????? are the ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????.[21]

While speeds of 1,200 MPH were indeed extraordinary for any aircraft of the day (and even today), and hence noteworthy enough to be noted in the document, and while performance characteristics that enabled these craft to achieve altitudes of some unknown number of miles above the earth were likewise equally if not more extraordinary, the important point to notice is that such speeds are certainly not the extreme characteristics that one would expect of a product of an advanced "ET" civilization with interstellar, or even interplanetary capability limited to our own solar system.

To put it succinctly, the performance characteristics described are not advanced enough to be extraterrestrial in origin.

Note that if the craft's speed were in the area of a mere 1,200 MPH, as this portion of the document states, then the use of such a craft for interplanetary exploration would seem to be absurd in the extreme, particularly if it is maintained that these craft originated from outside our solar system, which is the presumption implicit with every "ET" interpretation of the Roswell event. If one conceded top speeds of even ten thousand miles per hour for the craft, then a trip to Mars, our closest planetary neighbor at approximately 36,000,000 miles from the earth, would take 150 days. At a mere 1,200 miles per hour, however, a journey to Mars would take about 1,250 days, or almost three and a half years, and

21. Ibid., pp. 65-66, par. 7, emphasis added.


neither of these figures is even factoring in the positions of the planets at any given moment of their orbital periods around the sun nor the curved trajectory such craft would have to follow between the two planets! As will be obvious, however, such performance characteristics are within the performance capabilities suggested by the advanced German aircraft technologies being developed by Kammler's "think tank."

When one thus turns to the actual first part of the document after this historical overview, the technological ambiguity is only increased, rather than assuaged. The first part of this detailed technical assessment is called "Project White Hot Intelligence Estimate (Preliminary)." Here it is necessary to cite the document at length:

LANDING ZONE NO. 1 Socorro, New Mexico -The unidentified lenticular-shaped aerodyne which has been designated ULAT-1, has been evaluated as a non-air breathing aircraft of unknown origin. Totally lacking conventional wing, fuselage, nacelle, control, and fuel systems strongly indicates it is not Russian. Consultation with Paperclip specialists concur. Aerodynamic features exhibited in ULAT-1 represent a very high degree of engineering and sophistication not seen in this country. Dimensional homogeneity study cannot explain how this craft sustains load and lift factors necessary for flight. The power plant does not resemble any conventional type now in use. Lacking any discernible intake or exhaust features, it is the opinion of AMC and ONR that this craft was designed to operate outside of the earth's atmosphere. The unconventional conclusions reached by members of this fact-finding mission remain tentative at this time. Some members expressed the view that ULAT-1 may be the product of an advanced culture from another planet that is much older than ours and has utilized the science and intellect for interplanetary space travel. It is not precisely known if the occupants purposely had the objective of exploration out of curiosity or with the intent of surveying for other reasons. So far, no hostile intent has been observed since they made their presence known. Given the fact that our atomic bomb tests, atmospheric exploration with rockets, and ???????????????????????????????ed in New Mexico, could have precipitated the events that led to the incident and subsequent actions taken by the military.

Operating under the assumption that the fallen object was a long-range Russian reconnaissance platform collecting aerial photographic intelligence data, military intelligence personnel were instructed to


secure the craft, debris and the occupants as rapidly as possible. Concerns over possible exposure to civilians of known biological and chemical agents dictated the quarantine measures taken. Radiation hazards were assumed and appropriate protective measure were taken as well.

In the interest of National Security priorities it was necessary to detain civilian witnesses for interrogation to satisfy intelligence requirements, and quash rumors that could alert potential espionage agents known to be in the vicinity.

Several bodies were discovered. Because on-site medical personnel were unsure of the physiological and biological make-up of the occupants, special preparations and preservation methods were employed autopsy information obtained so far suggests that the occupants mimic the features associated with Orientals. Outwardly they appear human-like with but one exception: autopsy notes mention a rarely observed ??????????????????????????????????s present which supports the premise that these beings originate from another planet. [21]

There are two sets of factors in this quotation that, taken separately, seem to argue persuasively that one is dealing with an extremely advanced but nonetheless very terrestrial phenomenon, or that, conversely, argue persuasively that one is dealing with a very advanced extraterrestrial phenomenon, but that taken together present an ambiguous and puzzling picture. It is their occurrence in the same context, without apparent analysis or attempt to resolve the ambiguity, that requires interpretation and explanation.

Note first of all that, at this stage of the "preliminary investigation" the origins of the craft remain, in its own word, "unknown." But a little later on the document indicates that there was apparently some internal dissention in the preliminary study group: "Some members expressed the view that ULAT-1 may be the product of an advanced culture from another planet..." In other words, there appears to have been genuine indecision and hesitancy on where to attribute the origin of the craft. This tends to be an internal corroboration and consistency with what we have already observed above regarding the recovered technology and the craft's performance characteristics, for apparently the recovered

22. Ibid., pp. 67-68, emphasis added.


technology, considered as a factor in and of itself, is not sufficiently advanced enough to argue on its own basis for an extraterrestrial origin. What does argue for the extraterrestrial nature is not the recovered technology, but the recovered biology. It is the clash of these two sets of facts, then, that appears to be behind the hinted-at internal dissention in the study group when it came to the question of origins of the recovered vehicle.

There is another technological bombshell that deserves to be weighed carefully in the light of what has already been stated regarding the Nazi UFO Legend and Kammler's think tank: "Totally lacking conventional wing, fuselage, nacelle, control and fuel systems strongly indicates it is not Russian. Consultation with Paperclip specialists concur." The question that now inevitably arises is this: Would the us military have been likely to consult the nearby former Nazi rocket scientists in its employment if it even remotely suspected that what had fallen into its hands was something extraterrestrial, and thereby, technologically extremely advanced and sophisticated? I think it is possible, but very unlikely. The more likely explanation was hinted at by Colonel Corso himself in the epigrams that began this chapter: the German Paperclip scientists were shown the recovered vehicle, which on Corso's own admission looked like one of the Horten brothers' flying wings, because the craft itself and its performance characteristics were highly suggestive of similar high performance and unconventional aerodynes under development by Nazi Germany.

In this context, the very next statement is perhaps very telling and suggestive, for the language is very careful and deliberate: "Aerodynamic features exhibited in ULAT-1 represent a very high degree of engineering and sophistication not seen in this country."[23] If an "ET" origin were suspected, and that explanation already agreed upon, then the sentence would have read "Aerodynamic features exhibited in ULAT-1 represent a very high degree of engineering and sophistication not seen on this planet." So what country is meant here, and in this context? Only three countries are immediately represented in the previous discussion. Was it Russia? Germany? or the United States? Once again, the language retreats

23. Ibid., p. 67, emphasis added.


into ambiguity, though the clearest explanation is that the country referred to is the United States, otherwise, why bring in the German Paperclip scientists to render their opinion?

At this juncture an odd transition occurs, for in the segue to the discussion of the recovered bodies, the "ET" myth begins to surface in this context as a plausible explanation for explaining the UFOs' military-style surveilling activities, activities begun, so the document surmises, in response to humanity's detonation of atom bombs during the war and after. This explanation, in feet, was arrived at years later, and quite independently, by astute UFOlogists such as Friedman.

With the mention of recovered bodies the segue is complete, and one is now confronted by a set of data and descriptions totally at variance with the technical data and the data-set favoring terrestrial origins hypothesis: "Several bodies were discovered....Outwardly, they appear human-like with but one exceptions....a rarely observed...," and then follows a blacked out area. A rarely observed what? Presumably a rarely observed physiological feature in humans, but evidently recurring in all of the recovered bodies. Was it a rare blood type or blood disease? Webbed toes and digits? Extra or missing fingers? We do not know. But having blacked out this all-important and conclusive feature, the document then concludes that this "rarely observed something" supports "the premise that these beings originate from another planet." Note then that, as far as the document itself is concerned, it is not the recovered technology but the recovered biology that argues the most persuasively for the ET origins of the craft. But this conclusion, as it stands, is for us, if not for the writer and compiler of the report itself, an argument from silence. The ET explanation is therefore the weaker of the two explanations internal to the document as they have been publicly redacted and received.

The second part of the document is entitled "Technical Evaluation (Preliminary)." Here it will be necessary to cite this part of the document in fall, including once again the blacked out portions, in order to exhibit the fall extent of the contradictory nature of these two very different data-sets.



Upon close examination of the exterior surfaces of the craft's fuselage, metallurgists found the skin to be of a ferrous metal white in color. The metal exhibits all the characteristics of high-grade steel. It was determined that the steel was cold-formed and heat-treated. Tensile strength was estimated in excess of 150,000 pounds per square inch. Shear tests give the metal a durability rating about 175,000 pounds per square inch, making the fuselage extremely strong and heat resistant.

Static and pressure flow simulations were impressive. The low profile ratio of 6-to-l gives the aerodyne a great advantage in overcoming the restrictions of the boundary layer effect in high performance operations.

Spar flanges are constructed in unusual kinematic design which is believe (sic) to allow strain relief at supersonic speeds. There were no visible signs of plate-stiffeners. There were no fasteners, weld (sic), rivets, or fitting holding the fuselage together.

Lack of wings, flaps, stabilizers, and surface control features suggests that the craft is a lifting body.

There are no air intakes or exhaust.

There are no cables.

There are no identifiable electronics (wiring, ignition, lights, instrument, compartment, engine, motors, vacuum tubes, solenoids, generators, heaters, etc.)

The power plant (severely damaged) ???????????????? neutronic negine. ????????????????? Detected. Heavy water and deuterium (light hydrogen) elements appear to be the primary ignitor. A series of coils and heavy magnets connected to the neutronic engine via an oddly arranged group of electrodes (metal not yet identified) appears to be the motive force. One small motor was examined. It is encased in a pure aluminum capsule directly underneath the main engine compartment. There is a small exhaust aperture that has what can by (sic) only described as an helicoid mechanism ?????????????????????????? the auxiliary motor may be articulated.

Navigation and engine controls may be activated by tactile manipulation. Viewing may have been achieved by some form of television imagery. Symbolic notation appears to be in the form for flight and control indicators. Flat panels of unknown metal has (sic) been suggested as a device associated with the operation of the aerodyne was discovered and analyzed. Its mode of operation and purpose is unknown.


The absence of provisions, berthing compartments and storage areas suggest the notion that this craft may be a short range reconnaissance platform. The only recognizable features examined were five hand ??????? with arm rests fashioned for vertical and horizontal flight. A leaf book of ????...

And here, almost an entire page of the document is blacked out, i.e. approximately two double-spaced typewritten pages. The document then continues:

Mode of operation is believed to be instrumentation and suggests that the aerodyne from reconstruction of available wreckage t??????'.'" biosensory and optical stimuli for these reasons:

a. Absence of indicator lights;

b. Absence of linear dials, or moving pointers;

c. Absence of counters;

d. Absence of scopes;

e. No mechanical signal indicators.

There were no identifiable control types found among the assortment of artifacts that would indicate the operation of the propulsion unit was manually activated: no knobs, push-buttons, toggle switches, levels, balls, handwheels, handcranks, or foot-pedals were observed in interior space of the flight cabin.

The apparent lack of additional clothing and equipment reinforces the belief that the occupants were engaged in a purely exploratory flight.

It is not presently known if electromagnetic radiation effects from the power plant had contributed to pilot error or death before impact. If inadequate shielding was the primary cause of pilot error, ???7?????????s detected....

17. A very tentative working theory was expressed by the scientific members of the inspection team that pilot-aerodyne interaction may occur via electronic-non word symbols perceived through the tactile manipulation of the fingers, feeding impulses to the brain and vice versa. All of which may suggest a non-inert quality of the materials existent as being a product of artificial intelligence.

18. The following elements were analyzed and found to exist in the small neutronic power plant that was found inside ULAT-1:

a. UF6 in metallic form;

b. Hydrogen-fluoride gas;

c. Water and uranium tetrafluoride;

d. Powdered magnesium and potassium chlorate;

e. Metal similar to lead with a chocolate brown color;

f. U-235 in metallic form;

g. Plastic like material similar to NE 102;

h. Beryllium,

i. Pure aluminum;

h. Thorium isotope material;

j. plutonium powder.[24]


Scientists from Los Alamos and Sandia Base were alarmed that the power plant could possibly function as a bomb if the elements described above were processed in similar fashion as was done for the lens and shotgun detonators.[25]

The only evidence of circuitry found on the motor was thin plastic-like sheets fashioned like platters embossed on the exterior of the spherically-shaped casing coated by a thin film of pure silver. Under high power magnification it was observed a series (sic) of fine grid-like lines intersecting groups of dots arranged in circular patterns.


Based on all available evidence collected from recovered exhibits currently under study by AMC, AFSWP, NEPA, AEC, ONR, NACA, JRDB, RAND, USAAF, SAG, and MIT, are deemed extraterrestrial in nature. This conclusion was reached as a result of comparisons of artifacts from the Missouri discovery in 1941. The technology is outside the scope of us science, even that of German rocket and aircraft development.

Interplanetary space travel is possible provided adequate funding, necessary resources are made available, and national interest is piqued.

Human origins may not be constrained to one planet. Our genus may be found among solar systems similar to our own.

The laws of physics and genetics may have a genesis in a higher, structured order that once (sic) previously thought.[26]

24. Note that the ordering here is that of the original document. As the Drs. Wood suggest, this flaw argues strongly for the document's authenticity. I concur.

25. The lens detonator refers to the implosion device used in plutonium based atom bombs to compress the critical mass. The device was described in part one. The shotgun detonator refers to the critical mass assembly mechanism in uranium-235 based atom bombs.

26. Wood and Wood, op. cit., pp. 69-75, emphasis added. All strike-through typeface are in the original.


We are now in a position to summarize once again the two data-sets - the ET data set and the terrestrial-origins data-set - and the internal contradictions these present in the document.

We begin with the conclusion the document reaches after the lengthy summary of the technical data: "Based on all available evidence collected from recovered exhibits currently under study by AMC (etc.)...are deemed extraterrestrial in nature."[27] Note then what has happened within the same document. What began as an open-ended discussion, with either the terrestrial or extraterrestrial explanations being left more or less an open question in Part I of the document, quickly becomes a definitive conclusion in favor of the ET hypothesis by Part III, after Part II mentioned that "rarely observed something" as being evidence for an ET origin of the recovered bodies. Thus, what is otherwise an extraordinary but nevertheless terrestrially explainable list of technical components in Part III becomes deftly reinterpreted within the ET paradigm that formed the transition from Part I to Part III.

It is to be admitted that some of the technical descriptions found in Part III would baffle most engineers of 2004, not to mention those of 1947: "there were no visible signs of plate-stiffeners. There were no fasteners, weld(sic), rivets, or fittings holding the fuselage together."[28] Another unusual technological feature that, in 1947 at least, would have argued strongly for an ET origin of the craft was the apparent biological-mechanical "interface" between pilot/crew and the craft that allowed immediate brain-craft control interaction, and which would have accounted for the apparent lack of normal control surfaces that was noted in he report: "symbolic notation appears to be the form for flight and control indicators. Flat panels of unknown metal has (sic) been suggested," and so on.[29]

While this type of biometric technology is now known - and employed - by today's western military forces, it was only a science fiction dream in 1947. This fact led Colonel Corso, for example, to

27. Ibid., p. 75., PT III, par. 1.
28. Ibid., p. 69, f 3.
29. Ibid.


reveal that such technology was gradually "seeded" into American industry once its principles of operation were known. Finally, the most exact description of an advanced technology in apparent advance of 1947 American capabilities is found at the very end of Part II, with its description of thin plastic sheets coating by a film of silver on which was inscribed a fine grid like pattern of lines, circles and intersecting patterns. What is described here sounds very much like a 1947 description of an integrated circuit.

But what is remarkable is the conclusion drawn from all this technical detail: "Interplanetary space travel is possible...."[30] This is the conclusion reached by analysis of all the preceding extensive technological summary. Yet, the document's own stated "observed characteristic" - speeds of a mere 1,200 MPH - do not support this conclusion at all, as was previously noted. One is in the presence, in other words, of two very different data-sets, even where the technology is concerned.

However, it is equally crucial to observe that all other technological data points can be explained by reference to specific achievements of the Nazi secret weapons research. We will now consider these in detail. The metal of the craft, we are initially told, is some white-colored iron-based metal having the characteristics of high grade steel that was "cold-formed and heat treated."[31] The process of forming and molding high tensile steel was in fact called "cold extrusion" and it was a technology that the Germans had perfected during the war. Moreover, the document also notes that the "lack of wings, flaps, stabilizers, and surface control features suggests that the craft is a lifting body,"[32] a design principle well in keeping with the most advanced German wartime research into discoid aerodynes.

A further connection to known Nazi research interests is found in paragraph two: "The low profile ratio of 6-to-l gives the aerodyne a great advantage in overcoming the restrictions of the boundary layer effect..."[33] The boundary layer, as we have already

30. Ibid., p. 75, par. 2.
31. Ibid., p. 69., par. 1.
32. Ibid., p. 69, par. 4.
33. Ibid., par. 2.


seen, formed an early focal point of secret German research undertaken even before the beginning of the World War.

But now the internal contradictions in the document become stark and acute. For example, there is a curious juxtaposition and contradiction between paragraphs seven and eight. Paragraph seven states that "there are no identifiable electronics (wiring, ignition...etc),"[34] and yet, in the very next paragraph, we are informed that, in the arrangement of technologies in the "neutronic engine" there are "a series of coils and heavy magnets connected to the neutronic engine via an oddly arranged group of electrodes (metal not yet identified)."[35] Coils and magnets certainly constitute "identifiable electronics," so what is apparently really in view is the "oddly arranged group of electrodes," suggesting that it is not the technology as such that is unusual, but its design and arrangement and combinations. And the description of this odd arrangement and spherical electronics sounds suspiciously like Hans Coler's "coils" and the Shneppeller devices previously examined. So here too, the document seems to point not so much to something extraterrestrial, but to something that, while exotic, was very terrestrial, and uniquely German. It is perhaps even significant that the document mentions a design feasture we encountered in the turbines and rotational devices of Viktor Schauberger: a "helicoid mechanism."[36]

One would expect from such advanced "extraterrestrial" technology such as this at least some sort of solid state electronics and better speeds than a paltry 1,200 MPH and an engine constructed of coils and magnets "oddly arranged." Then there is, from the terrestrial origins point of view another giveaway: "The absence of provisions, berthing compartments and storage areas suggest that this craft may be a short range reconnaissance platform." [37] Certainly this statement could be made to fit with an "ET" explanation, but it is equally true that is more appropriate to a terrestrial origins interpretation.

34. Ibid., p. 70, par. 7.
35. Ibid., par. 8.
36. Ibid.

37. Ibid., par. 9.


Finally, the oddest mention in the whole of the document's Part II: a "leaf book" whose contents are apparently so sensitive that no part of the presumed summary of is contents is leaked. The entire description is blacked out. This is extremely interesting, and another point of internal contradiction, for in the light of the description of integrated circuitry encountered above and any culture possessing it, digital data storage is possible. Surely an advanced extraterrestrial culture with interplanetary travel capability would have a more advanced technology for data storage than a book. Yet there is no mention in the whole document of anything that resembles digital data storage systems. There are no cassette tapes, no compact disks, no nothing. This is not to say that ET would not have, nor read, books. After all, we posses both technologies, and continue to use both. But in any case, it cannot be denied: a book is a totally terrestrial, and well-known, and old technology.

Perhaps the most interesting technical descriptions, however, are to be found in those portions describing the "neutronic engine." Eleven components are described:

(1) UF6 (i..e, uranium hexafluoride) in metallic form;

(2) Hydrogen-fluoride gas;

(3) "water" and uranium tetrafluoride;

(4) powdered magnesium and potassium chlorate;

(5) a "metal similar to lead with a chocolate brown color";

(6) U-235 in metallic form;

(7) a plastic like material similar to (DuPont's) NE 102

(8) beryllium;

(9) pure aluminum;

(10) "thorium isotope material";

(11) plutonium powder.

There are a number of very odd features about this list.

First note that nine of the eleven components of the "neutronic engine" describe wholly terrestrial - though for 1947 - still very advanced technologies.

Second, note that the document states clearly that these elements "were analyzed and found to exist in the small neutronic


power plant".[38] So the elements were subjected to chemical and presumably other types of analysis, such as spectroscopy. One may even speculate where they were analyzed: close by in the Los Alamos laboratories, one of the few facilities in the country at that time, and certainly the only one in New Mexico, capable of handling and analyzing such exotic and radioactive material.

It is in this context that the third odd feature becomes evident, for the isotopic form of uranium - U-235 - is clearly specified, suggesting that the necessary technique of analysis employed was precisely spectroscopy, since chemical analysis cannot separate-isotopes of the same element. We may also assume that this analysis indicated a high degree of purity, since one of the concerns of the scientists involved was precisely that the uranium could be used for a bomb, which means that it was of weapons grade purity. And we may likewise safely assume that the plutonium present was Pu-240 the stable plutonium isotope.[39]

With this in mind, a question immediately presents itself: Why is there an ambiguity when it comes to "thorium isotope material?" Was this because it was an unknown isotope? Unlikely, since precision is indicated in the case of the uranium, and implied in the case of the plutonium. Was it therefore not specified for some other reason? We will never know.

This leads to yet another oddity. There is a peculiar blend evident throughout this list of very precise, and very ambiguous, descriptions that, given the importance of the subject matter, should not be glossed over. It may be the case that there was not sufficient time to test and analyze everything precisely, but surely the presence of "thorium isotope material" merited further precision. In this respect, note once again that uranium tetrafluoride and uranium hexafluoride are both precisely indicated, but again, with an imprecision: what was the isotopic form? This ambiguity is perhaps most evident in the mention of "water," for one is left to guess whether this is ordinary water, or heavily deuterized or tritiumized

38. Ibid., p. 74, par. 18.
39. Another factor now should be noticed. The presence of these two elements without any mention of proper shielding indicates a serious technical flaw in the document, notwithstanding its external indicators of authenticity.


heavy water. This imprecision occurs in the same context where earlier precision is the order of the day, for in paragraph eight, "heavy water" and "deuterium" are mentioned as the "primary ignitor" of the neutronic engine.[40]

In any case, these nine out of the eleven components are all known terrestrial technology, and given what has been covered in this book previously, well within known German and American capabilities, and, for that time, only within German or American capabilities. In other words, if these are indicators pointing to a terrestrial origin for the craft, then the only other possible place it can point to besides the United States, is the Nazi secret weapons project and its possible post-war offshoots. This may be the reason why, then, when the two data-sets come into conflict at various points in the document, the ambiguity is obfuscated in favor of an extraterrestrial hypothesis of the craft's origin.

One final note before proceeding with the examination of other documents from the Cooper-Cantwheel Majic-12 series of paper; the mention of water and uranium tetrafluoride sggests the remote possibility that a highly radioactive solution was being employed, presumably to manipulate neutron emission in conjunction with the hydrodynamic properties of fluids. This manipulation of radioactivity, field effects, and hydrodynamic properties - exotic by even today's standards - was also, as was seen, one apparent principle behind the operation of Kammler's "Bell". Thus, even in its descriptions of the most arcane aspects of the craft, the indications point clearly to Germany.

While all these points constitute to my mind a very strong set of data points coupling the Roswell craft to the secret weapons research of Nazi Germany and therefore to a possible terrestrial origin of "ULAT-1", the document concludes with two very suggestive, and for that day, advanced and revolutionary concepts that favor the "ET" explanation. First, it states clearly that "Human origins may not be constrained to one planet. Our genus may be found among solar systems similar to our own."[41] The only possible foundations for this astonishing conclusion would appear to be the

40. Ibid., p. 70, par. 8.
41. Ibid., p. 75, par. 5.


autopsies purportedly done on the recovered bodies, but also perhaps based upon analysis of the contents of the "leaf book" discovered in the craft. But then an even more extraordinary comment follows: "The laws of physics and genetics may have a genesis in a higher structured order that (sic) once previously thought."[42]

In 1947 physics was well on the path toward the grand theoretical constructs of the 1960s, 70s, and 80s, having already seen the higher dimensional theories of Kaluza-Klein and other theories attempting such "higher structured orders." But genetics and biology in general had then no similarly grand and formally explicit conclusions beyond the theory of evolution, which was a long way from maintaining the grand physics-biology union in a higher structured order manifest in the statement. Watson and Crick had yet to announce their discoveries, and Soviet physicists were still decades away from their astonishing work in the physics of living systems and consciousness. So apparently something in that "leaf book" convinced the study group, during the short period from the crash in July to September of 1947 when the report was actually completed, that there was a grander union of physics and biology than anyone could scarcely have imagined.

So what can be concluded from this one document? I think it is safe to say, that taken as a whole, with both data-sets viewed together, that it tends to favor neither the ET explanation nor the terrestrial origins explanation. However, when viewed separately, the biological information certainly tends to favor the ET origins hypothesis, and the technological information a terrestrial - and German - one. If one then places these two facts within the wider context of other events of 1947, and recalls also the fact that the German Paperclip scientists were brought in because what was recovered "looked all too familiar," then in that broad context the document seems to favor the terrestrial hypothesis. And as we have argued, that points clearly to America or Germany as the only two logical places such technology could have originated.

On this speculative reading of the document, it seems clear then that the apparent contradictions are either deliberately created, or at

42. Ibid., p. 75, par. 6.


the minimum, obfuscated in favor of the ET explanation. The cover-up has already begun. Can this type of analysis be sustained on technological information contained in the other great summary of data, the "Air Accident Report" by General Nathan Twining? Indeed it can.

2. The 16 July 1947 Air Accident Report by General Nathan Twining to Headquarters:

This document constitutes the next focus of technological interest, for it is General Nathan Twining's report to the Air Material Command (AMC) at Wright Field in Dayton, Ohio. Officially titled "Air Accident Report on 'Flying Disc' aircraft near the White Sands Proving Ground, New Mexico," this report is of singular importance, as it contains the first on-site technology descriptions and assessments. In other words, these descriptions occur before the preliminary review of this September report we have just finished examining. Again, the main body of the report is cited almost in full:

As ordered by Presidential directive, dated 9 July 1947, a preliminary investigation of a recovered "Flying Disc" and remains of a possible second disc, was conducted by the senior staff of this command. The data furnished in this report was provided by the engineering staff personnel of T-2 and aircraft laboratory, Engineering Division T-3. Additional data was supplied by the scientific personnel of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, CIT and the Army Air Forces Scientific Advisory Group, headed by Dr. Theodore von Karman. Further analysis was conducted by personnel from Research and Development.

It is the collective view of this investigative body, that the aircraft recovered by the Army and Air Force units near Victorio Peak and Socorro, New Mexico, are not of us manufacture for the following reasons:

a. The circular disc-shaped "planform" design does not resemble any design currently under development by this command nor of any Navy project.

b. The lack of any external propulsion system, power plant, intake, exhaust either for propeller or jet propulsion, warrants this view.

c. The inability of the German scientists from Fort Bliss and White Sands Proving Ground to make a positive identification of a secret German V weapon out of these discs. Though the possibility that the Russians have managed to develop such a craft, remains. The lack of any markings, ID numbers or instructions in Cyrillic, has placed serious doubt in the minds of many, that the objects recovered are not of Russian manufacture either.

d. Upon examination of the interior of the craft, a compartment exhibiting a possible atomic engine was discovered. At least this is the opinion of Dr. Oppenheimer (sic) and Dr. von Karman. A possibility exists that part of the craft itself comprises the propulsion system, thus allowing the reactor to function as a heat exchanger and permitting the storage of energy into a substance for later use. This may allow the converting of mass into energy, unlike the release of energy of our atomic bombs. The description of the power room is as follows:


(1) A doughnut shaped tube approximately thirty-five feet in diameter, made of what appears to be a plastic material, surrounding a central core (see sketch in Tab 1) This tube was translucent, approximately one inch this (sic), The tube appeared to be filled with a large rod centered inside the tube, was wrapped in a coil of what appears to be copper material, ran through the circumference of the tube. This may be the reactor control mechanism or a storage battery. There were no moving parts decernable (sic) within the power room nor in MISSING LINE HERE.

(2) This activation of a electrical (sic) potential is believed to be the primary power to the reactor, though it is only a theory at present. Just how a heavy water reactor functions in this environment is unknown.

(3) Underneath the power plant, was discovered a ball-turret, approximately ten feet in diameter. This turret was encompassed by a series of gears that has a unusual (sic) ratio not known by any of our engineers. On the underside of the turret were four circular cavities, coated with some smooth material not identified. These cavities are symetrical (sic) but seem to be movable. Just how is not known. The movement of the turret coincides with the dome-shaped copula compartment above the power room. It is believed that the main propulsion system is a Modeless turbine, similar to current development now underway at AMC and the Mogul Project. A possible theory was devised by Dr. August


Steinhof,[43 Dr. Wernher von Braun (sic) and Dr. Theodore von Karman as the craft moves through the air, it somehow draws the oxygen from the atmosphere and by a (sic, et passim) induction process, generates a atomic fusion reaction (see TAB 2). The air outside the craft would thus be ionized, thus propelling the craft forward. Coupled with the circular air foil for lift, the craft would presumably have an unlimited range and air speed This may account for the reported absence of any noise and the apparent blue flame often associated with rapid acceleration.

(4) On the Deck of the power room there are what resembles typewriter keys, possibly reactor/powerplant controls. There were no conventional electronics not (sic) wiring to be seen connecting these controls to the propulsion turret.

e. There is a flight deck located inside the copula section. It is round and domed at the top. The absence of canopy, observation windows/blisters, or any optical projection, lends support to the opinion that this craft is either guided by remote viewing or is remotely controlled.

(1) A semi-circular photo-tube array (possibly television).

(2) Crew compartments were hermetically sealed via a solidification process.

(3) No weld marks, rivets or soldered joints.

(4) Craft components appear to be molded and pressed into perfect fit.[44]

There are a number of very similar, and strikingly dissimilar features between this earlier document and the later September "White Hot Intelligence Estimate."

First, it is to be noted that in this very first report there is no mention whatsoever of the extraterrestrial hypothesis as an explanation of the origin of the craft. Perhaps this is explained by the relatively brief time that had elapsed since the crash and the composition of the report, but it is unlikely for a very important reason. The report clearly states that the "German scientists from Fort Bliss and White Sands Proving Ground" were unable "to make a positive identification of a secret German V weapon" from the

43. A Paperclip scientist. Ibid., pp. 25-26, emphasis added.


discs. 45. This means that the question of origin was in view from the outset, and yet there is no mention of an extraterrestrial hypothesis. This reinforces our previous analysis of the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate", for if the craft was suspected of being extraterrestrial technology from the very beginning, brimming full of ultra-advanced ET technology, then it is very unlikely that the German rocket scientists would have been privy to the discovery at all, given the heavy American compartmentalization of secret research. In other words, to put the point once again, something about the craft immediately suggested a terrestrial and German provenance. By a similar line of reasoning, the German rocket scientists were not able to identify it as any German V-weapon. But this may be obfuscation of a sort, for as Corso has indicated, the Germans clearly told General Twining something that did not make it into either of his reports.

Second, unlike the later "White Hot Intelligence Estimate", the element of "mystification" on the part of the investigators is relatively lacking in this initial report. This may obviously be due to the fact that the craft has not yet been more fully analyzed. Yet, the report itself provides an amount of detail that belies this explanation, for it was apparently known in sufficient detail for von Braun and von Karman - who were unable to identify the craft - to suggest a very radical form of propulsion via a charge differential, a fact that suggests that while they may not have been able to identify it, they at least may have had their strong suspicions.

Third, the strangely and almost single-mindedly "terrestrial" nature of the technology described should be clearly obvious: a simple plastic tube, approximately an inch in diameter, filled with a substance that is apparently water, in the center of which is a rod wrapped with a coil of "what appears to be... copper material."[46] Moreover, apparently enough examination or analysis and speculation had been done for the investigators to conclude that the doughnut reactor was somehow a "heavy water" reactor,[47] and that the German scientists are already thinking in terms of a fusion

45. Ibid., p. 25.
46. Ibid.
47. Ibid., p. 26.


rather than a fission reactor. This is perhaps significant, for the equipment described, in the context of fusion, suggests the same apparatus set up, in some respects, as the process later known as cold fusion.[48]

Fourth, it is to be noted that the craft is described in similar terms to those in the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate" in the fact that it has "no weld marks, rivets or soldered joints."[49]

But this similarity highlights the fifth point, and a significant new difficulty. In the previously examined "White Hot Intelligence Estimate," a certain emphasis was placed by that report on the apparent lack of conventional means of control: push-buttons, knobs, toggle switches, and so on. "Biosensory" control was posited, and these two facts supported an extraterrestrial explanation of the craft's origin. Moreover, the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate," it will bee recalled, emphasized the absence of crew quarters, which it will be recalled, suggested a short range reconnaissance platform. However, here in his very first report, Twining states that "crew compartments were hermetically sealed: and that the means of visual steering of the craft was (suggestively) by "remote viewing," followed immediately by mention of "a semi-circular photo-tube array (possibly television)."[50] Thus, either this very first report is describing a different craft than that described in the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate," or a very deliberate change has been made by the time of the latter's composition, which does not mention a "photo-tube array" at all, but stresses rather the complete lack of any such conventional technologies such as vacuum tubes.[51]

That von Braun and von Karman are clearly thinking along cold fusion lines is evident from the fact that a mere plastic tube, much less the presumed heavy water within it, would have been blasted away in millionths of a second by the extreme heat present at the initiation of any hot fusion reaction.

49. Ibid.
50. Ibid.
51. It should be noted, however, that the White Hot Intelligence Estimate stresses this lack in connection with the propulsion system, and not the control system, of the craft. It does mention television as a possibility for visual control and coordination of the craft, yet fails to mention the "photo-tube array" of the Air Accident Report.


And finally, the sixth point. In the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate," emphasis is placed on the lack of control features inside the craft. Yet, in the "Air Accident Report," a very conventional, very terrestrial set of "what resembles typewriter keys, possibly reactor/powerplant controls" were found.[52] These very terrestrial sounding "typewriter keys" are not the only piece of hardware that do not sound like ultra-advanced solid state ET technology, for perhaps the most perplexing aspect of the "Air Accident Report's" power plant description is the fact that the "ball-turret" component of the assembly was "encompassed by a series of gears that has an unusual ratio not known by any of our engineers."[53]

Gears!!?? Does this advanced ET heavy water doughnut cold fusion reactor with typewriter keys come with automatic, or just standard?

For the reader who has been paying attention, however, the description of the craft in the "Air Accident Report," as distinct from that in the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate," sounds very similar to descriptions of the various advanced technologies the Nazis were trying to perfect. And the clincher is the "bladeless turbine," that was apparently under development at the Air Materials Command and in the Mogul Project.[54] Viktor Schauberger's "Repulsine" saucer, developed for the Nazis, involved just such a bladeless turbine.

Taken on its own then, the "Air Accident Report" has little in it to suggest an extraterrestrial explanation, and a great deal in it that sounds all too uncomfortably like the secret research of the Kammlerstab. Notably, once again one senses that "conventional" though still highly advanced technologies were not the most unusual feature of the craft to catch the investigators' attention. The unusual aspect that commanded it was rather their unusual and sophisticated combination: doughnut heavy water fusion reactors with gears and ball-turrets.

52. Ibid.
53. Ibid.
54. Ibid.

Taken together, these two documents begin to suggest that a "story" is beginning to take shape in the secret counsels of what will become the Majic-12 group.

First, the German Paperclip scientists were brought in, most likely because something about the craft - this very same feature of unusual combinations of technologies - suggested to the high American brass a very terrestrial, very German, origin. Second, while the technologies and their unusual combinations of them suggested by these two documents are not sufficiently advanced to argue persuasively for the ET explanation, they are sufficiently advanced enough to conclude that they constituted a significant national security threat and issue. Somebody, somewhere, must have appeared to the high American brass-in-the-know, and we can only assume that General Twining was one such general officer, that someone somewhere was continuing, independently, the lines of research begun by the Kammlerstab. This required in turn a new intelligence and research-development agency with the highest security classification and direct responsibility to the President. In short, there was an independently surviving Nazi research black project, and if the Roswell crashed vehicle(s) gave sufficient evidence of this fact, then the shock waves this must have sent through the corridors of power in the Pentagon must have been unimaginable. All the better then to cloak the sensational discovery in a multi-layered disinformation operation, to conceal it, as Nick Cook suggested, behind the ET Myth.

But there is another hypothesis that is also suggested by the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate", and that is that very possibly the truth was a combination of the two, that the first crash and recovery took place in Europe, and became the basis of a massive and very secret Nazi black projects effort to back engineer it. As we shall see at the end of this chapter, there is surprising confirmation of this idea from a little suspected source, a source often overlooked in histories of the Second World War and its rapid technological advancements. We will return to further development of this scenario in connection with the Nazi UFO Legend after we have examined the third document dealing with the technological aspects of the Roswell incident. This is


3. The Fall 1952 Majestic Twelve Project First Annual Report:

This report should be viewed in conjunction with the two reports just examined, for it is the considered and calm review, now some five years form the event, of the highest levels of the agency established as a result of the Roswell Incident. As such, its descriptions of the recovered technology are of crucial significance, for by comparison one can ascertain the progress, or lack thereof, made in the intervening years in analyzing the recovered technologies. Moreover, one can analyze the progress, or lack thereof, of the ET interpretation first tentatively suggested in the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate."

At the outset, The "First Annual Report" clearly rules out a terrestrial explanation almost from the very beginning of the document: "All efforts have been made to identify the country or private concern (which) could have the technical and financial resources necessary to produce such a long-range flight. So far, no country on this earth has the means and the security of its resources to produce such."[55] The chronological progression of the ET hypothesis, from no mention in the "Air Accident Report," to an initially tentative and later stronger mention in the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate," has now ended with the ET hypothesis alone being the considered view of the group.

The signal question to be addressed in the examination of this document is whether or not the evidence it cites sufficiently supports and compels to that conclusion. Or does it too fall into the pattern of internal conflicts of data-sets evidenced in the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate," presenting evidence that may have more terrestrial, and for that very reason, more sensational and extraordinary implications?

Preceding to the first piece of evidence advanced in favor of its chosen extraterrestrial explanation, the "First Annual Report" like the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate" before it clearly indicates that the recovered bodies are the strongest evidence in favor of that explanation: "The occupants of these planform vehicles are, in most

55. Ibid., p. 106.

respects, human or human-like. Autopsies, so far indicate, that these being (sic) share the same biological needs as humans."[56] It is to be noted that this is the first piece of evidence presented in the document, and thus to the MJ-12 group, it has already eclipsed in importance the significant technological recoveries.

But then in the very next section, two rather disturbing pieces of information are presented in very succinct fashion, without undo fanfare or preparation in the body of the document preceding them: "MAJESTIC SS&P," we are informed, "are currently focused on Psy-Op development for Cold War (counter-intelligence) activities."[57] Then in the very next sentence comes a stunning admission: "Utilization of Paperclip specialists has yielded valuable results in new weapons research in areas of flight dynamics, biological and chemical agents, mind control, and intelligence gathering techniques."[58]

Ponder what has now been admitted: Majestic-12, allegedly established as a super-secret research, development, and intelligence agency, is already engaged - almost Ahnenerbe style - in psychological operations, employing Nazi scientists and "specialists" in new weapons development, including "mind control" and "intelligence gathering techniques." What has any of this to do with back-engineering alien flying saucers(whether terrestrial or extraterrestrial), unless a psychological warfare operation was considered to be essential for counter-intelligence purposes? Was the "ET" explanation being advanced as an integral component of that operation? The beginning of this agenda was already beginning to make its presence felt as early as the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate," but there is not the slightest hint of it in the "Air Accident Report."[59]

56. Ibid., p. 106.
57. Ibid., p. 107.
58. Ibid.
59. And now another curious feature should be evident. The "Air Accident Report" nowhere mentions any recovered bodies, extraterrestrial or otherwise, certainly a curious omission if in fact there were such bodies present at one of the crash sites. Or was the problem simply that they were the wrong kind of bodies?

A lengthy section of the document then follows outlining in detail the various areas for long-range technological exploitation and development, ranging provocatively enough from "retro-viruses" and other biological warfare and pharmaceutical development, to miniaturization of "atomic bomb components" and "aircraft and missile design," to "new machining techniques...for high-temperature alloys and titanium" for "space exploration and hypersonic dynamics."[60] Clearly by the time of this "First Annual Report" a great deal of research has already been done. But the resemblance with the broad mission brief and portfolio of Kammler's think tank is readily apparent, doubtless because of the presence of the Paperclip "specialists" within the organization, for in five short years, what began as a "modest" back-engineering and technology recovery black project has ballooned into a mega-bureaucracy coordinating almost all broad areas of American black projects secret weapons research. Minus the death camps, of course, Majic-12 is almost the mirror image of the Kammlerstab. Is it the presence of Nazis, working in the deepest recesses of these black projects, that explains the us military's experimentation on Black American and other minority us citizens and solders, groups that such Nazis considered to be racially inferior? It is a profound moral question that cannot be pondered too long.

In any case, the document indicates that the propulsion technology of the craft is a major focus of effort:

The AEC and NEPA are currently conducting research for advanced technologies in atomic engines and radical propulsion studies. Systems studies at Los Alamos, N.M., Oak Ridge, Tenn., and at Langley, Va., are attempting to duplicate the water drive and plastic core elements found on the engine being kept at HAFB. Integration (Sic) of hydrogen base fuels and electro-hydrodynamic technology, may open up for us development of super-aerodynes with mach 5 capabilities.[61

60. Ibid., pp. 108-109.
61. Ibid., p. 110, F J.


The document then notes that the intention of the "visitors" does not appear to be conquest, since it would be easily within "their" capabilities if "they" chose to do so.[62]

Placing the whole project and its associated agencies at a level of classification higher than "that of the H-Bomb development,"[63]

The "First Annual Report" then provides a rationale for its policy of strict denial of Roswell and similar types of events, predicting collapse of cultural confidence in familiar institutions such as science and religion.[64] So far, so good for the ET explanation.

But then at this juncture the technological "Annexes" are appended, the first of which, Annex A, contains information on the recovered craft and their occupants.

The Panel's review of the AEC and AFSWP investigation of Site L-1 and he Air Force Site L-2, has led the Panel to conclude that the objects under study, are the result of a high altitude ejection of a escape (sic) cylinder from a fatal mid-air collision of two unidentified circular planform aircraft of interplanetary nature.

Of particular interest to the Panel was site L-2, located at Lat 33-40-31, Long 106-28-29, as this site yielded the most material for analysis.

Site L-2 may be closely associated with Site L-l, and debris pattern suggests that the craft hit the ground at a sharp angle and continued to remain airborne until coming to rest at site L-2.

The craft found at Site L-2, is either the remains of a rocket-plane, or a powered glider. What remained of the power plant was examined and determined to be of a magnetic drive propulsion powered by a fusion reactor of sorts.

Lack of wiring, fuel systems, cables, motors, hydraulics, intakes, exhaust, and surface controls, strongly suggests that the craft was designed to travel outside of our atmosphere.

The second craft that impacted at Site L-3, provided very little evidence that it too was similar in design, as the impact was vertical in nature and at very high speed. It is believed that the debris discovered on 2 July 1947, by a local rancher was the result of a mid-air collision with an X-plane from HAFB; another unidentified object; or possibly collided with both. Radar film and

62. Ibid., par. K.
63. Ibid., par. L.
64. Ibid., par. H.


tower logs do not explain the merging three radar targets prior to collision and subsequent crashes. There were - five recovered bodies, two of which were found in a severely damaged escape cylinder, and the remaining three were found some distance away from the cylinder. All five appeared to have suffered from sudden decompression and heat suffication (sic) (recovery and autopsies of the occupants are covered in detail in a separate study GRAY SUIT within Projects 612 and 621, ULATT EXPLOITATION-MAJESTIC SERIES 4, P. 40-102), as a result of damage sustained from unknown causes.

The Panel was concerned over the contamination of several SED personnel upon coming in contact with debris near the power plant. One technician was overcomed and collapsed (sic) when he attempted the removal of a body. Another medical technician went into a coma four hours after placing a body in a rubber body-bag. All four were rushed to Los Alamos for observation. All four later died of seizures and profuse bleeding. All four were wearing protective suits when they came into contact with body fluids from the occupants.

Autopsies on the four dead SED technicians are not conclusive. It is believed that the four may have suffered from some form of toxin or a highly contagious desease(sic). Tissue samples are currently being kept at Fort Detrick, Md.

The panel was also concerned with the detection of airborne monitor flights over the Site L-2. Radiation readings indicate a high neutron count was recorded as the plane flew over the site. Neutron count dropped off as the plane flew a considerable distance from the site. A report has been filed with the USAIDS. Detection of a high altitude explosion was recorded by a Project MOGUL constant level ballon on 4 July 1947. Radar from White Sands Proving Ground and HAFB also detected a surge.

Parachute recovery team from HAFB were dispatched to Site L-2. Upon arrival, the team, realizing the nature of the crash, radioed instructions and marked the crash site for the investigators that arrived later.

In the opinion of the senior AEC medical officer, current medical equipment and supplies are wholly inadequate in dealing with a large scale outbreak of alien virus.

Facilities at Los Alamos and Mayo clinics were considered as lacking in the current climate.

On 26 September 1947, the first meeting of the NSC-1 was held to discuss the Now Mexico incidents and how to implement the policy established by MJ-12 SS&P.[65]


What emerges from this annex is actually very little new technical data, but the lingering sense of ambiguity that hovered over the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate" is resolved by the new information that there were two, possibly more, craft involved, one of which was a powered "glider".[66]

Note again that the strongest evidence presented for the extraterrestrial hypothesis in the document is the recovery of bodies and their apparently quite toxic effects on humans. This scenario is not far-fetched, for similar results attended the first contact between Europeans and American Indians, whose respective systems had built up different immunities.

Finally, note the strange transformation of Project MOGUL from a program apparently initially involving bladeless turbines, to a project involving the launching of constant altitude balloons to monitor Soviet nuclear tests!

So what can one make of all three documents together? As we have already observed, there is a curious progression, from the initial "Air Accident Report", in which an extraterrestrial explanation is not even mentioned, to the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate," in which both options are left open initially, but in which the ET hypothesis becomes the privileged model of interpretation, to the "First Annual Report", where only the ET hypothesis is seriously entertained.

This highlights a possible scenario of what happened.

Let us first consider what happened at the Roswell incident along the ET paradigm. This paradigm and interpretation have gained such status within the UFO community that, extraordinary as it is, it now seems almost commonplace. Unusual debris of some strange material is discovered by a local rancher in a field. Bodies

65. Ibid., pp. 112-113, emphasis added.

It should be noted, however, that the clear implication of the language of the "Air Accident Report," and even more of the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate," is that there are more than one crash site, therefore strong suggesting more than one crashed vehicle.


are found and autopsied. They are small and human-like and cause the deaths of some of the medical personnel who first handled them. A propulsion unit is found that is highly advanced. The story goes out on the newspaper wire: the army has recovered a crashed flying saucer, while at the same time General Twining is issuing his "Air Accident Report" in which no mention is made of the ET hypothesis at all. Witnesses are interviewed and the public reaches a conclusion: We have been visited by ET. And this is indeed a plausible scenario that fits some of the facts alleged in the reports on the incident.

But there are considerable technological problems with this interpretation. If the crashed vehicles were even suspected of being of ET origin, then why call in the German Paperclip scientists, and then keep them in the loop long after the ET hypothesis has become the official though top secret explanation? It is far more likely that they were consulted because some at a very high level in the us military had seen this technology before. In fact, if it was German saucer or some later development that crashed in New Mexico, if the "leaf book" mentioned by the "White Hot Intelligence Estimate" was "alien" in the sense of foreign but terrestrial, then the military's alarm becomes paradoxically more understandable. In 1947 the war was already two years over. Yet, here was a crashed vehicle with all the signatures one came to recognize from Kammler's advanced research projects.

Where did it come from? A cover-up on this view would have been as necessary, if not much more so, from the military's point of view as on the view that it was a crashed ET vehicle. In this event, the strangeness of the recovered technology would have suggested a plausible foundation for a deep layer of disinformation planted in the reports themselves, to be disseminated when weather balloons and monkey bodies were no longer capable of holding back the ET flood. There would have been no records of such an understanding,[67] it would have been arrived at in oral discussions, and "worked into" the otherwise reliable information contained in its classified reports.

67. In this respect, consider carefully the statements of Colonel Corso in the epigrams that began this chapter.


In this respect, it is perhaps significant that some contemporary observers of the American space program and its odd thirty-year long "holding pattern" and tapestry of inconsistencies, lies, and obfuscations have long suspected that there are indeed two space programs inside the us government, the "public NASA one, and a quasi-independent one based deep within covert and black projects. In 1970, a curious document based upon the Garrison Investigation's voluminous files, called the "Nomenclature of an Assassination Cabal", otherwise known as the Torbitt document, was circulated, alleging a connection between this secret space program and the murder of President John F. Kennedy. Radio talk show conspiracy theorist Mae Brussel concurred: the secret space program was being run inside and quasi-independently of the public NASA program, and both were being coordinated by Wernher von Braun.

In this connection it is perhaps informative that the last document in the Cantwheel Majestic-12 documents is a Top Secert memo from November 12, 1963, - a scant ten days before the assassination - from President Kennedy to the Director of Counter Intelligence of the Central Intelligence Agency:

SUBJECT: Classification review of all UFO intelligence files affecting National Security. As I had discussed with you previously, I have initiated ???????? and have instructed James Webb to develop a program with the Soviet Union in joint space and lunar exploration. It would be very helpful if you would have the high threat cases reviewed with the purpose of identification of bona fide as opposed to classified CIA and USAF sources. It is important that we make a clear distinction between the knowns and the unknowns in the event the Soviets try to mistake our extended cooperation as a cover for intelligence gathering of their defense (sic) and space programs. When this data has been sorted out, I would like you to arrange a program of data sharing with NASA where Unknowns are a factor. This will help NASA mission directors in their defensive responsibilities. I would like an interim report on the data review no later than February 1, 1964.


John F. Kennedy.[68]

68. Ibid., p. 190.


A program of joint space and lunar exploration with the Soviet Union would clearly have placed Kennedy at cross-purposes with Lyndon Johnson and others who viewed the space program as the next great military development and arms race, control of which would assure earth dominance. Such a declassification review and potential release of data would also have brought Kennedy into sharp conflict and cross-purposes with the Majic-12 Group in general, and its Paperclip "specialists" in particular, who viewed space almost exclusively as a military venture.

D. Russians, Terrorists, Asteroids and Aliens: The Rosin Affidavit

But perhaps the most chilling and corroborative bit of evidence of a secret space program and agenda was left by Wernher von Braun himself. Dr. Carol Rosin, a close associate of the former Nazi cum-NASA director and the first woman corporate manager of Fairchild Industries, gave an affidavit to Dr. Steven Greer's "Disclosure Project" in the Spring of 2001. Rosin recounts something that she alleges von Braun repeatedly told her:

What was most interesting to me was a repetitive sentence that he said to me over and over again during the approximately four years that I had the opportunity to work with him. He said the strategy that was being used to educate the public and decision makers was to use scare tactics.... That was how we identify an enemy.

The strategy that Werner von Braun taught me was that first the Russians are going to be considered the enemy....

Then terrorists would be identified, and that was soon to follow... Then we were going to identify third-world country "crazies". We now call them Nations of Concern. But he said that would be the third enemy against whom we would build space-based weapons.

The next enemy was asteroids. Now, at this point he kind of chuckled the first time he said it. Asteroids-against asteroids we are going to build space-based weapons.[69]

And the funniest one of all was what he called aliens, extra-terrestrials. That would be the final scare. And over and over

69. Implying, incidentally, an immense destructive power -a one-shot planet-busting capacity - for such weapons, for such power they would have to possess to be of any use against an asteroid large enough to destroy the earth, or large enough to threaten all life on it.


during the four years that I knew him and was giving speeches for him, he would bring up that last card. "And remember Carol, the last card is the alien card. We are going to have to build space-based weapons against aliens and all of it is a lie." [70]

Russians, Terrorists. Crazed Third World Dictators. Asteroids. Aliens.

It is significant that President George W. Bush, shortly after his inauguration, made the Army's chief of space operations the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, signaling the first time in history a military space commander has headed such a combined staff position. It is also significant too that almost immediately thereafter missile defense - Ronald Reagan's old Strategic Defense Initiative - once again became a high military and national security priority. And it is perhaps the most significant of all that the tragic events of September 11, 2001, marked the transition from Russians to Terrorists, as the official enemy of choice, and then, with the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq, almost immediately to Dictators of "Nations of Concern."

E. An Unlikely Source: Benito Mussolini's Secret RS/33 UFO- Marconi Study Group: The Original Italian "MJ-12" Documents

But how could Dr. Wernher von Braun, Paperclip rocket "specialist", speaking in the early 1970s, be so exactingly prescient in his prediction of the exact sequence of "enemies"?

One answer, that of the "Torbitt" document, is of course that he himself was a senior "insider", privy to the plots and canards of the innermost conspiracies driving western politics and culture.

However, another source of material has emerged only recently that might afford a clue as to how long UFOs have been being secretly studied and attempts made to back engineer them for some time. In the year 2000, very secret papers from the archives of the Italian government were deliberately leaked to Italian UFOfologists. Unlike the MJ-12 documents, however, these documents were not

70. Steven M, Greer, M.D., Disclosure: Military and Government Witnesses reveal the Greatest Secrets in Modern History (Crozer, Virginia: 2001), pp. 255-256.


films, nor photocopies, but the actual handwritten notes and original files and telegrams, on original paper, with original ink. This allowed documents experts from the University of Bologna to do an exhaustive analysis of the paper and inks and style of writing of the telegrams. The conclusion? The documents were undoubtedly authentic.

The story they contained was nothing less than explosive, for they told how, in response to various UFO sightings in the north of Fascist Italy in 1933, and Italian Air Force scrambles to intercept the intruders, that Benito Mussolini had established the first state level black projects UFO study group, under the direction of the famous Italian physicist and inventor Marconi. The group, like a much later American project, assembles reports, photographs, witness testimonies, and developed a classification system for various types of sightings. The group was classified at the highest level by Mussolini. When Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany concluded the Rome-Berlin Axis, Mussolini transferred, often literally shipping this treasure trove of information to Nazi Germany, where it most likely made its way eventually into the hands of the SS. In any case, On February 23, 1941, as the war clouds between the Axis and the United States were growing darker, Mussolini made one of his characteristically blunt statements. He said, "It's far more likely that the United States will be invaded by unknown but warlike inhabitants from the planet Mars, who will come down from the starry space on unimaginable flying fortresses, than from the Soldiers of the Axis."

A strange statement indeed, even for a man who excelled in making unpredictable pronouncements.

What does all this suggest? First, that at the deepest level, a profoundly advanced terrestrial rather than extra-terrestrial technology was behind at least some of the facts associated with Roswell. This technology and its use in unusual combinations points quite clearly to Germany. Second, it means that at a level still deep, but less so, there is an extra-terrestrial aspect that may be part of a disinformation operation and deep-cover story, or that may have entered the picture nearly a decade and a half before Roswell.


In any case, in the light of the fact that as more and more documents are leaked, released, or declassified from the World War Two era, perhaps the most significant lesson to be learned is that one should perhaps be more cautious in ascribing an "ET" origin to such events and sightings without first having considered the terrestrial alternatives, no matter how disquieting those alternatives maybe.

The Fascist Italian RS/33 Documents: A Hand Written Field Report



"When you started on the path that you did, sooner or later the trail was going to lead you to Germany."

--Nick Cook, The Hunt for Zero Point [1]

"This is a story of how key Nazis....anticipated military disaster and laid plans to transplant Nazism, intact but disguised, in havens in the West..."

--Mae Brussel, Rebel Magazine [2]

A. The "Bell"

The most sensational piece of information on Nazi secret research to come out since the reunification of Germany - indeed, since the origins of the Nazi "UFO" Legend itself- is the story told by Nick Cook in his Quest for Zero Point, which appeared in the U.K. in 2001. The story is, additionally, the only real solid piece of corroboration of the Nazi UFO Legend to appear since the war, based, as as it is, on a secret and recently declassified Polish war crimes trial affidavit of a former SS general.

"The Bell" (German: die Glocke) represented something at the very pinnacle of Kammler's grizzly and super-secret SS "Wonder Weapons" empire. Cook's book represents the only publicly accessible information on this bizarre object in the English language, the equally macabre experimentation that surrounded it, and the stringent security the SS held it under. The following are the salient features of The Bell, according to Cook:

(1) The Belli was reportedly a metallic object, approximately 9' in diameter and 12-15' tall;

(2) It loocked like a "Bell", hence its codename to the Germans, die Glocke;

(3) It was comprised of two counter-rotating cylinders, rotating a purplish liquid-metallic looking substance code-named "Xerum 525" by the Germans, at high speeds;[3]

(4) "Xerum 525" was apparently highly radioactive, being purple in color, and housed in cylinders with lead lining 3 cm thick;[4]

(5) The Bell apparently required high amounts of electrical power in its operation;[5]

(6) During use, it could only be run for approximately one to two minutes, as it apparently gave off strong radiation and/or other electromagnetic or unknown field effects;[6]

(a) Several scientist died on its first operation;[7]

(b) Subsequent tests included various plants and animals, all of which decomposed into a blackish goo and without normal putrefaction, within a matter of a few minutes or hours after exposure to its field effects when in operation;[8]

(c) Technicians near the Bell during these experiments reported metallic tastes in their mouths after being exposed to it;[9]

(d) The chamber in which the Bell was tested was lined with ceramic bricks and rubber mats, and had to have its rubber matting removed and burned after each test, and it was subsequently washed down with brine by inmates from nearby concentration camps;[10]

(6) All the scientists and witnesses who saw or worked on the Bell were murdered by the SS as the war neared its end;[11]

1. Nick Cook, The Hunt for Zero Point, p. 270.
2 Cited in Jonathan Vankin, Conspiracies. Crimes, and Cover-ups, p. 104.
3. Cook, op. cit., p. 192.
4. Ibid.
5. Ibid., pp. 182, 197
6. Ibid., pp. 192-193
7. Ibid., p. 193.
8. Ibid., p. 192.
9. Ibid., p. 193.
10. Ibid., p. 192.
11. Ibid., p. 184. It is due to the fact that the Bell's scientists were murdered that we know anything about it at all, for the chief executioner, SS General Sporrenburg, who was tasked by Kammler with the murders, gave the only known testimony and descriptions of the Bell in his affidavit to a post-war Polish war crimes trial, for which he was convitcd and executed.12 Cook, op. cit, pp. 197-198.


(7) The Hell was transplanted out of Silesia to a destination that has never been discovered. The Bell, along with General Kammler himself, simply disappear entirely from history, never to be seen again.

(8) A strange "hedge" like structure was constructed by the Germans out of reinforced concrete near the facility where the Bell was located and tested. This structure resembled a test rig for the possible test of extremely powerful propulsion devices.[12]

Cook also notes that, at the end of the war, Kammler had special jurisdiction over a secret "SS evacuation command" that had been personally established by Reichsleiter Martin Bormann in great secrecy. This command included jurisdiction over all of Nazi Germany's heavy-lift ultra-long-range transport aircraft, including the Ju-290 and the six-engined monster, the Ju-390, that we encountered in part one. These planes were based at the end of the war quite near the secret underground facility where the Bell was being tested.

Before proceeding, it would be useful to note a few things about this strange list of properties.

First, whatever the Bell was, Kammler's SS apparently thought its secrets were so valuable, that anyone connected with its construction and/or testing had to be executed at the end of the war to prevent these from being leaked, presumably to the Russians, since the Bell was located and tested in Silesia, in what would later become Poland and East Germany.

Second, we note again the use of concentration camp inmates to perform the dangerous, and one can only presume, eventually lethal, operation of cleaning the test chamber after each experimentation with the Bell. This fact places this mysterious object firmly within Kammler's SS secret weapons black projects empire. It is entirely possible that the Bell represented something so sophisticated in terms of its principles of operation, that the then


existing technology could not offer a sufficient means of protection for the important personnel involved in the experiments. Hence, concentration camp inmates may have been used as fodder to enable the experiments to go forward. Any breakthroughs the Bell represented were thus accomplished by this means, at enormous human cost.

Finally, certain properties about the Bell should be noted, since they constitute unusual data points that will be examined in connection with the Kecksburg "UFO crash". These are:

Heavy electrical power consumption;

Rotation of a radioactive liquid in two counter-rotating cylinders;

An unusual radioactive liquid metal of unknown composition;

Its location in a chamber lined with ceramic bricks and rubber mats.

The rotation of the object, and presumably the radioactive liquid-metal called "Xerum 525", suggests that the Germans were investigating the inertial and vortex properties of radioactive material when subjected to high speed rotation, as well as the resulting field effects. It is likely that this rotation was caused by passing a current through the liquid - hence the high power consumption - but the possibility of mechanical rotation should not be ruled out in addition to this, as German progress in jet engine turbines and uranium centrifuges would have given them the experience to construct very high speed turbines for rotating such material for study. In this sense, it is possible that the Bell was nothing more than two counter-rotating ultra-high speed turbines That is to say, the Bell may have been an ultra high speed electro-mechanical turbine of some sort, an offshoot, perhaps, of German centrifuge technology development.

The housing of this device in an underground chamber lined with ceramic brick and rubber mats suggests that it gave off extremely strong electro-magnetic or electro-static field effects as well as high heat when in operation. The reporting of metallic tastes


in the mouths of what few surviving personnel there are suggests this. The quick decay without apparent putrefaction of organic material within its field suggests effects that some would associate with scalar waves.

But what was the mysterious "Xerum 525"? When I first read of this strange material, I thought it might be some radioactive isotope of mercury, or possibly a more radioactive substance in chemical solution of some sort. It is perhaps worth noting that recently a strange substance known as "red mercury", or mercury antominate oxide, has been alleged to have strong neutron emitting properties when subjected to sudden explosive stress, and is alleged to be a non-fissile method of triggering the enormous fusion reactions of hydrogen bombs, as well as being able, in its own right, of fission explosions in the small kiloton range. Perhaps the Nazis had stumbled onto a similar such substance during the war.

It was on the basis of certain features of the above lists of the Bell's properties that I hypothesized in my previous book, The Giza Death Star Deployed, that the object that crashed in the famous Kecksburg UFO crash retrieval case might have been the Bell itself. In that book, I did not explore that hypothesis, leaving it for "another book." Well, this is that "other book", and it is now necessary to examine the odd data points that seem to connect these two mysterious objects.

B. The UFO Crash and Retrieval at Kecksburg, Pennsylvania,December 1965

Twenty years after Kammler's "Bell" went missing, a remarkably similar object reportedly crashed in Kecksburg, Pennsylvania, in a wooded area in the country. The story of the Kecksburg incident begins at approximately 4:45 PM, December 9, 1965. From northern Canada to western Pennsylvania, thousands of witnesses described "an orange fireball tearing across the evening sky towards the south east, followed by a trail of smoke."[13] Witnesses included pilots spread throughout Ontario, Michigan, and Ohio that were along the flight path of the object. Once over

13. Michael Hesemann, UFOs Secret History, p 167.


Ohio, however, the object clearly demonstrated that it was not a typical meteor, nor a crash in the ordinary sense of "space debris," for according to witnesses, it stopped, stood still "for a few seconds" and then changed its course towards Pennsylvania.[14]

At this point, the Kecksburg saga begins in earnest, for at 4:47 PM, a Mrs. Jones called the local radio station WHJB in Greensburg and told reporter John Murphy that "a huge fireball has crashed in the woods about 1.5 miles from here."[15] Her children had been playing outside when they first saw it, describing it as a burning star. Mrs. Jones, visiting a neighbor at that time on then porch, saw blue smoke coming from the forest and a bright light hovering above the area.[16]

In the meantime, the reporter John Murphy had already driven to the site, finding already a beehive of activity there, with two police cruisers and a fire engine from the local volunteer fire-department parked at the wood's edge. After questioning Mrs. Jones and her children, the local fire marshal and one of the policemen walked into the forest, and reemerged sixteen minutes later. In response to reporter Murphy's questions, the fire marshal directed him to his lawyer![17]

What followed over the next few hours was genuinely bizarre, as the us Army and Air Force, and apparently some NASA scientists and technicians,[18] literally moved in and placed the tiny village and its environs under virtual martial law:

Whatever it was that had crashed in the forest, the Army and Air Force marched up to deal with it. The military and state police cordoned off the forest area, stationed armed guards at all the roads

14. Hesemann, op. cit, p. 167.
15. Ibid.
16. Ibid., p. 168.
17. Ibid.
18. Q.v. Stan Gordon, Kecksburg: the Untold Story (DVD video production. Gordon is considered the expert on the Kecksburg case, and the video consists of a series of recorded interviews with surviving witnesses to the event. According to Mrs. Lillian Hayes, wife of a local farmer, and her son both stated that their house was visited several times that night by military personnel, and she reports having overheard them discussing the fact that NASA was already on the scene.


and ways loading into the forest and transported a whole lot of equipment to the crash site. The Air Force took over the premises of the local voluntary fire station and set up a commando (sic) post there. The firemen, now forbidden to enter the station, stood by watching while persons in military uniform brought in more equipment into the station, which included a huge radio transmitter. A little later, two large transport trucks, one of them bearing the insignia of the army, were seen driving into the forest. At about the same time, people living close to the nearby Latrobe Airfield saw a jet plane landing there, although the airfield itself had been closed to traffic for quite some time.[19]

Later, television, newspaper, and radio reporters arrived from Pittsburg, to be met with a wall of silence from the military.

But a police spokesman stated "there's an unidentified flying object in the woods." When the us Air Force's Project Blue book was contacted, Major Hector Quintanilla himself, then project head, informed the reporters that the Air Force's investigators were already at the site.[20]

If it were only for the official statements and peculiar "over-reaction" of the military in such a quick response to the event, and in placing an entire town and considerable portion of its environs under virtual martial law and placing a secure perimeter around a Pennsylvania wood, little else would have been known of the Kecksburg crash. However, a local who had been listening to the radio, Bill Bulebush, made his way to the crash site, thinking to offer help to local authorities and the presumed crash victims. When he arrived, however, he saw "something that threw him for a loop":

A metallic bullet-shaped object was sticking in the ground at the end of a trench, which it had obviously formed while landing. "It looked like a big burned orange. It sparkled and twinkled, was about 9 feet wide and 12 feet long. Somehow it gave me the creeps and I got away quickly." And when he read the Air Force explanation in the papers the next day, he knew they were lying. What he had seen had certainly not been a meteorite![21]

19. Hesemann, op. cit., p. 168.
20. Ibid., p. 169.
21. Ibid., emphasis in the original.


Suffice it to say, it strains credibility to have so many witnesses attest that the military showed up, placed an area of us territory under martial law, and called in NASA specialists, to recover a mere meteorite. The meteorite theory made no sense to local UFO researcher Stan Gordon either, since UFOs ordinarily traveled at speeds in excess of those calculated for the object, and meteorites do not stop, stand still, and then change course.

Nonetheless, there the matter would have rested, until James Romansky came forward as a witness 2 years later (1987). Romansky had been 19 years old at the time of the incident, and a member of the volunteer firefighting team that had arrived first and been instructed to comb the woods for the wreckage of a crashed airplane.[22]

Romansky gave a description of the object that was slightly different than Bulebush's in certain details:

It had the shape of an acorn, made of shining silvery metal which had a light touch of gold in it. Its bottom was surrounded by a kind of ring or, as Jim put it, a kind of metal bumper on which strange writing could be seen. Romansky described it later. "They looked like Egyptian hieroglyphics, but without any animal signs. There were straight and broken lines, dots, squares and circles." .... There was no glass, no propeller or jet nozzle, no burst tanks from which any fuel had leaked out, and not even the sign of a hatch or entrance.[23]

After Romansky's story was aired on an episode of the television show "Unsolved Mysteries", other witnesses emerged with their own accounts of the incident, and substantially confirmed the account, adding new details of their own.

One of these details was that a late-night convoy of trucks, one including a large flatbed semi-trailer with an object covered in a tarpaulin. Some witnesses report that the tarpaulin was pulled tightly around the object, and its "acorn" shape could clearly be seen. The object was next seen by witnesses at its first apparent destination, Lockborne Air Force base in Columbus, Ohio, where military police

22. Hesemann, op. cit., p. 169.
23. Ibid., emphasis in the original.


units were ordered to surround a hangar and shoot anyone who attempted to enter that did not have a top secret clearance.[24]

It was next apparently seen by a witness, "Myron", who contacted Stan Gordon, and described a similar object. Hesemann's summary of Myron's story is worth citing in full, since it bears directly on my hypothesis:

(Myron) worked as a truck driver for a cement factory belonging to his family at Dayton, Ohio. Two days after the incident occurred at Kecksburg, his firm received a large order for specially glazed bricks from the Wright-Patterson Air Field. A representative of the base had had a look at the bricks in stock at the factory and finally ordered 6,500 double-glazed processed bricks, which, he said, "were for building a double-walled shield around a recovered radioactive object". [25]

Myron later glanced inside the hangar to view what was inside.

The object was silhouetted by floodlights behind large silk -parachute-like screens. Myron described "the shadowy outlines of a large bell-shaped object....perhaps about 9 feet wide and 12 feet high. Through a small opening in the tent, Myron could see that it was metallic, like some kind of whitish bronze."[26] C. Analysis

There are a number of curious data points that would appear to connect Kammler's "Bell" with Kecksburg's "Acorn". Hesemann's book, from which the above accounts and quotations were cited, was published in 1998, before Nick Cook's Hunt for Zero Point, with its summarization of SS General Sporrenberg's descriptions of the Bell were first made known to an English speaking audience. This means that the Kecksburg witnesses record something that sounds eerily like Kammler's Bell. Consider the following list:

24. Ibid, pp. 169-170.
25. Hesemann, pp. 179-170, emphasis added.
26. Ibid., p. 173.


(1) Both objects arc described in very similar terms, as "acorn" or "bell" shaped; the Pennsylvania witnesses could just as easily be describing Kammler's Hell, and Sporrenberg similarly, could just as easily be describing the Kecksburg Acorn;

(2) Both objects are described as having similar, if not identical, dimensions, being approximately 9 to 12 feet in diameter and 12 to 15 feet in height;

(3) Both objects had to be housed in a chamber made of "glazed" or "ceramic" bricks, because,

(4) Both objects apparently gave off strong radioactivity or other strong field effects.

In fact, it is on only one point that the two objects differ, if indeed they are two distinct objects, and that is the consistent testimony by witnesses who actually saw the Kecksburg "acorn" UFO, that some strange form of writing existed around the "bumper" of the object, resembling hieroglyphics to some, "but without the animal and people pictures," as James Romansky puts it, and resembling geometrical forms according to a few others. No similar statements exist for Kammler's Bell.

But even this may not necessarily be a sufficient reason to dismiss the possible connection. The kind of writing described may have been a form of runes, a form of writing in which the occult- oriented SS was also interested.[27] These types of symbols can sometimes resemble geometric objects that some witnesses associate with the writing on the Kecksburg UFO. It is much more difficult, however, to find a resemblance between them and "hieroglyphic" writing.

With regard to point (3), another significant question occurs: why did the Air Force so quickly decide that ceramic, or glazed, brick, would be the best means of shielding the object? There are other more effective, though more costly means of shielding, and cost may have been a leading factor in selection of this method. But the suddenness with which the decision is taken to shield it at

27. For SS rune research, see Dusty Sklar, The Nazis and the Occult (Dorset Press, 1989), pp. 25-26, 28.


Wright-Patterson Field with such bricks also suggests a knowledge of and familiarity with the object, and, possibly, of its history as a Nazi secret weapons project. In any case, the swiftness of the military's reaction to assemble a recovery team at Kecksburg also indicates that the object had been tracked by the military for sometime as it flew over Canada and the eastern us. It is as if the military had been expecting it.

And finally, there is yet another odd point that may connect the Keckburg Acorn to the Kammler Bell. We have already seen that some "Nazi survival myths" have a secret German base close to the Arctic, operating at a remote location in Canada near Hudson Bay. While I discount the idea, it is perhaps worth noting that the trajectory of the Kecksburg Acorn as it tracked from Canada into the us to its final crash site in Pennsylvania, would, if extended north into Canada, place it along a line more or less where the "Arctic Nazi survival myth" places the alleged secret German base.

The Trajectory of the Kecksburg UFO


Near the end of his book, Nick Cook, recounts a meeting with a friend who had started him off on a quest that he knew would eventually lead Cook back to Nazi Germany. "Markus"" words are a chilling warning:

When the Americans tripped over this mutant strain of non-linear physics and took it back home with them, they were astute enough to realize that their homegrown scientific talent couldn't handle it. That it was beyond their cultural terms of reference. That's why they recruited so many Germans. The Nazis developed a unique approach to science and engineering quite separate from the rest of the world, because their ideology, unrestrained as it was, supported a wholly different way of doing things.... The trouble was, when the Americans took it all home with them they found out, too late, that it came infected with a virus. You take the science on, you take on aspects of the ideology, as well.[28]

In any case, it seems that there are enough points of similarity between Kammler's Bell and the Kecksburg Acorn to at least raise a third alternative as an explanation for it, in addition to the two approaches previously taken, namely, that it was a crashed extra-terrestrial craft or probe of some sort, or a crashed Soviet Cosmos satellite. It may have been a Nazi secret weapons project, that inadvertently got away from its testers, was brought back under control, and deliberately crashed, only to be retrieved again. The Kecksburg incident raises the horrifying possibility that SS Obergruppenfuhrer Hans Kammler's Bell and his SS secret weapons Sonderkommando survived the war intact, metastasizing throughout the very secretive, and labyrinthine compartmentalizations of America's black projects world. This raises the specter that some of "our" black projects may not be ours at all, but someone else's. We are just footing the bill.

28. Nick Cook, op. cit, p. 270.


Myron's "Bell" at Wright Patterson Air Force Base



Beam weapon spotted in the South Pole in 1966


"By involving the concentration camps, the SS had unwittingly set the seal on any serious post-war investigation of the science and technology it had pursued during the conflict. But then Kammler told Speer he was planning to contact the Americans and that in exchange for a guarantee of his freedom he would offer them every thing.... He informed Speer that he was assembling all the relevant experts in Upper Bavaria in order to hand them over to us forces. "

--Nick Cook, The Hunt for Zero Point [1]

What emerges from all this? Three broad areas seem to be affected by the revelations and speculative possibilities outlined - and I stress, only outlined - in this book: physics, history, and politics/culture. Clearly there are sufficient, though admittedly scanty, technological references, reports, diagrams, and witness accounts, to reveal the fact that the Third Reich had developed areas of physics and technology scarcely imaginable, even today. That the Germans were much farther along in atom bomb development seems clear, even if they did not successfully test a device, as I believe they actually did.

We know too certain broad outlines of that physics. It was based on a dynamic conception of the aether as a topological space, having most likely certain inertial properties of its own. It was likewise a dynamic aether, in which particle reactions appear to have been modeled as geometries and combinations of forms of rotation. It appears, above all, to have been a physics based on the pursuit of the will to power, and thus willing to entertain the most apparently unorthodox ideas - from the standpoint of today's "public consumption" physics - in that pursuit.

This disturbing potentiality raises a more problematical aspect of what has been outlined. Almost any way one views it, it seems clear that the end of the war and the strange deployments on the

1. Nick Cook, The Hunt for Zero Point, pp. 203, 165, respectively.


Allied and German side exhibit the characteristics of a race against time, the Nazis trying to prolong the war by every desperate means available, and the Allies, with almost equal desperation, trying to bring it to a close. It also seems clear that the Allies and particularly the Americans were racing very deliberately toward targets that their intelligence, at a very high level, was guiding them to.

Beyond that, the notion that the Germans successfully exploded even a large fuel-air bomb - which they very evidently did - calls much into question, not only about the publicly stated origin and development of that particular piece of contemporary mass destruction hardware, but also calls into question the whole massive expenditure of billions if not trillions of dollars by both the Soviet Union and the United States on thermonuclear weapons. A fuel-air bomb is much cheaper, causes a level of destruction on the order of at least small atom bombs, which are considered strategic weapons of mass destruction. If the Nazis succeeded with this device, as hey very much did, does this explain perhaps the strange accounts from the Eastern Front of some sort of weapon of mass destruction being used on the Russians? One that would drive them, in desperation, to pass on to Berlin via some neutral channel, to cease and desist or they would begin using poison gas? The development of the fuel air bomb in some early prototype by the Nazis explains too another mystery, for if they did successfully develop an atom bomb - then their reasons for not using it have already been given: they were being developed as detonators for something far more destructive.

In any case, the various revelations and speculations presented make one thing abundantly clear. Our history began to be massively re-written even before the end of the war, and has been manipulated to an extraordinary degree since then. Nowhere does this seem more in evidence than in the fact that there appears to have been a successful - albeit only prototypical- development by the Nazis of a very different type of physics, a physics that remains off the books. This to me is the most disturbing aspect of all that my own, and other's, research has uncovered, for a "two track" science - one developed and controlled in secret by the few, and for their own aggrandizement and pursuit of power, and the other developed in public and maintained by the same oligarchy with their power to


grant or refuse funding, and their power thereby to control journals and what types of research will be "tolerated" - is the utmost mockery of science. And when science is mocked, morality is mocked because truth is mocked, and this brings us to the third area, the most disturbing of all: politics/culture.

The Will-to-Power was what drove the Nazi Regime in any endeavor it undertook, whether the conventional military operations it conducted, to the death camps and genocide it was preparing for the world, to the occult and esoteric research of the Ahnenerbe and the Kammlerstab. That Will-to-Power seems evident in all aspects of the science implied by the things discussed in this book. And this compels a final observation.

Many people - and I would number myself among them - view the Zero Point Energy as our best long-range hope to resolve some of the more pressing environmental and energy problems of our planet. It does hold almost limitless promise for a whole host of new technologies, and there is enough in the literature to convince me that various scientists and inventors - the ones not hobbled by academic tenure or the agendas of grant foundations and government - are on the verge of exciting discoveries.

But with that energy comes the potential for weaponization of a power and sophistication that we with our thermonuclear popguns can only imagine. With it comes a view of the universe subject to the Will-to-Power. A moral consequence, and commitment, is implied in such a physics. It would therefore seem to imply, inevitably, precisely a "two-tiered" science, one for the public, and one for the initiate, when he or she is spiritually able to handle the extraordinary power it makes available to them in non-destructive ways. There is a degree of evidence that this is, in fact, what happened in ancient times, and certainly it seems to have happened to the Kammlerstab's work after the war. Perhaps, at least initially, its contents were so sensational that, for moral reasons, it was decided to keep it under wraps.

But the Will-to-Power remains closeted within that science and the black projects it engendered and no doubt continues to engender.


The power to tinker with the topological properties of space, and the energy resulting from it, is an absolute one. And absolute power corrupts absolutely.



On pages 221-223 reference was made to the Kraftstrahlkannone and one possible explanation of its working., based solely on the schematic. Like so much of the "wonder weapons", however, its principles of operation can be interpreted along a variety of lines. However, a translation of the German accompanying this device yields another principle of operation:

The KSK armament...is based on the Noar procedure: Around a central axis lie eight weapon-tubes bound in two tiers. With the discharge, four energy beams leave the gun sheathing with a millisecond delay between the firing of the first four tubes and the second four tubes. At target, these two energy beams are united, the effect on which is greatly increased strength .... The destructive effect on target is increased with increased tube length of the weapon because the beam weapon : 1. becomes stronger the longer the time in the barrel and 2. through increased graduations inside the tube, the potency can be increased....[1]

While the corroborative evidence for this weapon, if it ever existed, is scanty, the principle on which it is based - pulses leaving the weapon at different times but arriving on target at the same time - is exactly that of scalar weaponry, which creates from two or more such pulses an interference pattern on target, as detailed in a diagram by Lot. Col. (Ret) Tom Bearden (below). It is to be noted that Bearden maintains throughout his numerous books that this basic principle of so-called scalar weaponry was first found by the Germans during the Second World War, and subsequently exploited and weaponized by the Soviet Union in the decades after the war. The weapon is alleged to have been employed on the German saucers.

1. Henry Stevens, Rumored German Wonder Weapons, Report Four: The German Death Rays, pp. 17, 19.


PW Intelligence Bulletin No 2/32 's Sketch of the Ludwigshafen- Heidelberg Quartz Reflector High- Voltage Disintegration Ray Installation


New York Times June 29, 1945 Article About Nazi Orbital Solar Mirror Weapon





How Bush's grandfather helped Hitler's rise to power


Silesian-American Corporation, ... managed by Prescott Bush, and by his father-in-law George Herbert Walker, who supplied Dub-a-Ya with his name.
Prescott Bush was also a director of the Harriman Fifteen Corporation, (this one owned largely by Roland's brother, Averell Harriman), which owned about a third of the Consolidated Silesian Steel Corporation, the rest owned by Friedrich Flick, (a member of Himmler's "Circle of Friends" who donated to the S.S.).
Bush's great-grandfather, [G. Herbert] Bert Walker, helped organize the Harriman investment in the Hamburg-Amerika Line of ships, of which grandfather Prescott became a director. It was seized on August 28, 1942 because it was used to give free passage to Nazi propaganda and propagandists, and had earlier shipped guns to the Nazi's private armies to assist their takeover of Germany.
On October 20, 1942, the us Alien Property Custodian, under the "Trading With the Enemy Act," seized the shares of the Union Banking Corporation (UBC), of which Prescott Bush was a director and shareholder. The largest shareholder was E. Roland Harriman. (Bush was also the managing partner of Brown Brothers Harriman, a leading Wall Street investment firm.)

"Bush - Nazi Dealings Continued Until 1951" - Federal Documents
One of the final seizures, in October 1950, concerned the us assets of a Nazi baroness named Theresia Maria Ida Beneditka Huberta Stanislava Martina von Schwarzenberg, who also used two shorter aliases. Brown Brothers Harriman, where Prescott Bush and the Harrimans were partners, attempted to convince government investigators that the baroness had been a victim of Nazi persecution and therefore should be allowed to maintain her assets. ... "It appears, rather, that the subject was a member of the Nazi party," government investigators concluded.

It wasn't just the Nazis. The Harrimans backed a Communist-Soviet front of international trade and they sold the Czar's gold to support the Bolsheviks and fund the Russian Revolution. W. Averell Harriman also did business through other Brown Brothers Harriman and Harriman Fifteen Corp. enterprises that did business with Joseph Stalin as he purged his opposition.

In 1926, August Thyssen died at the age of 84. [Frederich] Fritz was now in control of one of the largest industrial families in Europe. He quickly created the United Steel Works (usW), the biggest industrial conglomerate in German history. Thyssen hired Albert Volger, one of the Ruhr's most influential industrial directors, as director General of USW. Thyssen also brought Fredich Flick, another German family juggernaut, on board. Flick owned coal and steel industries throughout Germany and Poland and desperately wanted to invest into the Thyssen empire.
George Herbert Walker hired Prescott Bush to help him supervise the new Thyssen/Flick United Steel Works. One section of the usW empire was the Consolidated Silesian Steel Corporation and the Upper Silesian Coal and Steel Company located in the Silesian section of Poland.
In 1928, Hitler had his eyes on the enormous Barlow Palace located in Briennerstrasse, the most aristocratic section of Munich. Hitler wanted to convert the palace into the Nazi national headquarters and change its name to the Brown House but it was out of his price range. Hitler told Hess to contact Thyssen. After hearing the Hess appeal, Thyssen felt it was time to give Hitler a second chance. Through the Bank voor Handel en Scheepvaart, Thyssen said he "placed Hess in possession of the required funds" to purchase and redesign the Palace. Thyssen later said the amount was about 250,000 marks but leading Nazis later claimed that just the re-molding cost over 800,000 marks (equivalent to $2 million today).
The great depression also rocked Harriman & Co. The following year, Harriman & Co. merged with the London firm Brown/Shipley. Brown/Shipley kept its name, but Harriman & Co. changed its name to Brown Brothers, Harriman. The new firm moved to 59 Wall St. while UBC stayed at 39 Broadway. Averell Harriman and Prescott Bush reestablished a holding company called The Harriman 15 Corporation. One of the companies Harriman had held stock in was the Consolidated Silesian Steel Company. Two thirds of the company was owned by Friedrich Flick. The rest was owned by Harriman.
In December 1931, Fritz Thyssen officially joined the Nazi party. When Thyssen joined the movement, the Nazi party was gaining critical mass around Germany. The charismatic speeches and persona of Hitler, the depression and the Thyssen's Bank voor Handel en Scheepvaart all contributed to Hitler's sudden rise in popularity with the German people. In September 1932, Thyssen invited a group of elite German industrial tycoons to his castle to meet with Hitler. They spent hours questioning Hitler, who answered all their questions with the'"utmost satisfaction," Thyssen remembered. The money poured in from the industrial circles mostly due to Hitler's "monarchistic attitude" towards labor and issues of class.
By 1934 ... Hitler also wanted to seriously upgrade Germany's military machine. Hitler ordered a'"rebirth of the German army" and contracted Thyssen and United Steel Works for the overhaul. Thyssen's steel empire was the cold steel heart of the new Nazi war machine that led the way to World War II, killing millions across Europe.
Prescott Bush became managing director of UBC and handled the day-to-day operations of the new German economic plan. Bush's shares in UBC peaked with Hitler's new German order.
1940s: Business As usual
Consolidated Silesian Steel Corporation was located near the Polish town of Oswiecim, one of Poland's richest mineral regions. That was where Hitler set up the Auschwitz concentration camp. When the plan to work Soviet prisoners fell through, the Nazis transferred Jews, communists, gypsies and other minority populations to the camp. The prisoners of Auschwitz who were able to work were shipped to 30 different companies. One of the companies was the vast Consolidated Silesian Steel Corporation. "Nobody's made the connection before between Consolidated Silesian Steel Corporation, Auschwitz and Prescott Bush," John Loftus told Clamor. "That was the reason why Auschwitz was built there. The coal deposits could be processed into either coal or additives for aviation gasoline."
Even though Thyssen and Flick's Consolidated Steel was in their possession, Hitler's invasions across Europe spooked them, bringing back memories of World War I. Thyssen and Flick sold Consolidated Steel to UBC. Under the complete control of Harriman and management of Bush, the company became Silesian American Corporation which became part of UBC and Harriman's portfolio of 15 corporations. Thyssen quickly moved to Switzerland and later France to hide from the terror about to be unleashed by the Nazi war machine he had helped build.
A portion of the slave labor force in Poland was "managed by Prescott Bush," according to a Dutch intelligence agent. In 1941, slave labor had become the lifeblood of the Nazi war machine. The resources of Poland's rich steel and coal field played an essential part in Hitler's invasion of Europe.
On October 20, 1942, the us government had had enough of Prescott Bush and his Nazi business arrangements with Thyssen. Over the summer, The New York Tribune had exposed Bush and Thyssen, whom the Tribune dubbed "Hitler's Angel." When the us government saw UBC's books, they found out that Bush's bank and its shareholders "are held for the benefit of ... members of the Thyssen family, [and] is property of nationals ... of a designated enemy country." The list of seven UBC share holders was:
E. Roland Harriman - 3991 shares
Cornelis Lievense - 4 shares
Harold D.Pennington - 1 share
Ray Morris-- 1 share
Prescott S. Bush - 1 share
H.J. Kouwenhoven - 1 share
The UBC books also revealed the myriad of money and holding companies funneled from the Thyssens and the government realized UBC was just the tip of the iceberg. On November 17, 1942, The us government also took over the Silesian American Corporation, but did not prosecute Bush.
On February 8, 1951, Fritz Thyssen died bitterly in Argentina at the age of 78. Thyssen was angry at the way he was treated by Europe after the war and how history would remember him as Hitler's most important and prominent financier. When Thyssen died, the Alien Property Custodian released the assets of the Union Banking Corporation to Brown Brothers Harriman. The remaining stockholders cashed in their stocks and quietly liquidated the rest of UBC's blood money. ... Prescott Bush received $1.5 million for his share in UBC. That money enabled Bush to help his son, George Herbert Walker Bush, to set up his first royalty firm, Overby Development Company, that same year.
The Bush bank helped the Thyssens make the Nazi steel that killed Allied solders. As bad as financing the Nazi war machine may seem, aiding and abetting the Holocaust was worse. Thyssen's coal mines used Jewish slaves as if they were disposable chemicals.

In 1926, August Thyssen died the eldest son Fritz expanded the Thyssen empire by creating United Steel Works. Thyssen also brought Fredich Flick on board. The Thyssen-Flick union was designed to suppress the union movement. As a result of the merger of Thyssen and Flick, George Walker hired his son in law Prescott Bush to manage the United Steel Works account. One division of United Steel Works consisted of both Consolidated Silesian Steel Corporation and the Upper Silesian Coal and Steel Company. Both were located in the mineral rich Silesian area of Poland. The arrangement was extremely profitable for all four men: Thyssen, Flick, Walker and Bush until the depression started in 1929. Congressional investigations after the war showed that United Steel had supplied 50.8 percent of the pig iron in Nazi Germany and likewise was a major supplier of all other ferrous based metal products needed by Hitler's war machine. Hence, one of the largest munitions makers in Nazi Germany was funded by Prescott Bush, the father and grandfather of two future us Presidents.
Due to the depression, Harriman merged with Brown forming the Brown Brothers and Harriman firm. Internally the stock of Consolidated Silesian Steel Company was held by the Harriman 15 Corporation formed by Harriman and Bush. Two thirds of the stock was owned by Flick. By 1934, with Hitler in solid control of Germany the profits from the Thyssen-Flick union soared to over a hundred million. Both Union Bank and the Bank voor Handel en Scheepvaart were overflowing with money. Prescott Bush became managing director of Union Bank and took over the day-to-day operations of the German plan.
In 1939, the Nazis invaded Poland ending a dispute over taxes between Consolidated and the Polish government. The Nazis original plan was to replace the workers in Polish factories with Soviet prisoners. However, that portion of the Hitler-Stalin agreement was never implemented. Consolidated Silesian Steel Corporation was located near the Polish town of Oswiecim. When the plan to use Soviet prisoners as forced labor fell through, the Nazis began shipping Jews, communists, gypsies and other minority populations to the camp the Nazis had set up. This was the beginning of Auschwitz. The reason Auschwitz was located there was because of the abundant supplies of coal which could be processed into aviation fuel. I.G. Farben soon built a plant near Auschwitz to take advantage of not only of the nearby coal deposits but also of the slave labor supply available at Auschwitz. According to a Dutch intelligence agent, Prescott Bush managed a portion of the slave labor force in Poland.
Thyssen and Flick sold Consolidated Steel to UBC. Under the complete control of Harriman and Bush's management, the company became Silesian American Corporation, which became part of UBC and Harriman's portfolio of 15 corporations. As the 1930s progressed and it became clearer that war was imminent, Bush and Harriman hired the Dulles brothers to conceal the Nazi money and ownership in Union Bank. In concealing the involvement of the Nazis in Union Bank, Prescott Bush and Harriman undoubtedly knew that they were already engaged in an activity that was probably illegal and certainly not in the best of interests of their country. Once war broke out however, Bush's activities on the behalf of the Nazis through Union Banking became tantamount to treason.
There were over forty firms around Auschwitz using slave labor from the death camp. Soon the Nazis had a massive store of gold from dental fillings, glasses and jewelry. The Nazis extracted the fillings of its victims after being informed by Degussa that the company could refine it into marketable gold bullion. Degussa was awarded an exclusive contract with the Nazis to refine all gold. The company was also joint owners with I.G. Farben of Degesch, a firm that produced Zyklon-B cyanide tablets used in the gas chambers. Due to the hoard of gold fillings stacking up at Auschweitz, Degussa built a smelter there. The bullion was then shipped back to Berlin and commingled with the Nazis gold stash. Undoubtedly some of it made its way back to the banker in charge of United Steel Works, Prescott Bush.


A 1942 us government investigative report that surfaced during 1945 Senate hearings found that the Union Bank, with Prescott Bush on the board, was an "interlocking concern" with the German Steel Trust that had produced:

50.8% of Nazi Germany's pig iron
41.4% of Nazi Germany's universal plate
36% of Nazi Germany's heavy plate
38.5% of Nazi Germany's galvanized sheet
45.5% of Nazi Germany's pipes and tubes
22.1% of Nazi Germany's wire

Under the Trading with the Enemy Act, the us government took over the Union Banking Corporation, in which Prescott Bush was a director. The us Alien Property Custodian seized Union Banking Corporation stock shares, all of which were owned by E. Roland Harriman, Prescott Bush, three Nazi executives, and two other associates of Prescott Bush.
President Franklin Roosevelt's Alien Property Custodian, Leo T. Crowley, signed Vesting Order Number 248 seizing the property of Prescott Bush under the Trading with the Enemy Act. The order, published in obscure government record books and kept out of the news, explained nothing about the Nazis involved; only that the Union Banking Corporation was run for the Thyssen family of Germany and/or Hungary, nationals of a designated enemy country. ... This act by the us government made it clear that Prescott Bush and the other directors of the Union Banking Corp. were in essence front men for the Nazis.
On Oct. 28, the government issued orders seizing two Nazi front organizations run by the Bush-Harriman bank: the Holland-American Trading Corporation and the Seamless Steel Equipment Corporation.
Nazi interests in the Silesian-American Corporation, long managed by Prescott Bush and his father-in-law, George Herbert Walker, were seized under the Trading with the Enemy Act on November 17, 1942. In this action, the government announced that it was seizing only the Nazi interests, leaving the Nazis' us partners to carry on the business.

In 1939, Hitler invaded Poland, where a subsidiary of United Steelworks was operating. This company, known as the Consolidated Silesian Steel Corporation, was to be solely operated by Auschwitz slave labor. ... Thyssen decided to sell CSSC after chaos across Europe worried him about losing his subsidiary. He sold CSSC to Union Banking and Harriman Investment. Now under American control, Prescott Bush was put in charge of managing the company and even managed a portion of the slave labor.
Thyssen was arrested by Allied forces and made to pay reparations for his crimes. After he died in 1951, the us government released all seized assets and American investors quietly sold their bonds off. ... In the sell-off, Prescott Bush made $1.5 million from his shares and after his death in 1972, his son George H.W. Bush placed his father's ill-made fortune into a blind trust fund, which today still makes up a large part of the Bush estate. Today, the money made by Prescott is worth more than $15 million dollars.

1907: Samuel Bush is elected President of Buckeye Steel Castings Co. in Columbus, Ohio. For his entire career, Samuel Bush supplies Wall Street railroads with castings. He later becomes a close advisor to President Hoover, and first president of the National Manufacturers Association. (NAM). NAM, in its turn, establishes a history of supporting union-busting and fascism. In the 1950s, Robert Welch and other members of NAM form the John Birch Society.
1916: The "Great War" is spinning out of control, grinding away at Germany's resources and economy. At age 74, German industrial magnate August Thyssen sees his company, Thyssen & Company, buckling under the war's pressure. With 50,000 German employees workers and an annual production of 1,000,000 tons of steel and iron -- the main supplier of the German military -- Thyssen realizes Germany will be defeated once the us enters the war. ... Thyssen looked to his first born son. Educated at the finest technical business schools in Europe, Friedrich ('Fritz') Thyssen, was destined to inherit his father's estimated $100,000,000 fortune and the family's industrial empire, headquartered at Muehhlheim in the Ruhrgebiet, Germany's main industrial area.
1919: George Herbert Walker forms W. A. Harriman & Company, with himself as president and CEO.
1920: Averell Harriman and George Walker gain control of the German Hamburg-Amerika shipping line. The deal, arranged through the chief executive of German Hamburg-Amerika, William Cuno, and through one of the shipping line's bankers, M. M. 'Max' Warburg. The name of the firm is changed to American Ship & Commerce Corporation. After being involved in the deal, Samuel F. Pryor of Remington Arms is named to serve on the board of the renamed corporation. William Cuno later becomes a heavy contributor to Nazi Party funds.
1922: George Herbert Walker remains President of W. A. Harriman & Company. Averell Harriman opens the Berlin branch of the firm. A us government memorandum to the Executive Committee of the office of the Alien Property Custodian, dated October 5, 1942, later indicates that at the time, Harriman met with German multi-millionaire industrialist 'Fritz' Thyssen, and that Harriman agreed at that time to set up a bank for Thyssen in New York. This bank would later be called Union Banking Corporation (UBC) and would be placed under the management of Prescott Bush. The us government memorandum also indicates that Thyssen's agent; H. J. Kouwenhoven, had traveled to New York sometime prior to 1924 pursuant to these plans.
October, 1923: Fritz Thyssen visits one of Germany's great military heroes, General Erich Ludendorff. During the 1918 socialist rule in Berlin, Ludendorff had organized a military resistance against the socialists, and the industrialists were thus in great debt to him. They discuss Germany's economic collapse. Thyssen was apocalyptic, fearing the worst was yet to come. Ludendorff disagreed. "There is but one hope," Ludendorff said, "Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist party." Ludendorff respected Hitler immensely. "He is the only man who has any political sense." Ludendorff encouraged Thyssen to join the Nazi movement. ... After hearing Hitler speak, Fritz Thyssen begins to contribute substantial funds to the Nazi party -- initially 100,000 gold marks (roughly $25,000). Others in the steel and coal industries soon followed Thyssen's lead, although none came close to matching him.
November 9, 1923: Perhaps emboldened by his newfound corporate support, Hitler engineers the 'Beer Hall Putsch' -- a plot to bring down the post-WW I German government. After learning that Bavarian leaders would be the guests of honor at an event taking place at a Munich beer hall, Hitler leads more than 2,000 Storm Troopers on a march to seize them. The effort fails, and Hitler is sentenced to five years in prison for treason.
1924: W. A. Harriman & Co invests $400,000 in setting up the Union Banking Corporation to act in partnership with the Thyssen-owned Bank voor Handel en Scheepvart in Holland. Prescott Bush, the son of Samuel Bush, is brought into the firm by George Herbert Walker, his father-in-law, to manage Union Banking Corporation (UBC). UBC is now in the position to transfer funds back and forth for Thyssen's United Steel. Subsequent investigators conclude that "the Union Banking Corporation has since its inception handled funds chiefly supplied to it through the Dutch bank by the Thyssen interests for American investment." Walker and Harriman's firm eventually sells over $50,000,000 in German bonds to American investors, who profited enormously from the economic boom in Germany.
1924: In prison, Hitler begins writing 'Mein Kampf' (My Struggle). The book encapsulates Hitler's beliefs and plans for Germany's future. After serving only nine months in prison, however, he is released and begins rebuilding his party.
1926: Prescott Bush is promoted to Vice-President of W. A. Harriman & Company. August Thyssen dies at the age of 84, leaving Fritz in control of one of the largest industrial families in Europe. With the aid of Clarence Dillon, of Dillon Read, Thyssen creates the United Steel Works (usW) or German Steel Trust, the biggest industrial conglomerate in German history. Through this merger, Thyssen brings Friedrich Flick, head of another German family juggernaut, into the us/German collaboration. Flick owned coal and steel industries throughout Germany and Poland, and desperately wanted to invest into the Thyssen empire. One of Thyssen's and Flick's purposes in their massive corporate merger was to suppress the new labor and socialist movements. Dillon Read handled the Trust's corporate banking in return for two Dillon Read representatives being placed on the board of the German Steel Trust. Albert Voegler was the chief executive of the German Steel trust, and was another industrialist instrumental in bringing Hitler to power. Voegler held directorships in Thyssen's Dutch bank and the Hamburg-Amerika Line. Union Banking Corporation moved into in partnership with part of Flick's empire, Silesian Holding Company -- Walker, Bush and Harriman owned a third of Flick's holding company and called their holdings Consolidated Silesian Steel Corporation. ... American I.G. is founded as a holding company controlling I.G. Farben assets in the United States. Some of its board members were Edsel Ford, Charles Mitchell (President of Rockefeller's National City Bank of New York, now known as CitiBank), Walt Teagle (President of Standard Oil), Paul Warburg (Federal Reserve chairman and brother of Max Warburg, financier of Nazi Germany's war effort and Director of American I.G.) and Herman Metz, a director of the Bank of Manhattan (now Chase Manhattan Bank), which was controlled by the Warburgs. Three other members of the Board of Governors for American I.G. were later tried and convicted as German war criminals.
1928: Hitler designs to purchase the enormous Barlow Palace on Briennerstrasse, the most aristocratic section of Munich, to become the Nazi national headquarters. He tells Hess to contact Thyssen. After hearing the Hess appeal, Thyssen feels it is time to give Hitler a second chance. Through the Bank voor Handel en Scheepvaart, Thyssen "placed Hess in possession of the required funds" to purchase and redesign the Palace. Thyssen later says the amount was about 250,000 marks, but leading Nazis would claim that the re-modeling alone cost over 800,000 marks (about $2 million in today's funds). Hitler and Thyssen became close friends after the purchase of what Hitler re-names 'Brown House'.
1930: Dulles arranges for a wealthy Czech family, the Petscheks, to sell their interest in Silesian Coal to George Mernane, in order to hide the Petscheks' interest. Dulles then sells the shares to his friend Schacht, the Nazi economic minister. After the sale, Dulles becomes director of Consolidated Silesian Steel Company, whose sole asset was one-third interest in Upper Silesian Coal and Steel Company. The remainder of the shares remain controlled by Friedrich Flick.
1931: W. A. Harriman merges with the British firm of Brown Brothers. Thatcher Brown, Prescott Bush and the two Harriman brothers become senior partners in the new firm of Brown Brothers Harriman. Robert Lovett, son of Robert Scott Lovett and a close friend of Prescott Bush, becomes a partner in the new firm. Lovett would later serve as Assistant Secretary for Air during the war, as Under Secretary Of State (1947-1949), as Deputy Secretary of Defense (1950-1951), and as Secretary of Defense (1951-1953). ... Prescott Bush runs Brown Brothers Harriman's New York office, while the London office of the new firm is run by Thatcher Brown. The firm's partners include well-known Nazi sympathizer Montagu Collet Norman, governor of the Bank of England, and a close friend of Prescott Bush, who often stays with the Bush family on his visits to New York. Norman's grandfather had been boss of Brown Brothers during the Civil War, when Brown Brothers were directly responsible for shipping seventy five percent of slave-produced cotton from the south to England. ... Prescott Bush and George Herbert Walker host the Third International Congress of Eugenics. The purpose of the event was to call for the sterilization of fourteen million Americans.
December 1931: Fritz Thyssen officially joins the Nazi party. The party is rapidly gaining critical mass in Germany.
September 1932: Thyssen invited an elite group of German industrial tycoons to his castle to meet with Hitler. They spent hours questioning Hitler, who reportedly answers all their questions with the'"utmost satisfaction," as Thyssen later remembers. Industrialist money pours into Nazi campaign coffers.
January 4, 1933: Hitler is invited to the Schroeder Bank by a group of industrialists. The industrialists gave Hitler the money to overcome his financial problems, in turn for a pledge to break the German trade unions. Present at this meeting were two Americans -- John Foster Dulles and Allen Dulles.
March 23, 1933: Hitler becomes dictator of Germany after his proposed act, "Law for Removing the Distress of the People and the Reich," is passed 441 to 84. The law essentially suspends freedoms, legislates democracy out of existence, and establishes his legal dictatorship.
Max Warburg is selected by Prescott Bush to be the American Ship & Commerce Line official representative on the board of the Hamburg-Amerika Line. Warburg was a long time advisor of Hjalmar Schacht, the Nazi's Economic Minister and an executive in the Reichsbank. Warburg was also a close friend with Montagu Collet Norman.
An agreement to coordinate all trade between Germany & America was reached in Berlin after negotiations between Hitler's Economics Minister, Hjalmar Schacht & John Foster Dulles. As a result Oliver Harriman, Averell's cousin, formed a syndicate of 150 firms to conduct all business between Germany and the United States.
North German Lloyd Co. merged with Hamburg-Amerika Line in Hamburg. Christian Beck, a long time Harriman, executive was placed as manager of 'freight & operations' in North America for this newly-merged company. Emil Helfferich, an ardent Nazi, was appointed chairman of this new company called Hapag-Lloyd. Nazi security guards were now on all ships of the company.
William S. Farish was appointed chairman of Standard Oil by John D. Rockefeller. Farish was close friends with Hermann Schmitz, chairman of I.G. Farben. Farish hired Ivy Lee, to write pro-I.G. Farben and pro-Nazi propaganda and get it into the us press. He hired Nazi German crews for Standard Oil tankers. In addition, he hired "Emil Helfferich," chairman of the Hamburg-Amerika Line, as chairman also of the Standard Oil Company subsidiary in Germany. Karl Lindemann, board member of Hamburg-Amerika, also became a top Farish-Standard executive in Germany. The interlock placed Farish and Prescott Bush in a small group of Hitler supporters. Both Emil Helfferich and Karl Lindemann were authorized to write checks to Heinrich Himmler, chief of the Nazi SS, on a special Standard Oil account. This account was managed by the German-British-American banker, Kurt von Schroeder. According to us intelligence documents reviewed by author Anthony Sutton, Helfferich continued his payments to the SS into 1944, when the SS was supervising the mass murder at Standard-I.G. Farben's Auschwitz and other death camps. Helfferich told Allied interrogators after the war that these were not his personal contributions -- they were corporate Standard Oil funds.
August 2, 1934 -- Hitler is now head of a one-party fascist German state, and thus officially assumes the title of German "Führer".
1934: The us Senate Nye Committee hearings revealed Samuel Pryor, chairman of Remington Arms & founding director of both the UBC & the American Ship & Commerce Corp. had joined in a cartel agreement with I.G. Farben. The committee also uncovered that the Nazis were armed with mostly American arms.
E. W. Webb, president of Ethyl Corporation was advised that Washington had learned of the intention of "forming a German company with the I.G. to manufacture ethyl lead in Germany. The War Department indicated that there was considerable criticism of this technological transfer. The Ethyl Company was then advised by the Army Air Corps that "under no conditions should you or the Board of Directors of the Ethyl Gasoline Corporation disclose any secrets or 'know-how' in connection with the manufacture of tetraethyl lead to Germany.
With Hitler in solid control of Germany, the profits from the Thyssen-Flick union soar to over a hundred million dollars a year. Both Union Bank and the Bank voor Handel en Scheepvaart are overflowing with money. Prescott Bush becomes managing director of Union Banking Corporation and takes over the day-to-day operations of the German plan.
John Foster Dulles was publicly supporting the Nazi philosophy. In 1935, he wrote a long article for the Atlantic Monthly entitled "The Road to Peace." He excused Germany's secret rearmament as an action taking back their freedom. Knowing what he did about Inco and Germany's munitions industry, Dulles was misleading in asserting Germany's, Italy's, and Japan's desires for peace. Later in the 1930s, Dulles helped organize the American First group. A month before Pearl Harbor he donated $500 to the group. Later he would claim no association with the group. Dulles continued his support of the Nazi line right up to the time Germany invaded Poland. Dulles' excuse for the Poland invasion was much like blaming the victim for the crime.
1935: The German Nazi party and fascist government pass the Nuremberg Laws, persecuting the German Jews.
Ethyl Corporation signed a joint production agreement with I.G. Farben in Germany to form Ethyl G.m.b.H. and with Montecatini in fascist Italy for the production of tetraethyl lead. The directors of Ethyl Gasoline Corporation at the time of this transfer: E.W. Webb, president and director; C.F. Kettering; R.P. Russell; W.C. Teagle, Standard Oil of New Jersey and trustee of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's Georgia Warm Springs Foundation; F. A. Howard; E. M. Clark, Standard Oil of New Jersey; A. P. Sloan, Jr.; D. Brown; J. T. Smith; and W.S. Farish of Standard Oil of New Jersey.
1936: The Schroeder Bank in New York merges with the Rockefellers to form Schroeder, Rockefeller & Company, Inc. Carlton P. Fuller of Schroeder Banking Corporation became president and Avery Rockefeller, became vice president.
1937: By the end of January 1937, Dulles had merged all his cloaking activities into one client account, Brown Brothers Harriman-Schroeder Rock. Schroeder, of course, was the Nazi bank on whose board Dulles sat. The 'Rock' was the Rockefellers of Standard Oil, who were already coming under scrutiny for their Nazi deals. At the request of Prescott Bush, Dulles had by now cloaked the Bush-Harriman dealings with the Nazis.
February, 1938: Hitler becomes commander of the German army (Wehrmacht). Many army officers do not trust the German dictator, but lack the courage to oppose him.
November 9, 1938: The Nazis execute their first mass persecution of the Jews, reportedly destroying 7,500 Jewish businesses, burning 267 synagogues, and murdering 91 Jews. The destruction later comes to be known as Kristallnacht, "the night of broken glass." Soon after, a dozen of the Nazi party's most radical anti-Semites meet and decide to eliminate Jews from German economic life.
September 1, 1939: World War II begins when Hitler invades Poland. By this time, concentration camps for war-related slave labor are being established throughout Germany, Poland, and Russia. However, a plan to use Soviet prisoners of war as forced labor falls through, and the Nazis begin shipping Jews, communists, gypsies and other "undesirables" to the concentration camps.
The Bush-managed Consolidated Silesian Steel Corporation was located near the Polish town of Oswiecim -- re-named Auschwitz by the German conquerors -- and I. G. Farben decides to build one of the slave labor camps there. The Auschwitz camp benefits from locally-abundant supplies of coal, which could be processed into aviation fuel. According to a Dutch intelligence agent, Prescott Bush personally manages a portion of the slave labor force in Poland.
Farish's daughter Martha married Averell Harriman's nephew, Edward Harriman Gerry.
1940: Allen Dulles served on the board of the Schroeder bank. John Foster Dulles served as the legal counsel for Schroeder Bank. Schroeder Bank in turn acted as a financial arm of the Nazis.
December 7, 1941: Pearl Harbor is bombed and war is declared.
December 13, 1941: President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau, and us Attorney General Francis Biddle signed the Trading With the Enemy Act, which bans any us business interests or arrangements with us enemies of war. Yet Prescott Bush continues with 'business as usual', aiding the Nazi expansion in Europe and supplying massive resources for weaponry that would eventually be turned on American Solders in combat against Germany.
January 20, 1942: At the Wannsee conference, the Nazis reportedly make the 'Final Solution' decision -- to exterminate all of European Jewry.
March 25, 1942: us Assistant Attorney General Thurman Arnold announces that Bush eugenics protege William Stamps Farish has pleaded "no contest" to charges of criminal conspiracy with the Nazis. Farish had been the principal manager of a cartel agreement between Standard Oil and I.G. Farben to build an industrial plant to produce artificial rubber and gasoline from coal at Auschwitz, taking advantage of the concentration camp's supply of slave labor.
At this time, Deutsche-Amerikanische Petroleum A.G. (DAPAG), the Standard Oil subsidiary in Germany, was 94-percent owned by Standard Oil of New Jersey, which was represented in the inner circles of Naziism by Karl Lindemann (director of DAPAG and member of Himmler's Circle of Friends) and by board member Emil Helfrich, who was an original member of the Keppler Circle. Karl Lindemann's connections extended into the international banking area as director of several banks, including the Dresdner Bank, the Deutsche Reichsbank, and the private Nazi-oriented bank of C. Melchior & Company.
August, 1942: Leo Crowley, the us Alien Property Custodian ordered the seizure of all property of Hapag-Lloyd.
October 1942: Ten months after entering World War II, as the usA prepares its first assault against Nazi military forces, Prescott Bush, father of George Herbert Walker Bush and grandfather of the current President, George Walker Bush, remains managing partner of Brown Brothers Harriman, now one of the USA's largest brokerages and investment firms, and CEO of Union Banking Corporation, where he managerially controls the Consolidated Silesian Steel Corporation. His 18-year-old son George Herbert Walker Bush, the future us President, is in training to become a us navy fighter pilot.
October 20, 1942: The us Government's Alien Property Custodian seizes the stock shares of the Union Banking Corporation, whose shareholders at the time were:
Prescott S. Bush -- senior managing partner in the firm on behalf of E. Roland Harriman and Averell Harriman. Averell will later hold many public offices, including Governor of New York State.

E. Rowland ("Bunny") Harriman
Cornelis Lievense (banking functionary for the Nazis)
Harold D. Pennington (of Brown Brothers Harriman)
Ray Morris (of Brown Brothers Harriman)
Johann G. Groeninger (An industrial Exec. In Nazi Germany).
During the same month, the United States government seizes two additional companies: Seamless Steel Equipment Corp. & Holland-American Trading Corp.,
The seizure orders described this stock and assets thusly: "all of which shares are held for the benefit of ... members of the Thyssen family, [and therefore] property of nationals ... of a designated enemy country ..."
October 26, 1942: Only six days after the Bush/Harriman/Thyssen stock seizures, us troops are under way for their first direct ground combat with the German army in North Africa.
October 28, 1942: The us government issues orders seizing two Nazi front organizations run by UBC; the Holland-American Trading Corporation and the Seamless Steel Equipment Corporation, both of which are under Prescott Bush's management..
November 8, 1942 -- us forces land under heavy Nazi fire near Algiers, North Africa; heavy combat rages throughout November. Further Bush-Nazi interests in the Silesian-American Corporation, which has long been managed by Prescott Bush and his father-in-law George Herbert Walker, are seized under the Trading with the Enemy Act on November 17, 1942. In this action, however, the government announces that it is seizing only the Nazi interests, leaving the Nazis' us partners -- including Bush and the Harrimans -- to carry on the business.
These and other actions taken by the us government in wartime were, tragically, too little and too late. The Bush Presidents' father and grandfather, Prescott Bush, had already played a central role in financing and arming Adolf Hitler for his takeover of Germany; in financing and managing the buildup of Nazi war industries for the conquest of Europe and war against the usA.; and in the development of Nazi 'eugenic' genocide theories and racial propaganda, with their well-known results.
Bush's share holdings in UBC will later be returned to him. In fact, Thyssen's and the other holders' ownership shares are eventually returned too. Today, the Thyssen group has absorbed Krupp Steel -- another notorious WW II user of concentration camp slave labor -- and ThyssenKrupp is the largest industrial conglomerate in Germany.
1943: Though he retains ownership of his UBC stock, Prescott Bush resigns as CEO of the banking firm. But politicians don't bite the hand that feeds them ... in an indication of his and his financial cronies' continued steadfast support at the highest levels of us government, Bush is immediately 'rehabilitated', subsequently becomes chairman of the National War Fund, and.helps to raise millions for dozens of war-related causes.
1947: Following the war, authorities seeking to locate the Dutch Royal family's jewelry discover the transaction papers of the Silesian American Corporation in the books of Bank voor Handel en Scheepvaart. The bank manager, H. J. Kounhoven, comes under intense scrutiny and is quoted as being "shocked" by the discovery. Kounhoven subsequently travels to New York to inform Prescott Bush of the investigation. Two weeks later, the otherwise healthy Dutch banker dies of a heart attack.
1948: Fritz Thyssen's life is in ruins. He has been jailed by the Nazis, jailed by the Allies, and interrogated by us investigators. Thyssen and Flick are ordered to pay reparations, and serve time in prison.
1950: Prescott Bush is defeated in his first political race, due to his background association with the American eugenics movement.
February 8, 1951: Fritz Thyssen dies in exile in Argentina at the age of 78. The Alien Property Custodian releases the assets of the Union Banking Corporation to Brown Brothers Harriman. The remaining stockholders cash in their stock, quietly liquidating the rest of UBC's blood money. Prescott Bush receives $1.5 million for his UBC holding. Bush uses that money to help his son, George Herbert Walker Bush, set up his first royalty firm, Overby Development Company, that same year.

Here is what I wrote nearly ten years ago in "The Secret War Against the Jews":

The firm originally was known as W. A. Harriman & Company. The link between Harriman & Company's American investors and Thyssen started in the 1920s, through the Union Banking Corporation, which began trading in 1924. In just one three-year period, the Harriman firm sold more than $50 million of German bonds to American investors. 'Bert' Walker was Union Banking's president, and the firm was located in the offices of Averill Harriman's company at 39 Broadway in New York.

In 1926 Bert Walker did a favor for his new son-in-law, Prescott Bush. It was the sort of favor families do to help their children make a start in life, but Prescott came to regret it bitterly. Walker made >Prescott vice president of W. A. Harriman. The problem was that Walker's specialty was companies that traded with Germany. As Thyssen and the other German industrialists consolidated Hitler's political power in the 1930s, an American financial connection was needed. According to our sources, Union Banking became an out-and-out Nazi money-laundering machine. . . .

In [1931], Harriman & Company merged with a British-American investment company to become Brown Brothers, Harriman. Prescott Bush became one of the senior partners of the new company, which relocated to 59 Broadway, while Union Banking remained at 39 Broadway. But in 1934 Walker arranged to put his son-in-law on the board of directors of Union Banking.

Walker also set up a deal to take over the North American operations of the Hamburg-Amerika Line, a cover for I.G. Farben's Nazi espionage unit in the United States. The shipping line smuggled in German agents, propaganda, and money for bribing American politicians to see things Hitler's way. The holding company was Walker's American Shipping & Commerce, which shared the offices at 39 Broadway with Union Banking. In an elaborate corporate paper trail, Harriman's stock in American Shipping & Commerce was controlled by yet another holding company, the Harriman Fifteen Corporation, run out of Walker's office. The directors of this company were Averill Harriman, Bert Walker, and Prescott Bush. . . .

...A 1934 congressional investigation alleged that Walker's 'Hamburg-Amerika Line subsidized a wide range of pro-Nazi propaganda efforts both in Germany and the United States.' Walker did not know it, but one of his American employees, Dan Harkins, had blown the whistle on the spy apparatus to Congress. Harkins, one of our best sources, became Roosevelt's first double agent . . . [and] kept up the pretense of being an ardent Nazi sympathizer, while reporting to Naval Intelligence on the shipping company's deals with Nazi intelligence.

Instead of divesting the Nazi money," continue the authors, "Bush hired a lawyer to hide the assets. The lawyer he hired had considerable expertise in such underhanded schemes. It was Allen Dulles. According to Dulles's client list at Sullivan & Cromwell, his first relationship with Brown Brothers, Harriman was on June 18, 1936. In January 1937 Dulles listed his work for the firm as 'Disposal of Stan [Standard Oil] Investing stock.'

As discussed in Chapter 3, Standard Oil of New Jersey had completed a major stock transaction with Dulles's Nazi client, I.G. Farben. By the end of January 1937 Dulles had merged all his cloaking activities into one client account: 'Brown Brothers Harriman-Schroeder Rock.' Schroeder, of course, was the Nazi bank on whose board Dulles sat. The 'Rock' were the Rockefellers of Standard Oil, who were already coming under scrutiny for their Nazi deals. By May 1939 Dulles handled another problem for Brown Brothers, Harriman, their 'Securities Custodian Accounts.'

If Dulles was trying to conceal how many Nazi holding companies Brown Brothers, Harriman was connected with, he did not do a very good job. Shortly after Pearl Harbor, word leaked from Washington that affiliates of Prescott Bush's company were under investigation for aiding the Nazis in time of war. . . .

...The government investigation against Prescott Bush continued. Just before the storm broke, his son, George, abandoned his plans to enter Yale and enlisted in the us Navy. It was, say our sources among the former intelligence officers, a valiant attempt by an eighteen-year-old boy to save the family's honor.

Young George was in flight school in October 1942, when the us government charged his father with running Nazi front groups in the United States. Under the Trading with the Enemy Act, all the shares of the Union Banking Corporation were seized, including those held by Prescott Bush as being in effect held for enemy nationals. Union Banking, of course, was an affiliate of Brown Brothers, Harriman, and Bush handled the Harrimans' investments as well.

Once the government had its hands on Bush's books, the whole story of the intricate web of Nazi front corporations began to unravel. A few days later two of Union Banking's subsidiaries -- the Holland American Trading Corporation and the Seamless Steel Equipment Corporation -- also were seized. Then the government went after the Harriman Fifteen Holding Company, which Bush shared with his father-in-law, Bert Walker, the Hamburg-Amerika Line, and the Silesian-American Corporation. The us government found that huge sections of Prescott Bush's empire had been operated on behalf of Nazi Germany and had greatly assisted the German war effort." (1)